(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Chasing the flame : Sergio Vieira de Mello and the fight to save the world"

iiiiiiiiiiis^^^^^^^^ 






DYEfNG^'"^OF 



COTTON FAB 



FRANKLIN BEECH 



i 




NEW BEDFORD 
TEXTILE INSTITUTE 



REFERENCE 
LIBRARY . . . 



VOLUME N9 



34 



m^o. B^ 






^\ :2'?'J"- 



^4^t-f4, 



w 



^'^v 






M 



/^^■S^-^l*:^ •>^vi?r>f^ 



'^-;^- 



X 



.,^.-;%:^ 




^^(i 



w 



^ 



Mmm 



j5 '"^ 



THE 



DYEING OF (JOTTON FABRICS 



A PRACTICAL HANDBOOK FOR THE 
DYER AND STUDENT 



FRANKLIN BEECH 

PRACTICAL COLOURIST AND CHEMIST 



The Publishers wish it to be distinctly understood that 

this series of books is supplied on such terms as prohibit 

their being sold below the published price. 



LONDON 
SCOTT, GKEENWOOD & CO. 

19 LUDGATE HILL, E.G. 
1901 

[^AU rUjhU reserved] 




BeiwL 



-rz^//^^/ 



THE 



DYEING OF (JOTTON FABKICS 



A PRACTICAL HANDBOOK FOE THE 
DYER AND STUDENT 



FRANKLIN BEECH 



PRACTICAL COLOURIST AND CHEMIST 



ILLUSTRATED BY FORTY-FOUR ENGRAVINGS 

ARTHUR WHITTAM. 

No. 

SCOTT, GEE EN WOOD & CO. 

19 LUDGATE HILL, E.G. 
1901 

[All rii/hts reserved] 



THE ABERDEEN UNIVERSITY PRESS LIMITED* 



PREFACE. 

In writing this little book the author believes he is 
supplying a want which most Students and Dyers of 
Cotton Fal^rics have felt — ^that of a small handbook 
clearly describing the various processes and operations 
of the great industry of dyeing Cotton. 

The aim has not been to produce a very elaborate 
treatise but rather a book of a convenient size, and in 
order to do so it has been necessary to be brief and 
to omit many matters that would rightfully find a 
place in a larger treatise, but the author hopes that 
nothing of importance has been omitted. The most 
modern processes have been described in some detail ; 
care has been taken to select those which experience 
shows to be thoroughly reliable and to give good 
results. 

FRANKLIN BEECH. 

May, 1901. 



UKAass Dartmoulh 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

Structure and Chemistry op the Cotton Fibre 
Action of Alkalies .... 
Action of Acids on Cellulose . 
Action of Sulphuric Acid on Cotton 
Action of Hydrochloric Acid . 
Action of Nitric Acid 
Action of Oxidising Agents on Cellulose or Cotton 



PAGE 

1 
6 
9 

10 
11 
12 
16 



CHAPTER II. 
Scouring and Bleaching of Cotton 

Stains and Damages in Bleached Goods 



23 

50 



CHAPTER III. 
Dyeing Machinery and Dyeing INIanipulations . 

Hand Dyeing 

Dyeing Machines 

Dyeing, Slubbing, Sliver or Carded Cotton and Wool 
Cop Dyeing . 



53 
53 
67 
68 
64 



CHAPTER IV. 

The Principles and Practice of Cotton Dyeing . 

(1) Direct Dyeing 

(2) Direct Dyeing followed by Fixation with Metallic Salts 
(8) Direct Dyeing followed by Fixation with Developers 

(4) Direct Dyeing followed by Fixation with Couplers . 

(5) Dyeing on Tannic Mordant 

(6) Dyeing on Metallic Mordants 

(7) Production of Colour Direct upon Cotton Fibres 

(8) Dyeing Cotton by Impregnation with Dye-stuff Solution 



82 
86 
112 
128 
139 
147 
156 
181 
198 



"VI CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER V. 

I'AGE 

Dyeing Union (Mixed Cotton and Wool) Fabrics .... 208 

CHAPTER VI. 

Dyeing Half Silk (Cotton-Silk, Satin) Fabrics 225 

Method of Dyeing 225 

CHAPTER VII. 

Operations Following Dyeing 239 

Washing, Soaping, Drying 239 

CHAPTER VIII. 
Testing OF THE Colour OF Dyed Fabrics . . -. . . . 257 

CHAPTER IX. 
Experimental Dyeing and Comparative Dye Testing .... 262 



LIST OF ILLUSTEATIONS 



FIG. PAGE 

1. Cotton Fibre 5 

1a. Cross-section of Cotton Fibre 5 

2. Mercerised Cotton Fibre 7 

2a. Cross-section of Mercerised Cotton Fibre 7 

3. Silkified Cotton Fibre , . 9 

3a. Cross-section of Silkified Cotton Fibre 9- 

4. Mather & Piatt's Low-pressure Bleaching Kier 31 

5. Mather & Piatt's Yarn-bleaching Kier 49 

6. Rectangular Dye-tank 54 

7. Round Dye-tub 54 

8. Section of Dye-vat 56 

9. Delahunty's Dyeing Machine ........ 58 

10. Obermaier Dyeing Machine '59 

11. Holliday's Yarn-dyeing Machine 60 

12. Klauder-Weldon Dyeing Machine 62 

13. Graemiger Cop-dyeing Machine 65- 

14. Graemiger Cop-dyeing Machine 66 

15. Beaumont's Cop-dyeing Machine . . . . . . .67 

16. Warp-dyeing Machine 70 

17. Warp-dyeing Machine 71 

18. Dye-jiggers 72 

19. Dye-jigger 73 

20. Jig Wince 75 

21. Cloth-dyeing Machine 76 

22. Dye Beck 77 

23. Holliday's Machine for Hawking Cloth 78 

24. Continuous Dyeing Machine 79 

25. Padding Machine 80 

26. Padding Machine 81 



Vni LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

no. PAGE 

27. Dye-tub for Paranitroaniline Red 191 

28. Padding Machine for Paranitroaniline Red 192 

29. Developing Machine for Paranitroaniline Red ..... 194 

30. Indigo Dye-vat for Cloth 199 

31. Squeezing Rollers 240 

32. Yarn-washing Machine 243 

83. Dye-house Washing Machine 244 

34. Cloth- washing Machine 246 

35. Cloth-washing Machine 247 

36. Washing and Soaping Vats 248 

37. Steaming Cottage 249 

38. Steaming and Ageing Chamber , . 250 

39. Hydro-extractor 251 

40. Hydro-extractor 252 

41. Automatic Yarn-dryer .......... 253 

42. Truck Yarn-dryer 254 

43. Drying Cylinders 255 

44. Experimental Dye-bath 263 



CHAPTEK I. 

STRUCTURE AND CHEMISTRY OP THE COTTON FIBRE. 

There is scarcely any subject of so much importance to the 
bleacher, textile colourist or textile manufacturer as the 
structure and chemistry of the cotton fibre with which he 
has to deal. By the term chemistry w^e mean not only the 
composition of the fibre substance itself, but also the reactions 
it is capable of undergoing when brought into contact w^ith 
various chemical substances — acids, alkahes, salts, etc. These 
reactions have a very important bearing on the operations of 
bleaching and dyeing of cotton fabrics. 

A few words on vegetable textile fibres in general may be 
of interest. Fibres are met with in connection with plants 
in three ways. 

First, as cuticle or ciliary fibres or hairs ; these are of 
no practical use, being much too short for preparing textile 
fabrics from, but they play an important part in the physiology 
of the plant. 

Second, as seed hairs ; that is fibres that are attached to 

the seeds of many plants, such, for instance, as the common 

thistle and dandelion ; the cotton fibre belongs to this group of 

seed hairs, while there are others, kapok, etc., that have been 

tried from time to time in spinning and weaving, but without 

much success. These seed hairs vary much in length, from 

J inch to 1| inches or even 2 inches ; each fibre consists of 

a single unit. Whether it is serviceable as a textile fibre 

1 



2 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

depends upon its structure, which differs in different plants, 
and also upon the quantity available. 

The third class of fibre, which is by far the most numer- 
ous, consists of those found lying between the bark or outer 
cuticle and the true woody tissues of the plant. This portion 
is known as the bast, and hence these fibres are known as 
"bast fibres ". They are noticeable on account of the great 
length of the fibres, in some cases upwards of 6 feet, which 
can be obtained ; but it should be pointed out that these long 
fibres are not the unit fibres, but are really bundles of the 
ultimate fibres aggregated together to form one long fibre, 
as found in and obtained from the plant. Thus the ultimate 
fibres of jute are really very short — from yV to |^ of an inch 
in length ; those of flax are somewhat longer. Jute, flax, 
China grass and hemp are common fibres which are derived 
from the bast of the plants. 

There is an important point of difference between seed 
fibres and bast fibres, that is in the degree of purity. While 
the seed fibres are fairly free from impurities — cotton rarely 
containing more than 5 per cent. — the bast fibres contain 
a large proportion of impurity, from 25 to 30 per cent, as 
they are first obtained from the plant, and this large quan- 
tity has much influence on the extent and character of the 
treatments to which they are subjected. 

As regards the structure of the fibres, it will be sufficient 
to say that while seed hairs are cylindrical and tubular and 
have thin walls, bast fibres are more or less polygonal in 
form and are not essentially tubular, having thick walls and 
small central canals. 

The Cotton Fibre. — The seed hairs of the cotton plant are 
separated from the seeds by the process of ginning, and they 
then pass into commerce as raw cotton. In this condition 
the fibre is found to consist of the actual fibrous substance 
itself, containing, however, about 8 per cent, of hygroscopic 



STRUCTURE AND CHEMISTRY OF THE COTTON FIBRE. S 

or natural moisture, and 5 per cent, of impurities of various 
kinds, which vary in amount and in kind in various descrip- 
tions of cotton. In the process of manufacture into cotton 
cloths, and as the material passes through the operations of 
bleaching, dyeing or printing, the impurities are eliminated. 

Impurities of the Cotton Fibre. — Dr. E. Schunck made 
an investigation many years ago into the character of the 
impurities, and found them to consist of the following sub- 
stances : — 

Cotton Wax. — This substance bears a close resemblance 
to carnauba wax. It is lighter than water, has a waxy 
lustre, is somew^hat translucent, is easily powdered, and 
melts below the boiling point of water. It is insoluble in 
water, but dissolves in alcohol and in ether. When boiled 
with weak caustic soda it melts but is not dissolved by 
the alkali ; it can, however, be dissolved by boihng with 
alcoholic caustic potash. This wax is found fairly uniformly 
distributed over the surface of the cotton fibre, and it is 
due to this fact that raw cotton is wetted by water only 
with difticulty. 

Fatty Acids. — A sohd, fatty acid, melting at 55° C. is also 
present in cotton. Probably stearic acid is the main con- 
stituent of this fatty acid. 

Colouring Matter. — Two brown colouring matters, both 
containing nitrogen, can be obtained from raw^ cotton. One 
of these is readily soluble in alcohol, the other only sparingly 
so. The presence in relatively large quantities of these 
bodies accounts for the brown colour of Egyptian and some 
other dark-coloured varieties of cotton. 

Pectic Acid, — This is the chief impurity found in raw 
cotton. It can be obtained in the form of an amorphous 
substance of a light yellow colour, not unlike gum in 
appearance. It is soluble in boiling water, and the solu- 
tion has a faint acid reaction. Acids and many metallic 



4 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

salts, such as mercury, chloride and lead acetate, precipitate 
pectic acid from its solutions. Alkalies combine with it, and 
these compounds form brown substances, are but sparingly 
soluble in water, and many of them can be precipitated out 
by addition of neutral salts, like sodium and ammonium 
chlorides. 

Albumens. — A small quantity of albuminous matter is 
found among the impurities of cotton. 

Structure of the Cotton Fibre. — The cotton fibre varies in 
length from 1 to 2 inches, not only in fibres of the same 
class but also in fibres from different localities — Indian 
fibres varying from 0*8 in the shortest to 1*4 in the longest 
stapled varieties; Egyptian cotton fibres range from 1"1 to 
1"6 inches long; American cotton ranges from 0*8 in the 
shortest to 2 inches in the longest fibres. The diameter 
is about YTQo of a^n inch. When seen under the microscope 
fully ripe cotton presents the appearance of irregularly 
twisted ribbons, with thick rounded edges. The thickest 
part is the root end, or point of attachment to the seed. The 
free end terminates in a point. The diameter is fairly uni- 
form through X to J of its length, the rest is taper. In 
Fig. 1 is given some illustrations of the cotton fibre, showing 
this twisted and ribbon-Hke structure, while in Fig. 1a is 
given some transverse sections of the fibre. These show 
that it is a collapsed cylinder, the walls being of consider- 
able thickness when compared with the internal bore or 
canal. 

Perfectly developed, well-formed cotton fibres always 
present this appearance. But all commercial cottons con- 
tain more or less of fibres which are not perfectly developed 
or are unripe. These are known as " dead fibres " ; they do 
not spin well and they do not dye well. On examination 
under the microscope it is seen that these fibres have not the 
flattened, twisted appearance of the ripe fibres, but are flatter, 



STRUCTUKE AND CHEMISTRY OF THE COTTON FIBRE. 5 

and the central canal is almost obliterated and the fibres are 
but little twisted. Dead fibres are thin, brittle and weak. 

Composition of the Cotton Fibres. — Of all the vegetable 
textile fibres cotton is found to have the simplest chemical 
composition and to be, as it were, the type substance of all 
such fibres, the others differing from it in several respects. 
When stripped of the comparatively small quantities of im- 
purities, cotton is found to consist of a substance to which 
the name of cellulose has been given. 

Cellulose is a compound of the three elements, carbon, 




^ f^^ Fig. 1a. 



0>^^ 



Fig. 1.— Cotton Fibre. 

hydrogen and oxygen, in the proportions shown in the fol- 
lowing analysis : — 

Carbon, 44 '2 per cent., 
Hydrogen, 6*3 per cent.. 
Oxygen, 49'5 per cent., 

which corresponds to the empirical formula C^^H^oO^, which 
shows it to belong to the group of carbo-hydrates, that is, 
bodies which contain the hydrogen and oxygen present in 
them in the proportion in which they are present in water, 
namely H^O. 



6 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABEICS. 

Cellulose may be obtained in a pure condition from cotton 
by treatment with alkalies, followed by washing, and by treat- 
ment with alkaline hypochlorites, acids, washing and, finally, 
drying. As thus obtained it is a white substance having the 
form of the fibre from which it is procured, showing a slight 
lustre, and is slightly translucent. The specific gravity is 
1*5, it being heavier than water. It is characterised by being 
very inert, a property of considerable value from a technical 
point of view, as enabling the fibres to stand the various 
operations of bleaching, dyeing, printing, finishing, etc. 
Nevertheless, by suitable means, cellulose can be made to 
undergo various chemical decompositions which will be noted 
in some detail. 

Cellulose on exposure to the air will absorb moisture or 
water. This is known as hygroscopic moisture, or " water of 
condition ". The amount in cotton is about 8 per cent., and 
it has a very important bearing on the spinning properties of 
the fibre, as it makes the fibre soft and elastic, while ab- 
solutely dry cotton fibre is stiff, brittle and non-elastic ; hence 
it is easier to spin and weave cotton in moist climates or 
weather than in dry climates or weather. Cotton cellulose 
is insoluble in all ordinary solvents, such as water, ether, 
alcohol, chloroform, benzene, etc., and these agents have no 
mfluence in any way on the material, but it is soluble in 
some special solvents that will be noted later on. 

Action of Alkalies. 

The action of alkalies on cellulose or cotton is one of great 
importance in view of the universal use of alkaline hquors 
made from soda or caustic soda in the scouring, bleaching 
and dyeing of cotton, while great interest attaches to the use 
of caustic soda in the "mercerising" of cotton. 

Dilute solutions of the caustic alkalies, caustic soda or 
caustic potash, of from 2 to 7 per cent, strength, have no 



ACTION OF ALKALIES ON THE COTTON FIBRE. 7 

action on cellulose or cotton, in the cold, even when a pro- 
longed digestion of the fibre with the alkaline solution takes 
place. Caustic alkali solutions of from 1 to '2 per cent, 
strength have little or no action even when used at high 
temperatures and under considerable pressure — a fact of very 
great importance from a bleacher's point of view, as it 
enables him to subject cotton to a boil in kiers, with such 
alkaline solutions at high pressures, for the purpose of scour- 
ing the cotton, without damaging the fibre itself. 

Solutions of caustic soda of greater strength than 3 per 
cent, tend, when boiled under pressure, to convert the cellu- 




®^ -...„ 



Fig. '2. — ^Mercerised Cotton Fibre. 

lose into soluble bodies, and as much as 20 per cent, of the 
fibre may become dissolved under such treatment. The 
action of strong solutions of caustic soda or caustic potash 
upon cellulose or cotton is somewhat different. Mercer 
found that solutions containing 10 per cent, of alkali had a 
very considerable effect upon the fibre, causing it to swell up 
and become gelatinous and transparent in its structure, each 
individual cotton fibre losing its ribbon-like appearance, and 
assuming a rod-like form, the central canal being more or 
less obhterated. This is shown in Fig. 2 and 2a, where 
the fibre is shown as a rod and the cross section in Fig. 



» THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

2a has no central canal. The action which takes place is 
as follows : The cellulose enters into a combination with the 
alkali and there is formed a sodium cellulose, which has the 
formula CgHi(j052NaOH. This alkali cellulose, however, is 
not a stable body ; by washing with water the alkali is 
removed, and hydrated cellulose is obtained, which has the 
formula C^5Hio05H20. Water removes the whole of the 
alkali, but alcohol only removes one half. It has been 
observed that during the process of washing with water the 
fibre shrinks very much. This shrinkage is more particularly 
to be observed in the case of cotton. As John Mercer was 
the first to point out the action of the alkaline solutions on 
cotton, the process has become known as " mercerisation ". 

Solutions of caustic soda of I'OOO or 20° Tw. in strength 
have very little mercerising action, and it is only by prolonged 
treatment that mercerisation can be effected. It is interest- 
ing to observe that the addition of zinc oxide to the caustic 
solution increases its mercerising powers. Solutions of 1*225 
to 1*275 (that is from 45° to 55° Tw. in strength) effect the 
mercerisation almost immediately in the cold, and this is 
the best strength at which to use caustic soda solutions for 
this purpose. In addition to the change brought about by 
the shrinking and thickening of the material, the mercerised 
fibres are stronger than the untreated fibres, and at the same 
time they have a stronger affinity for dyes, a piece of cloth 
mercerised taking up three times as much colouring matter 
as a piece of unmercerised cloth from the same dye-bath. 

The shrinkage of the cotton, which takes place during 
the operation of washing with water, was for a long time a 
bar to any practical application of the " mercerising " process, 
but some years ago Lowe ascertained that by conducting the 
operation while the cotton was stretched or in a state of 
tension this shrinkage did not take place ; further, Thomas 
and Prevost found that the cotton so treated gained a silky 



ACTIONS OF ACIDS ON CELLULOSE. 



9 



lustre, and it has since been ascertained that this lustre is 
most highly developed with the long-stapled Egyptian and 
Sea Island cottons. This mercerising under tension is now 
applied on a large scale to produce silkified cotton. When 
viewed under the microscope, the silkified cotton fibres have 
the appearance shown in Fig. 3, long rod-like fibres nearly if 
not quite cylindrical ; the cross section of those fibres has the 
appearance shown in Fig. 3a. This structure fully accounts 
for the silky lustre possessed by the mercerised fibres. Silky 




^OFiG. 3a. 



Fig. 3.— Silkified Cotton Fibre. 

mercerised cotton has very considerable affinity for dye-stuffs, 
taking them up much more readily from dye-baths, and it 
is dyed in very brilliant shades. 

In the chapter on Scouring and Bleaching of Cotton, some 
reference will be made to the action of alkalies on cotton. 



Action of Acids on Cellulose. 

The action of acids on cellulose is a very varied one, being 
dependent upon several factors, such as the particular acid 



10 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABEICS. 

used, the strength of the acid, duration of action, tempera- 
ture, etc. As a rule, organic acids — for example acetic,, 
oxalic, citric, tartaric — have no action on cellulose or cotton. 
Solutions of sulphuric acid or hydrochloric acid of 2 per 
cent, strength have practically no action in the cold, and if 
after immersion the cotton or cellulose be well v^ashed there 
is no change of any kind. This is important, as in certain 
operations of bleaching cotton and other vegetable fibres it is 
necessary to sour them, w^hich could not be done if acids 
acted on them, but it is important to thoroughly wash the 
goods afterwards. When the acid solutions are used at the 
boil they have a disintegrating effect on the cellulose, the 
latter being converted into hydrocellulose. When dried, the 
cellulose is very brittle and powdery, which in the case of 
cotton yarn being so treated would show itself by the yarn 
becoming tender and rotten. The degree of action varies 
with the temperature (the higher this is the stronger the 
action), and also according to the strength of the acid 
solution. Thus a 10 per cent, solution of sulphuric acid 
used at a temperature of 80° C. begins to act on cotton after 
about five minutes' immersion, in half an hour there is a 
perceptible amount of disintegration, but the complete con- 
version of the cotton into hydrocellulose requires one hour's 
immersion. A dilute acid with 8 volumes of water, used 
in the cold, takes three hours' immersion before any action 
on the cotton becomes evident. 

Action of Sulphueic Acid on Cotton. 

When cellulose (cotton) is immersed in strong sulphuric 
acid the cotton becomes gradually dissolved ; as the action 
progresses cellulose sulphates are formed, and some hydro- 
lytic action takes place, with the formation of sugar. This 
fact has long been known, but only recently has it been 
shown that dextrose was the variety of sugar which was. 



ACTION OF ACIDS ON THE COTTON FIBRE. 11 

formed. On diluting the strong acid solution with water 
there is precipitated out the hydro or oxycelluloses that 
have been formed, while the cellulose sulphates are retained 
in solution. 

By suitable means the calcium, barium, or lead salts of 
these cellulose-sulphuric acids can be prepared. Analysis of 
them shows that these salts undergo hydrolysis, and lose half 
their sulphuric acid. 

The action of strong sulphuric acid has a practical 
application in the production of parchment paper ; unsized 
paper is immersed in strong acid of the proper strength 
for about a minute, and then immediately rinsed in water. 
The acid acts upon the surface of the paper and forms 
the cellulose-sulphuric acid which remains attached to the 
surface. On passing into the water this is decomposed, 
the acid is washed away, and the cellulose is deposited in 
an amorphous form on the paper, filling up its pores and 
rendering it water-proof and grease-proof Such papers are 
now largely used for packing purposes. 

Action of Hydrochloric Acid. 

Dilute hydrochloric acid of from 1^ to '2° Tw. in strength, 
used in the cold, has no action on cellulose. Cotton immersed 
in acids of the strength named and then well washed in w^ater 
is not materially affected in any way, w^hich is a feature of 
some value in connection with the bleaching of cotton, where 
the material has to be treated at two points in the process 
with weak acids. Boiling dilute hydrochloric acid of 10° Tw, 
disintegrates cellulose very rapidly. The product is a w^hite 
very friable powder, which if viewed under the microscope 
appears to be fragments of the fibre that has been used to 
prepare it. The product has the composition C^.jHo^O^^, and 
is therefore a hydrate of cellulose, the latter having under- 
gone hydrolysis by taking up the elements of water according 



12 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABKICS. 

to the equation 20^11^^^ + H.^O = C^2^22^u- ^J further 
digestion with the acid, the hydrocellulose, as it is called, 
undergoes molecular change, and is converted into dextrine. 
In composition hydrocellulose resembles the product formed 
by the addition of sulphuric acid which has received the 
name of amyloid. It differs from cellulose in containing free 
carboxyl, CO, groups, while its hydroxyl groups, HO, are 
much more active in their chemical reactions. 

Hydrocellulose is soluble in nitric acid, 1'5 specific gravity, 
without undergoing oxidation. Nitrates are formed varying 
in composition. 

The formation of hydrocellulose has a very important 
bearing in woollen manufacture. It is practically impos- 
sible to obtain wool free from vegetable fibres, and it is 
often desirable to separate these vegetable fibres. For this 
purpose the goods are passed into a bath of hydrochloric 
acid or of weak sulphuric acid. On drying the acid converts 
the cotton or vegetable fibre into hydrocellulose which, being 
friable or powdery, can be easily removed, while the wool not 
having been acted on by the acid remains quite intact. The 
process is known as " carbonising ". It may not only be 
done by means of the acids named but also by the use of 
acid salts, such as aluminium chloride, which on being heated 
are decomposed into free acid and basic oxide. For the same 
reason it is important to avoid the use of these bodies, 
aluminium chloride and sulphate, zinc and magnesium 
chlorides, etc., in the treatment of cotton fabrics ; as in 
finishing processes, where the goods are dried afterwards, 
there is a great liability to form hydrocellulose with the 
accompaniment of the tendering of the goods. 

Action of Nitric Acid. 

The action of nitric acid on cellulose is a variable one, 
depending on many factors, strength of acid, duration of 



ACTION OF ACIDS ON THE COTTON FIBEE. 13" 

action and temperature. Naturally as nitric acid is a strong 
oxidising agent the action of nitric acid on cellulose is essen- 
tially in all cases that of an oxidant, but the character of the 
product which is obtained varies very much according to the 
conditions just noted. When cellulose or cotton in any form 
is immersed in nitric acid of 1'4 to 1*5 specific gravity for 
a moment, and the fibre be v^ell washed, there is a formation 
of hydrate of cellulose which has a gelatinous nature. This 
is deposited on the rest of the material, which is not mate- 
rially affected so far as regards strength and appearance, but 
its power of affinity for dyes is materially increased. There 
is some shrinkage in the size of the cotton or paper acted 
upon . 

Nitric acid changes all kinds of cellulose into nitro pro- 
ducts, the composition of which depends upon the strength 
of the acid, the duration of treatment, and one or two other 
factors. The nitrocelluloses are all highly inflammable 
bodies, the more highly nitrated burning with explosive 
force. They are produced commercially and are known as 
" gun cotton " or " pyroxyline". The most highly nitrated 
body forms the basis of the explosive variety ; the least 
highly nitrated forms that of the soluble gun cotton used 
for making collodion for photographic and other purposes. 

The products formed by the action of nitric acid are 
usually considered to be nitrocelluloses. It would appear 
that they are more correctly described as cellulose-nitrates,, 
for analysis indicates the presence of the NO3 group, which 
is characteristic of nitrates, and not of the NO., group, which 
is the feature of nitro bodies in general. Further, nitro 
compounds, when subject to the action of reducing agents, 
are converted into amido compounds, as is the case, for in- 
stance, with nitro-benzene, C^H^NOo, into anifine, C,3H5NH2, 
or with nitro-naphthalene, CjoH-NOo, which changes into- 
naphthylamine, CjoH^NH^. 



14 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

But the nitric acid derivatives of cellulose are not capable 
of conversion by reducing agents into similar amido com- 
pounds. They have the following properties, which accord 
more closely with nitrates than with nitric bodies : alkalies 
remove the nitric acid ; cold sulphuric acid expels the nitric 
acid, cellulose sulphates being formed ; boiling with ferrous 
sulphate and hydrochloric acid causes the elimination of the 
nitric acid as nitric oxide (on which reaction a method for 
determining the degree of nitration of gun cotton is based). 
It is best therefore to consider them as cellulose nitrates. 
Several well-characterised cellulose nitrates have been pre- 
pared, but is an exceedingly difficult matter to obtain any 
one in a state of purity, the commercial articles being always 
mixtures of two or three. Those that are best known and of 
the most importance are the following : — 

Cellulose Hexa-nitrate, C,.H40.-(N03),;. This forms the 
principal portion of the commercial explosive gun cotton, 
and is made when a mixture of strong nitric acid and strong 
sulphuric acid is allowed to act on cotton at from 50 to 
55° F. for twenty-four hours. The longer the action is 
prolonged, the more completely is the cotton converted into 
the nitrate, with a short duration the finished product con- 
tains low^er nitrates. This hexa-nitrate is insoluble in ether, 
alcohol, or in a mixture of those solvents, likewise in glacial 
acetic acid or in methyl alcohol. 

Cellulose Penta-nitrate, CgH505(N03)5, is found in ex- 
plosive gan cotton to a small extent. When gun cotton 
is dissolved in nitric acid and sulphuric acid is added, the 
penta-nitrate is thrown down as a precipitate. It is not 
soluble in alcohol, but is so in a mixture of ether and alcohol, 
it is also slightly soluble in acetic acid. Solutions of caustic 
potash convert it into the di-nitrate. 

Cellulose Tetra-nitrate, CgH(.05(N03)4, and Cellulose Tri- 
nitrate, C,.H-05(N03)3, form the basis of the pyroxyline or solu- 



ACTION OF ACIDS ON THE COTTON FIBEE. 15 

ble gun cotton of commerce. It has not been found possible 
to separate them owing to their behaviour to solvents being 
very similar. These nitrates are obtained by treating cotton 
with nitric acid for twenty or thirty minutes. They are 
characterised by being more soluble than the higher nitrates 
and less inflammable. They are freely soluble in a mixture 
of ether and alcohol, from which solutions they are precipi- 
tated in a gelatinous form on adding chloroform. Acetic 
ether, methyl alcohol, acetone and glacial acetic acid, will 
also dissolve these nitrates. 

Cellulose Di-nitrate, C^jH^O^XNO^).,, is obtained when cellu- 
lose is treated with hot dilute nitric acid, or when the 
high nitrates are boiled with solutions of caustic soda or 
■caustic potash. Like the last-mentioned nitrates it is soluble 
in a mixture of alcohol and ether, in acetic ether, and in 
■absolute alcohol. The solution of the pyroxyline nitrates in 
ether and alcohol is known as collodion, and is used in 
photography and in medical and surgical work. 

One of the most interesting applications of the cellulose 
nitrates is in the production of artificial silk. Several pro- 
cesses, the differences between which are partly chemical 
and partly mechanical, have been patented for the production 
of artificial silk, those of Lehner and of Chardonnet being 
of most importance. They all depend upon the fact that 
when a solution of cellulose nitrate is forced through a 
fine aperture or tube, the solvent evaporates almost immedi- 
ately, leaving a gelatinous thread of the cellulose nitrate 
which is very tough and elastic, and possesses a brilliant 
lustre. Chardonnet dissolves the cellulose nitrate in a 
mixture of alcohol and ether, and the solution is forced 
through fine capillary tubes into hot water, when the sol- 
vents immediately evaporate, leaving the cellulose nitrate 
in the form of very fine fibre, which by suitable machinery 
is drawn away as fast as it is formed. Lehner's process 



16 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABEICS. 

is very similar to that of Chardonnet. Lehner uses a 
solution of cellulose nitrate in ether and alcohol, and adds 
a small quantity of sulphuric acid ; by the adoption of the 
latter ingredient he is able to use a stronger solution of 
cellulose nitrate, 10 to 15 per cent., than would otherwise 
be possible, and thereby obtains a stronger thread which 
resists the process of drawing much better than is the 
case when only a weak solution in alcohol and ether is 
employed. By subsequent treatment the fibre can be deni- 
trated and so rendered less inflammable. 

The denitrated fibres thus prepared very closely resemble 
silk in their lustre ; they are not quite so soft and supple, nor 
are they in any way so strong as ordinary silk fibre of the 
same diameter. 

Artificial silk can be dyed in the same manner as ordinar}^ 
silk. 

Action of Oxidising Agents on Cellulose or Cotton 

Cellulose resists fairly well the action of weak oxidising 
agents ; still too prolonged an action of weak oxidising agents 
has some influence upon the cotton fibre, and it may be 
worth while to point out the action of some bodies having 
an oxidising effect. 

Nitric acid of about 1*15 specific gravity has little action 
in the cold, and only slowly on it when heated. The action 
is one of oxidation, the cellulose being transformed into a 
substance known as oxycellulose. This oxycellulose is white 
and fiocculent. It tends to form gelatinous hydrates with 
water, and has a composition corresponding to the formula 
C^.H^qO,,. It is soluble in a mixture of nitric and sulphuric 
acids, and on diluting this solution with water a tri-nitrate 
precipitates out. A weak solution of soda dissolves this 
oxycellulose with a yellow colour, while strong sulphuric 
acid forms a pink colouration. It is important to note that 



ACTION OF OXIDISING AGENTS ON THE COTTON FIBRE. 17 

nitric acid of the strength given does not convert all the 
cellulose into oxy cellulose, but there are formed also carbonic 
and oxalic acids. When cotton is passed into strong solutions 
of bleaching pow^der and of alkahne hypochlorites and 
then dried, it is found to be tendered very considerably. 
This effect of bleaching pov^der was first observed some 
thirteen years ago by George Witz, who ascribed the ten- 
dering of the cotton to the formation of an oxycellulose. 
Although the composition of this particular oxycellulose 
so formed has not yet been ascertained, there is reason to 
think that it differs somewhat from the oxycellulose formed 
by the action of the weak nitric acid. A notable property of 
the oxycellulose now under consideration is its affinity for 
the basic coal-tar dyes, which it will absorb directly. The 
oxycellulose is soluble in alkaline solutions. 

In the ordinary bleaching process there is considerable 
risk of the formation of oxycellulose by the employment of 
the bleaching solutions of too great a strength, or in allowing 
the goods to lie too long before the final washing off. The 
presence of any oxycellulose in bleached cotton may be 
readily determined by immersing it in a weak solution of 
Methylene blue, when, if there be any oxycellulose present, 
the fibre will take up some of the dye-stuff. 

Permanganate of potash is a very powerful oxidising 
agent. On cellulose neutral solutions have but little action, 
either in the cold or when heated. They may, therefore, be 
used for the bleaching of cotton or other cellulose fibres. 

Alkaline solutions of permanganate convert the cellulose 
into oxycellulose, which resembles the oxycellulose obtained 
by the action of the nitric acid. 

Chromic acid, when used in the form of a solution, has 
but little action on cellulose. In the presence of mineral 
acids, and used warm or boiling, chromic acid oxidises, 
cellulose into oxycellulose and other products. 

2 



18 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABKICS. 

It is therefore always advisable in carrying out any 
technical process connected with cotton which involves its 
treatment with oxidising agents of any kind, and where it 
is desired not to alter the cotton, to allow these actions to be 
as short as possible. 

Dyes and Cotton Dyeing. — An account of the chemistry 
of the cotton fibre would not be complete unless something 
is said about the reactions involved in the processes of dyeing 
and printing cotton. This is a most interesting subject and 
opens up quite a number of problems relating to the com- 
bination of the fibre with colouring matter of various kinds, 
but here only a brief outline of the principles that present 
themselves in considering the behaviour of the cotton fibre 
as regards colouring matter wili be given. 

When the question is considered from a broad point of 
view, and having regard to the various affinities of the dyes 
for cotton, we notice (1) that there is a large number of dye- 
stuffs — -the Benzo, Congo, Diamine, Titan, Mikado, etc., dyes 
— that will dye the cotton from a plain bath or from a bath 
containing salt, sodium sulphate, borax or similar salts ; (2) 
that there are dyes which, like Magenta, Safranine, Auramine 
and Methyl violet, will not dye the cotton fibre direct, but 
require it to be mordanted or prepared with tannic acid ; (3) 
that there are some dyes or rather colouring matters which, 
like Alizarine, Nitroso-resorcine, barwood, logwood, etc., re- 
quire alumina, chrome and iron mordants ; (4) that there 
are some dyes which, like the azo scarlet and azo colours in 
general, cannot be used in cotton dyeing ; (5) that there are 
a few dyes, i.e., indigo, which do not come under this grouping. 

From the results of recent investigations into the chem- 
istry of dyeing it is now considered that for perfect dyeing to 
take place there must be formed on the fibre a combination 
which is called a "colour lake," which consists of at least 
two constituents ; one of these is the dye-stuff or the colour- 



DYES AND DYEING OF THE COTTON FIBEE. 19 

ing matter itself, the other being either the fibre or a mordant, 
if such has to be used. The question of the formation of 
colour lakes is one connected with the molecular constitution 
of the colouring matter, but much yet remains to be done 
before the proper functions and mode of action of the various 
groups or radicles in the dye-stuffs can be definitely stated. 
While the constitution of the dye-stuff is of importance, that 
of the substance being dyed is also a factor in the question 
of the conditions under which it is applied. 

In dealing wath the first of the above groups of dyes, the 
direct dyes, the colourist is somewhat at a loss to explain in 
what manner the combination with the cotton fibre is brought 
about. The affinity of cellulose for dyes appears to be so 
small and its chemical activities so weak, that to assume the 
existence of a reaction between the dye-stuff and the fibre, 
tending to the formation of a colour lake, seems to be un- 
tenable. Then, again, the chemical composition and con- 
stitution of the dyes of this group are so varied that an 
explanation which would hold good for one might not do so 
for another. The relative fastness of the dyes against wash- 
ing and soaping precludes the idea of a merely mechanical 
absorption of the dye by the fibre ; on the other hand the 
great difference in the fastness to soaping and light between 
the same dyes on cotton and w^ool would show that there 
has not been a true formation of colour lake. 

The dyeing of cotton with the second group of dyes is 
more easil}' explained. The cotton fibre has some affinity for 
the tannic acid used in preparing it and absorbs it from the 
mordanting bath. The tannic acid has the property of com- 
bining w4th the basic constituents of these dyes and forms 
a true colour lake, which is firmly fixed on the fibre. The 
colour lake can be formed independently of the fibre by 
bringing the tannic acid and the dye into contact with one 
another. 



20 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABEICS. 

In the case of the dyes of the third group, the formation 
of a colour lake between the metallic oxide and the colouring 
matter can be readily demonstrated. In dyeing with these 
colours the cotton is first of all impregnated with the mor- 
danting oxide, and afterwards placed in the dye-bath, the 
mordant already fixed on the fibre then reacts with the dye, 
and absorbs it, thus dyeing the cotton. To some extent the 
dyeing of cotton with the basic dyes of the second group 
and the mordant dyes of the third group is almost a me- 
chanical one, the cotton fibre taking no part in it frf)m a 
chemical point of view, but simply playing the part of a base 
or foundation on which the colour lake may be formed. In 
the case of the dyes of the fourth group, there being no 
chemical affinity of the cotton known for them, these dyes 
cannot be used in a successful manner ; cotton will, if im- 
mersed in a bath containing them, more or less mechanically 
take up some of the colour from the liquor, but such colour 
can be almost completely washed out again, hence these 
dyes are not used in cotton dyeing, although many attempts 
have been made to render them available. 

Indigo is a dye-stuff that stands by itself. Its combina- 
tion with the cotton fibre is chiefly of a physical rather than 
a chemical nature ; it does not form colour lakes in the same 
way as Alizarine and Magenta do. 

Cellulose can be dissolved by certain metallic solutions 
and preparations : — 

(1) Zinc Chloride. — When cotton or other form of cellu- 
lose is heated with a strong solution, 40 to 50 per cent., 
it slowly dissolves to a syrupy liquid. On diluting this 
liquid with water the cellulose is thrown down in a gelatin- 
ous form, but more or less hydrated, and containing some 
zinc oxide, 18 to 25 per cent., in combination. 

(2) Zinc Chloride and Hydrochloric Acid. — When zinc 
chloride is dissolved in hydrochloric acid a liquid is ob- 



DISSOLVING THE COTTON FIBEE. 21 

tained which dissolves cellulose ; on dilution the cellulose is 
re-precipitated in a hydrated form. It is worth noting that 
the solution is not a stable one : on keeping, the cellulose 
changes its character and undergoes hydrolysis to a greater 
or less extent. 

(.3) Ammoniacal Copper. — When ammonia is added to 
a solution of copper sulphate, there is formed at first a pale 
blue precipitate of copper hydroxide, which on adding excess 
of ammonia dissolves to a deep blue solution — a reaction 
highly characteristic of copper. The ammoniacal copper 
solution thus prepared has, as was first observed by John 
Mercer, the property of dissolving cellulose fairly rapidly, 
even in the cold. 

If instead of preparing the ammoniacal copper solution 
in the manner indicated above, which results in its con- 
taining a neutral ammonium salt, the copper hydroxide be 
prepared separately and then dissolved in ammonia a solu- 
tion is obtained which is stronger in its action. 

The cupra-ammonium solutions of cellulose are by no 
means stable but change on keeping. When freshly pre- 
pared, the cellulose may be precipitated from them almost 
unchanged by the addition of such bodies as alcohol, sugar 
and solutions of neutral alkaline salts. On keeping the 
cellulose undergoes more or less hydrolysis or even oxidation, 
for it has been observed that oxycellulose is formed on pro- 
longed digestion of cellulose with cupra-ammonium solutions, 
while there is formed a fairly large proportion of a nitrite. 

On adding lead acetate to the cupra-ammonium solution 
of cellulose, a compound of lead oxide and cellulose of some- 
what variable composition is precipitated. It is of interest 
also to note that on adding metallic zinc to the cupra-am- 
monium solution the copper is thrown out and a solution 
containing zinc is obtained. 

This action of cupra-ammonium solutions on cellulose has 



22 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

been made the basis for the production of the " Willesden'* 
waterproof cloths. Cotton cloths or paper are passed through 
these solutions of various degrees of strength according to 
requirements, they are then passed through rollers which 
causes the surface to become more compact. There is 
formed on the surface of the goods a deposit of a gelatinous 
nature which makes the surface more compact, and the 
fabric becomes waterproof in character while the copper 
imparts to them a green colour and acts as a preservative. 
The ''Willesden" fabrics have been found very useful for 
a variety of purposes. 



CHAPTEK 11. 

SCOURING AND BLEACHING OF COTTON. 

Preparatoey to the actual dyeing operations, it is necessary 
to treat cotton in any condition — loose cotton, yarn, or piece 
— so that the dyeing shall be properly done. Raw cotton con- 
tains many impurities, mechanical and otherwise ; cotton 
yarns accumulate dirt and impurities of various kinds 
during the various spinning operations, while in weaving a 
piece of cotton cloth it is practically impossible to keep it 
clean and free from dirt, etc. Before the cotton can be dyed 
a perfectly level and uniform shade, free from dark spots or 
light patches, these impurities must be removed, and there- 
fore the cotton is subjected to various scouring or cleansing 
operations with the object of effecting this end. Then again 
cotton naturally, especially Egyptian cotton, contains a small 
quantity of a brown colouring matter, and this would inter- 
fere with the purity of any pale tints of blue, rose, yellow, 
green, etc., which may be dyed on the cotton, and so it 
becomes necessary to remove this colour and render the 
cotton quite bright. This is commonly called " bleaching ". 
It is these preparatory processes that will be dealt with in 
this chapter. 

Scouring Cotton. — When dark shades — blacks, browns, 
olives, sages, greens, etc., are to be dyed it is not needful to 
subject the cotton to a bleaching operation, but simply to 
a scouring by boiling it with soda or caustic soda. This is 
very often carried out in the same machine as the goods will 



24 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABEICS. 

be dyed in ; thus, for instance, in the case of pieces, they 
would be charged in a jigger, this would be filled with a 
liquor made from soda or from caustic soda, and the pieces 
run from end to end, while the liquor is being heated to the 
boil — usually half to three-quarters of an hour is sufficient. 
Then the alkali liquor is run out, clean water run into the 
jigger and the pieces washed, after which the dyes, etc., are 
run into the jigger and the dyeing done. There is usually 
used 2 lb. to 3 lb. of caustic soda, or 3 lb. to 4 lb. of soda for 
each 100 lb. of goods so treated. 

If the ordinary dyeing machines are not used for this 
purpose, then the ordinary bleachers' kiers may be used. 
These will be described presently. 

Bleaching of Cotton. — Cotton is bleached in the form of 
yarn, or in the finished pieces. In the latter case the method 
depends very largely on the nature of the fabric ; it is ob- 
vious that fine fabrics, like muslins or lace curtains, cannot 
stand the same rough treatment as a piece of twilled calico 
will. Then, again, the bleaching process is varied according 
to what is going to be done with the goods after they are 
bleached; sometimes they are sent out as they leave the 
bleach-house ; again, they may have to be dyed or printed. 
In the first case the bleach need not be of such a perfect 
character as in the last case, which agam must be more 
perfect than the second class of bleach. There may be 
recognised :— 

(1) Market or white bleach. 

(2) Dyers or printers' bleach. 

(3) Madder bleach. 

As the madder bleach is by far the most perfect of the 
three, and practically includes the others, this will be de- 
scribed in detail, and differences between it and the others 
will be then pointed out. A piece is subjected to the madder 



SCOURING AND BLEACHING OF COTTON. 25 

bleach which has afterwards to be printed with madder or 
alizarine. Usually in this kind of work the cloths are printed 
with mordant colours, and then dyed in a bath of the dye- 
stuff. This stains the whole of the piece, and to rid the 
cloth of the stain where it has to be left white, it is sub- 
jected to a soap bath. Xow, unless the bleach has been 
thorough, the w^hites w^ill be more or less stained per- 
manently, and to avoid this cloths wiiich are to be printed 
with alizarine colours are most thoroughly bleached. The 
madder bleach of the present day generally includes the 
following series of operations : — 

(1) Stitching. (6) Lye boil. 

(2) Singeing. (7) Eesin boil. 

(3) Singeing wash. (8) Wash. 

(4) Lime boil. (9) Chemicing. 

(5) Lime sour. (10) White sour. 

(1) Stitching. — The pieces are fastened together by 
stitching into one long rope, which is passed in a continuous 
manner through all operations in which such a proceeding is 
possible. This stitching is done by machines, the simplest 
T)f which is the donkey machine, whereby the ends of the 
pieces, which are to be stitched together, are forced by a pair 
of cogwheels working together on to the needle carrying a 
piece of thread, this is then pulled through and forms a run- 
ning stitch, a considerable length of thread being left on each 
side so as to prevent as far as possible the pulling asunder of 
the pieces by an accidental drawling oat of the thread. 

Birch's sewing machine is very largely used in bleach 
works. It consists essentially of a Wilcox & Gibb machine 
fitted on a stand so as to be driven by power. The pieces 
are carried under the needle by a large wheel, the periphery 
of which contains a number of projecting pins that, engaging 
in the cloth, carry it along. 



26 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

There is also a contrivance by which these pieces to be 
sewn can be kept stretched, this takes the form of an arm 
with chps at the end, which hold one end of the cloth while 
it is running through the machine. The clip arrangement is 
automatic, and just before the end passes under the needle it 
is released, and the arm flies back ready for the next piece ; 
it is, however, not necessary to use this arm always. This 
machine gives a chain stitch sufficiently firm to resist a pull 
in the direction of the length of the pieces, but giving readily 
to a pull at the end of the thread. 

The Eayer & Lincoln machine is an American invention, 
and is much more complicated than Birch's. It consists of 
a sewing machine mounted on the periphery of a large 
revolving wheel. This carries a number of pins, which, 
engaging in the cloth to be stitched, carry it under the 
needle of the machine. Besides sewing the pieces together 
this machine is fitted with a pair of revolving cutters which 
trim the ends of the pieces as they pass through in a neat 
clean manner. There is also an arrangement to mark the 
pieces as they are being stitched. Like Birch's it produces 
a chain stitch. 

What is important in sewing the ends of pieces together 
is to get a firm uniform stitch that lies level with the cloths 
without any knots projecting, which would catch in the 
bleaching machinery during the processes of bleachmg, and 
this might lead to much damage being done. 

Should it be necessary to mark the pieces so that they 
can be recognised after bleaching, the best thing to use is 
printers' ink. Gas tar is also much used, and is very good 
for the purpose. Coloured inks do not resist the bleaching 
sufficiently well to be used satisfactorily. Vermilion and 
Indian red are used for reds, yellow ochre is the fastest of 
the yellows, there is no blue which will stand the process, 
and Guignet's green is the only green that will at all resist 



SCOURING AND BLEACHING OF COTTON. 27 

the process, umber will serve for brown. All these colours 
are used in the form of printing ink. 

The next operation is a very important one, which cannot 
be too carefully carried out, that is : — 

(2) Singeing. — For printing bleaches the cloths are 
singed. This has for its object the removal from the surface 
of the cloth of the fine fibres with which it is covered, and 
which would, if allowed to remain, prevent the designs 
printed on from coming out with suiBcient clearness, giving 
them a blurred appearance. 

Singeing is done in various ways, by passing the cloth 
over a red-hot copper plate, or over a red-hot revolving 
copper cylinder, or through a coke flame, or through gas 
flames, and more recently over a rod of platinum made 
red hot by electricity. 

Plate sinoreinor is the oldest of these methods and is still 
largely used. In this method a semi-cylindrical copper plate 
is heated in a suitable furnace to a bright red heat, the cloths 
are rapidly passed over it, and the loose fibres thereby burnt 
off. One great trouble is to keep the plate at one uniform 
heat over the wdiole of its surface, some parts will get hotter 
than others, and it is only by careful attention to the firing 
of the furnace that this can be obtained. To get over these 
difficulties Worral introduced a roller singeing machine in 
which the plate was replaced by a revolving copper roller, 
heated by a suitable furnace ; the roller can be kept at a more 
uniform temperature than the plate. The singe obtained by 
the plate and roller is good, the principal fault being that if the 
cloths happen to get pressed down too much on the hot plate 
the loose ends are not burnt off as they should be. With 
both plate and roller the cloths are singed only on one side, and 
if both sides require to be singed a second passage is necessary. 
Both systems still retain their hold as the principal methods in 
use,notwithstanding the introduction of more modern methods. 



'28 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

Singeing by passing the cloths over a row of Bunsen 
burners has come largely into use. This has the great ad- 
vantage of being very cleanly, and of doing the work very 
effectually, much more thoroughly than any other method, 
which is due to the fact that while in the methods described 
above only the loose fibres on the surface are burnt off ; with 
gas all the loose fibres are burnt off. This is brought about 
by the gas flame passing straight through the cloth. It is 
not necessary to describe the gas singeing machine in detail. 
Singeing machines should be kept scrupulously clean and 
free from fluff, which is liable to collect round them, and very 
liable to fire. Some machines are fitted with a flue having 
a powerful draught which carries off this fluff, away from any 
source of danger. 

(3) Singeing Wash. — After being singed the cloths are run 
through a washing machine to remove by water as much of 
the loose charred fibres as possible. The construction of a 
washing machine is well known. It consists of a pair of 
large wooden rollers set above a trough containing water 
and into which a constant stream of water flows. In the 
trough is also fixed another wooden roller and the pieces are 
passed round this bottom roller and between the top rollers. 
The cloth is passed through and round the rollers several times 
in a spiral form so that it passes through the water in the 
trough frequently, which is a great advantage, as the wash is 
thus much more effectual. The pressure between the two 
top rollers presses out any surplus water. The operation 
scarcely needs any further description. 

(4) Lime Boil. — After the cloth leaves the singeing or 
grey wash, as it is often called, it passes through the liming 
machine, which is made very similar to the washing machine. 
In this it passes through milk of lime, which should be made 
from freshly slaked lime. The latter ma}^ be prepared in a 
pasty form in a stone cistern. The lime used should be of 



SCOURING AND BLEACHING OF COTTON. 29 

good quality, free from stones, badly burnt pieces or any 
other insoluble material, so that when slaked it should give 
a fine smooth pasty mass. 

Lime should not be slaked too long before using, as it 
absorbs carbonic acid from the atmosphere, whereby car- 
bonate of lime is formed, and this is useless for liming cloth. 
The pasty slaked lime may be mixed with water to form the 
milk of lime, and this can be run from the cistern in which 
it is prepared into the liming machine as it is required ; the 
supply pipe should be run into the bottom of the trough of 
the liming machine and not over the top, in which latter case 
it may splash on to the cloths and lead to overliming, which 
is not to be desired on account of its liability to rot the cloth. 
The amount of Hme used varies in different bleachworks, and 
there is no rule on the subject ; about 5 lb. to 7 lb. of dry lime 
to 100 lb. of cloth may be taken as a fair quantity to use. 

The hme boil has for its object the removal or rather the 
saponification of the resinous and fatty matters present in 
the grey cloth, either naturally or which have been added in 
the process of weaving, or have got upon the cloth accident- 
ally during the processes of spinning and weaving. With 
these bodies the lime forms insoluble lime soaps ; these re- 
main in the cloth, but in a form easily decomposable and 
removable by treatment with acids and washing. Soda or 
potash is not nearly so good for this first boiling as lime — 
for what reason is somewhat uncertain, but probably be- 
cause they form with the grease in the cloths soluble soaps, 
which might float about the kier and accumulate in places 
where they are not required and thus lead to stains, whereas 
the insoluble lime soap remains where it was formed. The 
lime also seems to attack the natural colouring matter of the 
cotton, and although the colour of the limed cloth is darker 
than before boiling, yet the nature of the colour is so altered 
that it is more easily removed in the after processes. Besides 



30 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

these changes the starchy matters put into the cloth in the 
sizing are dissolved away. Great care should be taken to see 
that the goods are evenly laid in the kiers, not too tight, or 
the liquor will not penetrate properly ; and not too slack, or 
they will float about and get entangled and more or less 
damaged. Then again care should be taken, especially when 
using low-pressure kiers, to see that the supply of liquor does 
not get too low, in which case the goods in the upper part of 
the kier are liable to get dry and are tendered thereby. So 
long as the goods in the kiers are not allowed to get dry there 
is no risk of damage ; this trouble rarely arises with the 
Barlow and injector kiers. The inside of the kiers should be 
kept well limed, so that the goods shall not come in contact 
with the bare iron or metal of Vv^hich the kier is constructed, 
as this would be very likely to lead to stains being produced 
which are by no means easy to remove. It is usual, and it 
is a good plan with almost all kinds of kiers, except the 
Mather and Edmeston kiers, to put a number of large 
pebbles or small stones at the bottom of the kier, which 
serves to make a false bottom on which the goods rest and 
through which the liquor penetrates and flows away. Before 
using, the stones should be well washed to free them from 
dirt and grit. 

The lime boil is carried out in what are called " kiers ". 
Many forms of kiers have been devised, but the one in most 
general use is that known as the "injector kier," of which a 
drawing is given in Fig. 4, of the form made by Messrs. 
Mather & Piatt of Salford. Injector kiers are made to work 
either under a pressure of 40 lb. to 50 lb. of steam per square 
inch, when they are called high-pressure kiers, or at a pressure 
of 15 lb. to 20 lb., when they are called low-pressure kiers. 
The one shown in the drawing is intended for low-pressure 
kiers. The principle of construction is the same in all, the 
details varying somewhat with different makers. Injector 



SCOURING AND BLEACHING OF COTTON. 



31 



kiers consist of a hollow, upright iron cylinder made of plates 
riveted together ; the top is made to lift off, but can be 




Fig. 4. — Mather & Piatt's Low-pressure Bleaching Kier. 

fastened down tightly by means of bolts and nuts as shown 
in the drawing. From the bottom, and placed centrally, 
rises a pipe, known as the puffer pipe ; this terminates at the 



32 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

top in a rose arrangement. The lower end of the pipe is 
perforated. A jet of steam is sent in at the bottom of this 
pipe, and by its force any hquor at the bottom of the kier is 
forced up the puffer pipe and distributed in a spray over any 
goods which may be in the kier. The Hquor ultimately finds 
its way to the bottom of the kier ready to be blown up again. 
This circulation of the liquor can be maintained for any 
length of time and through its agency every part of the 
goods gets thorough and effectual treatment. 

The length of the boil depends upon the kiers : with the 
open kier about ten hours are usually given, with the Barlow 
and injector kiers, working at a pressure of 40 lb. to 50 lb., 
six to seven hours are given. 

(5) Lime or Grey Sour. — After the hme boil, the next 
operation is that of the lime sour or grey sour as it is often 
called to distinguish it from a subsequent souring. The 
souring is done in a machine constructed in the same way 
as a washing machine ; the trough of the machine is filled 
with hydrochloric acid at 2° Tw., which is kept ready prepared 
in a stone cistern and run into the machine as required (it is 
not advisable to use acid stronger than this). After passing 
through the sour the goods are piled in a heap on the stillage 
for a few hours. The acid attacks the lime soap which was 
formed during the hme boil, decomposes it and dissolves out 
the lime with the formation of calcium chloride, while the 
fat of the soap is liberated, the former is washed away in the 
subsequent washing, while the latter remains to a large 
extent on the goods, and is removed by the lye boil that 
follows. Sulphuric acid is not so satisfactory to use for the 
lime sour as hydrochloric acid, because it forms with the 
lime the insoluble sulphate of calcium, which is difficult to 
entirely remove from the goods, whereas the chloride is very 
soluble and is entirely eliminated from the goods by the 
washing that follows. 



SCOUEING AND BLEACHING OF COTTON. 33 

It is advisable to keep the acid at a uniform strength in 
the machine. The Twaddell is here of no use as an indi- 
cator of the actual strength, because the hme which the acid 
dissolves, v^hile it neutralises and reduces the strength of 
the acid, actually raises the Twaddell, under which circum- 
stance the only safe method is a chemical test. This can 
be carried out very simply and with a sufficient degree of 
accuracy by the workmen, and if it be done at regular in- 
tervals during the souring, and the supply of the fresh acid 
be regulated, the sour will be kept at a more uniform strength 
and more uniform results will be obtained than if the souring 
were done in a more empirical fashion. The test is best and 
most easily done as follows : — 

Prepare a solution of 1 oz. of the powdered high strength 
98 per cent, caustic soda in 1 pint of water, weighing and 
measuring these quantities very carefully. Now take a tall, 
narrow, white bottle of about 5 oz. capacity and make a. 
mark on the neck. Fill tliis bottle with the test solution. 

Now take exactly o ozs. of freshly prepared sour of 
2° Tw., pour into a jar, and add carefully some of the soda- 
test solution until a piece of cloth dyed with turmeric is 
turned brown, wdien the acid is neutrahsed. Now make a 
mark on the bottle of soda to show how much has been used. 
In all subsequent tests of the sour 5 ozs. should always take 
the same quantity of soda solution ; if it takes less it is too 
weak, if more it is too strong; the remedy in each case is 
obvious. It is worth while to graduate the test bottle for 
1°, 3°, 4°, 5° Twaddell, as well as for 2° Tw. acid. 

After the souring it is often the custom to pile the goods 

on to a wooden stillage, but the goods should not be left too 

long so piled up for they may become dry, either entirely or 

in parts. In any case, as the goods dry the acid becomes 

concentrated and attacks them and makes them tender, 

which is not at all desirable. Therefore, if it is not convenietn 

3 



34 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

to proceed with them for some time after souring, they 
should be moistened with water from time to time, but it is 
best to wash them off' at once, whereby they are made ready 
for the next operation. 

(6) Lye Boil.— This is, perhaps, the most important opera- 
tion in the whole process of bleaching, especially if the 
cloths are going to be printed in the so-called madder 
style with alizarine colours, or otherwise stains are liable 
to occur in the final stage, and it is then sometimes difficult 
to put the blame for these upon the right shoulders. 

In principle the lye boil is simple, consisting in boiling 
the goods with a solution of soda ash, or caustic soda. The 
quantity of ash used varies in different works, as might 
naturally be expected ; from 170 lb. to 200 lb. of ash to 10,000 
lb. of cloth is a fair proportion to use. The length of boil 
averages about four hours, certainly not less than three 
should be given, and it is not necessary to give more than 
five hours in either ordinary kiers, with central puffer pipe, 
or in injector kiers. 

Care should be taken to see that the goods are well 
packed into the kiers, not too tightly or the lye will fail to 
penetrate equally all through, and this is important if a 
uniform bleach is desired ; neither should they be too loose, 
or they will float about and get torn. It is not necessary 
to be particular about the quantity of water used, except 
that it must be sufficient to keep the goods well covered, 
and still have enough to keep the circulation energetic. When 
the v/ater is not sufficient in amount the goods get some- 
what dry ; there is then a liability to tendering, but with 
plenty of water there is no fear of any damage being done 
during a boil with alkali. Some works use caustic soda 
instead of soda ash in which casa less is required, from 120 lb. 
to 150 lb. to 10,000 lb. of cloth, otherwise no alteration is 
made in the mode of boiling. 



SCOURING AND BLEACHING OF COTTON. 35 

This lye boil clears away the fatty and waxy matter left 
in the goods after the Hme sour, and thus prepares the way 
for the next boil. There is no advantage in using caustic 
soda in this preliminary boil, soda ash being just as effective 
and cheaper. 

(7) Resin Boil. — Following the lye boil is the resin boil 
which consists in boiling the goods in a resin soap liquor. 
This is made as follows : a soda ash hquor of about 15° 
to 20° Tw. is prepared, and into this is thrown resin, broken 
up into small pieces. 

The whole is boiled up until the resin is dissolved, and 
then as much more is added in small quantities as the alkali 
w^ill take up. The soda liquor should not be much weaker than 
20° Tw., it will then be heavier than the resin which will 
float on the top, it is found to dissolve quicker and better 
than when the liquor is weak, in which case, the resin would 
sink to the bottom of the boiler and would there melt into 
a single mass difficult to dissolve. The resin soap Hquor 
when made is ready to be used. The proportions of resin 
and alkali used in the boil vary in different works, but, as 
a rule, the quantities for 10,000 lb. of goods are 430 lb. of 
58 per cent, soda ash, 180 lb. of resin, and 80 lb. of 70 per 
cent, caustic soda. Too much resin should be avoided, as 
it is found that with an excess the whites obtained are not 
nearly so good as when the right quantity is used ; on the 
other hand, too little acts much in the same way. It 
may be taken that from IJ to If per cent, of the weight of 
the goods is about the right proportion ; 1 per cent, being 
too httle, and 2 per cent, too much. The quantity of soda 
used should be rather more than twice that of the resin, 
from 3 J to 4 per cent. The length of boil is usually about 
twelve hours in a low-pressure kier ; in a high-pressure kier 
about seven hours is sufficient. 

What the special function of the resin is in this boil is 



36 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

not definitely known ; but experience, both on a large and 
small scale, proves that it is essential to obtaining a good 
white for alizarine printing ; without it, when the goods are 
dyed with alizarine after the mordants have been printed 
on, they frequently take a brown stain — w^ith the resin this 
never or but rarely happens. 

(8) Wash. — After the lye boils the goods must be washed, 
and it is important that this be done in as thorough a 
manner as possible. With the object of accomplishing this 
most thoroughly many washing machines have been invented, 
the main idea in all being to bring every part of the goods 
into contact with as much water as possible. Bridson's is 
an old form, and a very good one, the principle of this 
machine is to cause the cloth to pass to and fro, and to flap 
upon the surface of the water in the trough of the machine. 

J^'urnival's square beater w^orks on much the same prin- 
ciple, and does its work effectively. More modern washing 
machines are those of Birch, Farmer, Mather & Piatt, and 
Hawthorne, where by the peculiar construction of the rollers 
and the use of beaters the cloth is very effectually washed. 
These machines are much more economical in the use of 
water 'than the older forms, and yet they do their work as 
well, if not better. 

(9) Chemicing. — This is the actual bleaching operation, 
familiarly known as " chemicing," that is, the treatment of 
the goods with bleaching powder. The previous operations 
have resulted in obtaining a cloth free from grease, natural 
or acquired, and from other impurities, but it still has a 
slight! brownish colour. This has to be removed before the 
goods can be considered a good white, which it is the aim 
of every bleacher they should be. 

To get rid of this colour they are subjected to some final 
operations, the first of which is now to be considered. The 
chemicing consists in running the goods through a weak 



SCOURING AND BLEACHING OF COTTON. 37 

solution of bleaching powder (chloride of lime), piling the 
goods up into heaps, and allowing them to lie overnight, 
the next day they are finished. As the cloth has received, 
or ought to have received, a thorough bottoming, only a 
weak bath of chemic is required, about i to 1° Tw. is quite 
sufficient. The solution is prepared in a stone cistern. 
There is very little difficulty in making it, the only pre- 
caution necessary is to have the solution quite clear and 
free from undissolved particles, for if these get upon the 
cloth they will either lead to the production of minute 
holes, or they may overbleach the fibre, which in such case 
will have the power of attracting excess of colour in any 
subsequent dyeing process and thus lead to stains, the origin 
of which may not be readily grasped at the first sight. 

It is best, therefore, either to allow the solution to settle 
in the cistern till quite clear, which is the snnplest way, or to 
filter through cloth. 

The chemicing is best done cold and with weak solution, 
at ^"^ Tw. rather than 1° Tw. Warming the liquor increases 
the rapidity of the bleaching action, but there is a risk of 
over-chloring, which must be avoided as far as possible, 
because there is then danger of tendering the fibre, moreover, 
such over-chlored cloth has an affinity for colouring matters 
that is not at all desirable, as it leads to the production 
of stains and patches in the dyeing operations. It is much 
better, when a single chemicing does not bleach the cloth 
sufficiently and give a white, to run the cloth twice through 
a weak liquor rather than once through a strong liquor. 

Although the chemicing is followed by a sour, which, 
acting on the bleaching powder, liberates chlorine that 
bleaches the fabric, yet the greatest proportion of the 
bleaching effect is brought about while the pieces are being 
piled up into heaps between the chemicing and the sour. 
In this state they should be left for some hours, covered 



38 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

over with a damp sheet, care being taken that they are not 
left piled so long as to become dry, as in this event there 
is a great risk of tendering the cloth or fabric ; it is, therefore, 
a good plan to moisten them with a little water from time to 
time. They should not be tightly piled up, but be as loose 
as possible, so that the air can get to them, as it is the 
carbonic acid and other acid vapours in the air, that by 
acting on the chemic causes slow liberation of chlorine, 
which effects the bleaching of the goods. 

(10) White Sour. — After the cheraicing the goods are 
treated to a sour, for which purpose either hydrochloric acid 
or sulphuric acid may be used. 

Hydrochloric acid possesses the advantage of forming 
a more soluble salt of lime (calcium chloride) than does 
sulphuric acid (calcium sulphate), and it has a more solvent 
action upon any traces of iron and other metallic oxide 
stains which may be present in the goods. On the other 
hand, on account of its fuming properties, it is unpleasant 
to work with. The souring is done by passing the goods 
through an acid liquor at 2° Tw. strong and piling for two 
or three hours, after which it is washed. This final washing 
must be thorough, so that all traces of acid and chemic 
are washed out, otherwise there is a tendency for the goods 
to acquire a yellowish colouration. 

So far the routine has been described of the so-called 
madder bleach, the most perfect kind of bleach applied to 
cotton cloths. Besides this two other kinds of bleach are 
distinguished in the trade. Turkey red and market bleadh. 
The former is used when the cloth or yarn is to be dyed 
plain or self-coloured with delicate shades with Alizarine ; 
the latter is used for cloth sold in the white. As the opera- 
tions involved in producing these are identical in their 
method of manipulation to those already described, it will only 
be necessary to give an outline of the process for each one. 



SCOURING AND BLEACHINd OF COTTON. 39 

Turkey Red Bleach. — (1) Kinse through water into a kier 
and boil for two hours. (2) Lime boil for three to four 
hours. The amount of hnie required is rather less than 
what is used with the madder bleach, from 2h lb. to 3 lb. 
lime to each 1 cwt. of goods being quite sufficient. (3) Sour- 
ing as in the madder bleach. (4) Lye boil, using about 100 lb. 
caustic soda to a ton of goods, and giving ten hours' boil^ 
(5) Second lye boil using about 50 lb. soda ash to a ton of 
goods, after w^hich the goods are well washed. (6) Chemic- 
ing as with the madder bleach. (7) Souring as with the 
madder bleach, then washing well. 

This represents an average process, but almost every 
bleacher has his own methods, differing from the above in 
some of the details and this applies to all bleaching processes. 
It is obvious that the details may be varied to a great extent 
without changing the principles on which the process depends. 

Market Bleach. — Here ah that requires to be done is to 
get the cloth of a sufficient degree of whiteness to please the 
eye of the customer. Market bleachers have, however, to 
deal with a wider range of goods than is dealt with in the 
former kinds of bleaches, from very fine muslins to very 
heavy sheetings. Now it is obvious from a merely me- 
chanical point of view, that the former could not stand as 
rough a process as the latter, therefore there must be some 
differences in the details of muslin bleaching and sheeting 
bleaching. Then again with goods sold in the white, it is 
customary to weave coloured headings or markings, and as 
these have to be preserved, to do so will cause some slight 
alteration of the details of the bleach with this object. On 
all these points it is difficult to lay down general rules 
because of the very varying feature of the conditions which 
are met with by the market bleacher. 

The resin boil may be omitted, only two lye boils being 
required, and these need not be so long or of such a searching 



40 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABEICS. 

character as the corresponding boils of the madder bleach. 
Outlines of two or three such processes, which are now in 
use in bleachworks, will serve to show the general routine 
of a market bleach. The proportions given are calculated 
for 10,000 lb. of goods :— 

(1) Lime boil, using 500 lb. of lime, and giving a twelve- 
hours' boil. 

(2) Grey sour, hydrochloric acid of 2° Tw., then wash 
w^ell. 

(3) Lye boil, 100 lb. caustic soda, 70 per cent, solid, ten 
to twelve hours' boil ; wash. 

(4) Second lye boil, 100 lb., 58 per cent, soda ash, 
twelve-hours' boil. 

(5) Chemic, bleaching powder liquor at 1 ° Tw., boil for 
three hours ; wash. 

(6) White sour, sulphuric acid at 2 ° Tw. ; wash well. 
The length of boil w^ith the lime and lyes will depend 

upon the quality of the goods, heavy goods will require from 
two to three hours longer than will light goods, such as 
cambrics, the time given above being that for heavy goods, 
sheetings, etc. 

Another process is the following : — 

(1) Lime boil, using 480 lb. Hme, and boiHng for ten hours. 

(2) Grey sour, hydrochloric acid at 2 ° Tw. ; wash. 

(3) Lye boil, 300 lb. soda ash, 58 per cent. ; 50 lb. 
caustic soda, 70 per cent., and 30 lb. soft soap, giving ten 
hours' boil ; wash. 

(4) Chemic as above. 

(5) White sour as above ; wash well. 

A smaller quantity of lime is used here, but on the other 
hand the lye boil is a stronger one. This process gives good 
results. Some bleachers do not use lime in their market 
bleaches, but give two lye boils, in which case the process 
becomes : — 



SCOUEING AND BLEACHING OF COTTON. 41 

(1) Lye boil, using 140 lb. caustic soda, of 70 per cent., 
-giving ten hours' boil and washnig well. 

(2) Second lye boil, using 120 lb. soda ash, 58 per 
cent., and giving ten hours' boil ; wash. 

(3) Chemic as above. 

(4) White sour as above ; wash well. 

Light fabrics, such as laces, lace curtains, inuslins, etc., 
cannot stand the strain of the continuous process, and they 
are therefore subjected to a different bleaching process, which 
varies much at different bleach works. One method is to 
lime by steeping for an hour in a weak lime liquor, using 
about 2 lb. of hme to 100 lb. of goods ; they are then boiled in 
the kier for eight hours, after which they are washed. This 
washing is done in w4iat are called dash w4ieels, large hollow^ 
wheels, the interior of each being divided into four compart- 
ments. Into these the goods are put, and the wheel is caused 
to revolve, while at the same time a current of water flows 
with some force into the interior of the wheel and washes the 
goods. 

The wheels do their work well, and the action being 
gentle the finest fabrics can be washed without fear of any 
damage. It is necessary that the speed at which they are 
driven should be such that as the wheel revolves the goods 
are thrown from side to side of each compartment ; if the 
speed be too slow they will simply slide down, and then they 
do not get properly washed ; on the other hand, if the speed 
be too great then centrifugal action comes into play and the 
goods remain in a stationary position in the wheels with the 
same result. As to the amount of washing, it should be as 
before. iVfter this washing they are boiled again in the kier 
with soda ash, using about 8 lb. ash for 100 lb. goods and 
giving seven hours' boil, wliich, after washing, is follow^ed by 
a second boil with 5 lb. ash and 4 lb. soft soap for each 100 lb. 
of goods, giving eight hours' boil. They are then washed and 



42 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

entered into the cheniic. The chemicing is done in stone- 
cisterns, which are fitted with false bottoms, on which the 
goods can rest, and which allow any insoluble particles of 
bleaching powder to settle out and prevent them from getting 
on the goods. The liquor is used at the strength of about 
r Tw., and the goods are allowed to steep about two hours ; 
they are then placed in a hydro-extractor and the surplus 
chemic is whizzed out, after which they are steeped in sour of 
hydrochloric acid at 1° Tw., kept in a stone cistern, the goods 
being allowed to steep for two hours. Next they are washed, 
well whizzed, passed through a blueing water, whizzed again, 
and dried. The remarks made when describing similar opera- 
tions of the madder bleach as to the action, testing, etc., of the 
chemicals, are equally applicable here. 

Another plan of bleaching fine fabrics is shown in outline 
in the following scheme : — 

(1) Wash ; boil in water for two hours. 

(2) Boil in soda for five hours, using 80 lb. soda ash of 58 
per cent., and 30 lb. soft soap for 1,000 lb. of goods. 

(3) Second soda boil, using from 40 lb. to 50 lb. soda ash, 
and 15 lb. to 20 lb. soft soap, giving four hours' boil ; after 
each soda boil the goods should be washed. 

(4) Chemic, using bleaching powder liquor at J° Tw., allow- 
ing them to steep for two hours, then wash and whiz. 

(5) White sour, using hydrochloric acid at 2° Tw., steeping 
two hours ; wash. 

A further extension of the same process is sometimes 
given for the best goods, which consists, after the above,, 
in giving : — 

(6) A third soda boil, using 25 lb. to 30 lb. soda ash and 
15 lb. to 20 lb. soft soap, giving one hour's boil ; washing. 

(7) Chemic as before. 

(8) Sour as before, after which the goods are well washed. 
In the bleaching of Nottingham lace curtains for the soda 



SCOURING AND BLEACHING OF COTTON. 4B 

boils there is used what is called the " dolly," which consists 
of a large round wooden tub about 5 feet to 6 feet in diameter 
and about 2 feet (3 inches to 3 feet deep ; this is made to 
revolve slowly at about one revolution per minute. Above 
the tub on a strong frame are arranged four stampers or 
beaters, which are caused to rise and fall by means of cams. 
The goods are placed in the tub with the scouring liquors and 
the dolly is set in motion, the beaters force the liquor into the 
goods, and the revolution of the tub causes the beaters to 
work on a fresh portion of the goods at every fall. 

This is rather an old-fashioned form of machine, and is 
being replaced by more modern forms of boiling kiers. In 
bleaching certain kinds of muslins in which the warp threads 
are double, and in the case of lace curtains, it is necessary to 
endeavour to keep the threads as open and prominent as 
possible. This cannot be done with the continuous process, 
which puts a strain on the threads and thus effaces their 
individuality. To avoid this the fabrics have to be dealt 
with in bundles or lumps, and on these no strain is put, 
therefore every thread retains its individuality. The process 
above described is a.pphcable. 

Yarn Bleaching. — Yarn is supplied to the bleacher in two 
forms : (1) warps in which the length of the threads may 
vary from as little as 50 to as much as 5,000 yards ; these 
can be dealt with in much the same manner as a piece of 
cloth, that is, a continuous system can be adopted; (2) 
hanks, which are too well known to require description. 
Sometimes yarn is bleached in the form of cops, but as the 
results of cop bleaching are not very satisfactory it is done 
as little as possible. 

Warp Bleaching. — The warp, if very long, is doubled two, 
three or four times upon itself, so as to reduce its length. 
Care should be taken that the ends of the warp are tied 
together to prevent any chance of entangling, which would 



44 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

very likely happen if the ends were left loose to float about. 
As a rule, warps are not limed, but the adoption of the 
liming would assist the bleaching. In outline warp bleach- 
ing consists of the following operations : — 

(1) Lye boil, using 30 lb. caustic soda, 70 per cent., and 
50 lb. soda ash, 58 per cent., giving six hours' boil, and 
washing. 

(2) Sweeting, boil with 30 lb. soda ash, 58 per cent., for 
two hours. 

(3) Washing. 

(4) Chemicing, bleaching powder liquor at 1° Tw., washing. 

(5) Sour, sulphuric acid at 2° Tw^. w^ashing well. 

(6) Hydro extracting and drying. 

About 2,000 to 3,000 lb. of warps are usually treated at 
■one time. 

The machinery used may be the same as that used in 
the cloth bleach, and each operation may be conducted in the 
same manner. In some warp bleachworks, while the kiers 
^re made in the same way, the other machines are made 
differently. The chemicing and souring is done in strong 
cisterns provided with a false bottom ; in these the w^arps are 
allowed to remain for about two hours. A more comphcated 
form of chemicing cistern is also in use. This is made of 
stone, and is provided wdth a false bottom. Above is a tank 
or sieve, as it is called, having a perforated bottom through 
which the liquor flows on the warp in the cistern below. 

Under the chemicing cistern is a tank into which the 
liquor flows, and from which it is pumped up into the sieve 
above. A circulation of liquor is thus kept up during the 
whole of the operation. Owing to the action of the cheniic 
or acid on the metal work of the pump there is great wear 
and tear of the latter, necessitating frequent repairs. This 
is a defect in this form of chemicing machine. For drying 
the warps a hydro-extractor is first used to get the surplus 



SCOURING AND BLEACHING OF COTTON. 45 

liquor from the goods. This machine is now well known, and 
is in use in every bleachworks, where it is familiarly known 
as the "whiz," and the operation is generally called whizzing. 
Hydro-extractors are described under the head of " Dyeing 
Machinery ". 

The actual drying of the warps is done over the *'tins" 
as they are called. These are a number of large cylinders 
measuring about 20 inches in diameter and about — for warp 
drying — 5 feet long. Usually they are arranged vertically in 
two tiers, each tier consisting of about five cylinders, not 
arranged directly one above another but in a zig-zag manner^ 
the centres of the first, third and fifth being in one line, and 
the centres of the others in another line. The cylinders are 
made to revolve by suitable driving mechanism, and into them 
is sent steam at about 5 lb. to 10 lb. pressure, which heats 
up the cylinders, whereby the warp passing over them is dried. 
This drying may be partial or complete, being regulated by 
the speed at which the warps pass over the cylinders and by 
the quantity of steam passed into the same. The quicker the 
speed and the smaller the amount of steam, the less the 
warps are dried; while, on the other hand, the slower the 
speed and the larger the amount and greater the pressure of 
the steam, the quicker and more thoroughly are the w^arps 
dried. As there is a great deal of water formed in the cylinders 
by the condensation of the steam, means are always provided 
for carrying off this water, as its retention in the cylinders 
often leads to serious results and damage to the machine. 

Hank Bleaching. — So far as the chemical part of hank 
bleaching is concerned it does not differ from that of warp 
bleaching ; the same operations and proportions of chemicals 
may be used and in the same order, but there is some differ- 
ence in the machiner}^ which is used. The hanks may be 
manipulated in two w- ays : they may be either kept in separate 
hanks, which is the method mostly in vogue in modern bleach- 



46 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABEICS. 

houses, or they may be hnked together in the form of a chain. 
In the latter case the operations and the machinery may be 
the same as used in the madder bleach, with a few unimpor- 
tant minor differences. In the final washing the dumping 
machine is used, which consists of two wooden bowls set 
over a wooden trough containing the wash waters. The top 
bowl is covered with a thick layer of rope and merely rests 
on the bottom bowl by its own weight, and is driven by 
friction from the latter. The chain of hanks passing through 
between the two bowls has the surplus liquor squeezed out 
of it, and as there is considerable increase in the thickness 
at the points of linkage between the hanks, when these pass 
through the bowds they Hft up the top bowl, which, when the 
thick places have passed through, falls down with a sudden 
bump upon the thin places, and this bumping drives out all 
the surplus liquor and drives the hquor itself into the very 
centre of the hanks, which is sometimes an advantage. 

In modern bleach-houses the chain form is gradually 
giving place to the method of bleaching separate hanks, 
partly because so many improvements have been made in 
the hank-bleaching machinery of late years, which enables 
bleachers to handle the yarn in the form of separate hanks 
better than they could do formerly ; and as bleaching in 
separate hanks means that the cotton is kept in a more open 
form, and is thus more easily penetrated by the various liquors 
wdiich are used, it follows that the bleach will be better and 
more thorough, which is wdiat the bleacher aims at. At 
the same time weaker liquors or, what is the same thing, less 
material can be used, which means a saving in the cost of 
the process. For bleaching yarn in the hank the following 
process may be followed with good results : — 

(1) Lye boil, using 1,000 lb. yarn, 40 lb. caustic soda of 
70 per cent., and 50 lb. of soda ash of 58 per cent., giving five 
to six hours' boil at low pressure. 



SCOURING AND BLEACHING OF COTTON. 47 

(2) Wash through washing machine. 

(3) Second lye boil, using 40 lb. soda ash of 58 per cent., 
and giving two to three hours' boil, wash again through a 
washing machine. 

(4) Chemic as in warp bleaching. 

(5) Sour as in warp bleaching. 

(6) Wash well. 

(7) Hydro extract and dry. 

Sometimes, if the yarn is to be sold in thread form, 
before the last operation it passes through another, viz., 
treating with soap and blue liquors, which will be dealt with 
presently. 

The lye boils are done in the ordinary kiers, and do not 
call for further notice, except that in filling the goods into 
the kiers care should be taken that while sufficiently loose to 
permit of the alkaline liquors penetrating through the hanks 
properly, yet they should be so packed that they will not 
float about and thus become entangled and damaged. 

The washing is nowadays done in a special form of 
washing machine, designed to wash the hanks quickly and 
well with as little expenditure of labour and washing liquor 
as possible. There are now several makes of these washing 
machines on the market, most of them do their work well, 
and it is difficult to say which is the best. Some machines 
are made to wash only one bundle at once, while others will 
do several bundles. Generally the principle on which they 
are constructed is the same in all, a trough contaming the 
ash hquor, over which is suspended a revolving reel or bobbin, 
usually made of wood or enamelled iron, the bobbin being 
polygonal in form so that it will overcome readily any re- 
sistance the yarn may offer and carry the hank round as it 
revolves. The hank dips into the wash liquor in the trough, 
and as it is drawn through by the revolution of the bobbin it 
is washed very effectually. The moving of the hank opens 



48 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

ont the threads, and thus the wash Hquor thoroughly pene- 
trates to every part of the hank, so that a few minutes' run 
through this machine thoroughly washes the yarn. A con- 
stant stream of clean water is passed through the trough. 
This machine may also be used for soaping and sizing the 
hanks if required. By extending the trough in a horizontal 
direction, and increasing the number of reels or bobbins, the 
quantity of material that can be washed at one time can be 
extended, although not to an indefinite extent. The workman 
can start at one end of the machine and fill all the bobbins 
with yarn, by the time he has finished this the first bobbinful 
will have been washed sufficiently and can be taken off and 
replaced with another quantity of yarn, and thus one by one 
the bobbins may be emptied and refilled, w^hich means that a 
considerable amount of material can be got through in the 
course of a day. To avoid the labour of walking to and fro 
to fill and refill the bobbins, washing machines are constructed 
in which the trough is made in a circular form. The bobbins 
are placed at the ends of radial arms which are caused to 
revolve round over the trough, the workman is stationed 
constantly at one part of the circle, and as the arms pass 
him in their motion round the trough he takes off the w^ashed 
hanks and puts on the unwashed hanks. By this machine 
he is saved a very considerable amount of labour, and is able 
to do his work in a more convenient manner. The yarn is 
well washed in such a machine. The trough may be entire 
or it may be divided into a number of compartments, each 
of which may contain a different kind of wash liquor if neces- 
sary. Of course it goes almost without saying that in all 
these machines the liquors in them may be heated up by 
means of steam pipes if required. 

The chemicing and souring of the hanks does not call for 
special mention, beyond the fact that these operations are 
done in the same manner as warp bleaching. In Fig. 5 is 



SCOURING AND BLEACHING OF COTTON. 



49 



shown Mather & Piatt's yarn-bleaching kier, which is designed 
to bleach cotton yarn, either in hanks or in the warp 
forms, without removing it from the vessel into which it is 
first placed. The process is as follows : The hot alkah 
solution is circulated by means of a distributing pipe through 




Fig. 5.— Mather & Piatt's Yarn-bleaching Kier. 

the action of an injector or centrifugal pump to scour the 
yarn ; then water is circulated by means of a centrifugal 
pump for washing. The chemic and sour liquors are circu- 
lated also by means of pumps, so that without the slightest 
disturbance to the yarn it is quickly and economically 
bleached. 



50 the dyeing of cotton fabrics. 

Stains and Damages in Bleached Goods. 

Some of the stains in bleached goods which are met are 
beyond the control of the bleacher to avoid, while others 
are due to various defects in the process. Now the subject 
of stains can onl}^ be dealt with in a very general way, 
because of the varying manner in which they arise. The 
recognition of the particular way in which the stains have 
been formed is sometimes difficult to discover. First, there 
are iron stains, which are the most connnon kind of stains 
that a bleacher is troubled with. These generally make 
their appearance in the form of red spots of greater or 
less extent. As a rule they are not visible before the pieces 
are fully bleached. Their origin is varied. Sometimes they 
arise from the machinery; if the kiers are not kept thoroughly 
whitewashed out, there is a great liabihty to produce iron 
stains. Every other machine which is used in the process 
is made of iron, and should be kept free from rust, or the 
chances of stains are considerably increased. The water 
used in the bleaching must be free from iron. A small trace 
will not make much difference, but some waters contain 
a great deal of iron, so much so that they are absolutely 
unusable for bleaching purposes. Iron stains are often due 
to a very curious cause : the dropping of the oil used in 
the spinning or weaving machinery on to the cotton during 
the process of manufacture. This oil is often charged with 
iron derived from the wear and tear of the machinery, and 
which often gets fixed in the form of red spots of oxide on 
the fibre. Iron stains cannot readily be extracted. 

Oil stains are also common. These take the form of 
bright yellow stains in various shapes, sometimes extending 
along the piece in streaks, at other times in patches in 
various places about the piece. Generally these oil stains 
do not make their appearance as soon as the piece is bleached. 



SCOURING AND BLEACHING OF COTTON. 51 

and often the bleacher sends out his goods quite white and 
apparently all right, and yet soon afterwards comes a com- 
plaint that the goods are stained yellow. One cause of these 
3^ellow oil stains can be traced to the use of paraffin wax 
in the sizing of the warps. In this case the stains are more 
or less streaky in form, and extend along the length of the 
piece. They are due to the fact that paraffin wax is not 
saponifiable by the action of the alkalies used in the pro- 
cess, and is therefore not extracted. When the goods are 
chemiced the chlorine acts upon the paraffin and forms 
chlorine compounds, which are acted upon by light, and 
turn yellow by exposure to that agent and to the atmos- 
phere. Paraffin, when used for the sizing of warps, may 
sometimes be completely extracted from the fabric, but 
this depends upon the proportion of tallow or other fat 
w4iich is used in the composition of the sizing grease. 
If the paraftin is only present in small quantities, and the 
grease well mixed, then it may be possible to extract all 
the paraftin out of the fabric during the bleaching process, 
but if the paraffin is in large proportion, or the grease not 
well mixed, it is scarcely possible to extract it all out, and 
stains must be the result. These stains can hardly be 
considered the fault of the bleacher, but are due to the 
manufacturer of the cloth using cheap sizing compositions on 
his warps. There are no means which can be adopted before 
bleaching to ascertain whether paraffin exists in the cloth. If 
found to be present, the remedy which is the easiest practi- 
cally is to saturate the cloth w^ith a little olive oil, or better, 
pale oleic acid. Allow the fatty matter to soak well in, and 
then boil the goods in a little caustic soda. Another cause of 
oil stains is the use of mineral oils in the lubrication of 
cotton machinery. These mineral oils partake of the nature 
of paraffin in their properties, and therefore they are un- 
saponifiable by the action of alkalies. Like paraffin wax? 



52 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABEICS. 

they resist the bleaching process, and much in the same 
manner produce stains. Oil stains show themselves in 
various forms — sometimes as spots. These may be due to 
the splashing of oil from the spindles during the process 
of spinning, or they may be in patches of a comparatively 
large size over the pieces. 

These are perhaps due to the oil dropping on to the piece 
during the process of v^eaving v^hen in the loom. The oils 
used for the lubrication of spinning and weaving machinery 
should contain a fair proportion of some fatty oil, such as 
olive or rape or cocoanut oil. Not less than 10 per cent, 
should be used. More would be better, but the cost of 
course would be greater and oil is an item with spinners 
and manufacturers. 

Stains are occasionally due to other causes rather too 
numerous to be dealt with in detail, and sometimes these, 
stains only appear once in a lifetime, and often do not make 
their appearance during the bleaching process, but only in 
after dyeing or calico printing processes in curious ways the 
causes of which are very baffimg to find out. 



CHAPTER III. 

DYEING MACHINERY AND DYEING MANIPULATIONS. 

Cotton is dyed in a variety of forms : raw, loose cotton, 
partly manufactured fibre in the form of slubbing or sliver, 
spun fibres or yarns wound in cop or bobbin forms, in hanks 
or skeins and in warps, and lastly in the form of woven 
pieces. These different forms necessitate the employment of 
different forms of machinery and different modes of handling ; 
it is evident to the least unobservant that it would be quite 
impossible to subject slubbing or sliver to the same treatment 
as yarn or cloth, otherwise the slubbing would be destroyed 
and rendered valueless. 

In the early days all dyeing was done by hand in the 
simplest possible contrivances, but during the last quarter of 
a century there has been a great development in the quantity 
of dyeing that has been done, and this has really necessitated 
the application of machinery, for hand work could not 
possibly cope with the amount of dyeing now done. Conse- 
quently there has been devised during the past two decades 
a great variety of machines for dyeing every description of 
textile fabrics, some have not been found a practical success 
for a variety of reasons and have gone out of use, others 
have been successful and are in use in dye-works. 

Hand Dyeing. 

Dyeing by hand is carried on in the simplest possible 
appliances ; much depends upon whether the work can be 



54 



THE DYEING OF COTTON FABEICS. 



done at the ordinary temperature or at the boil. Figs. 6 
and 7 show respectively a rectangular vat and a round tub 
much in use in dye-houses. These are made of wood, but 




Fig. 6. — Rectangular Dye-tank. 

copper dye-vats are also made. These may be used for all 
kinds of material, loose fibre, yarns or cloth. In the case of 




Fig. 7. — Round Dye-tub. 

loose fibre this is stirred about either with poles or with 
rakes, care being taken to turn every part over and over and 
open out the masses of fibre as much as possible in order to 



DYEING MACHINEKY AND DYEING MANIPULATIONS. 55 

avoid matting or clotting together. In the case of yarns or 
skeins, these are hung on sticks resting on the edges of the 
tub or vat. These sticks are best made of hickory, but ash 
or beech or any hard v^ood that can be v^orked smooth and 
v^hich does not sw^ell much v^hen treated with v^ater may be 
used. The usual method of working is to hang the skein 
on the stick, spreading it out as much as possible, then 
immerse the yarn in the liquor, lift it up and down two or 
three times to fully wet out the yarn, then turn the yarn 
over on the stick and repeat the dipping processes, then 
allow to steep in the dye-liquor. This is done w^ith the 
batch of yarn that is to be dyed at a time. When all the 
yarn has been entered into the dye-bath, the first stickful 
is lifted out, the yarn turned over and re-entered in the dye- 
liquor, this operation is carried out with all the sticks of 
yarn until the cotton has become dyed of the required depth. 
In the case of long rectangular vats it is customary for two 
men, one on each side of the vat to turn the yarns, each man 
taking charge of the yarn which is nearest to him. The 
turning over one lot of yarn is technically called '' one turn " 
and the dyer often gives "three turns" or ''four turns" as 
may be required. 

Woven goods may be dyed in the tub or vat, the pieces 
being drawn in and out by poles, but the results are not 
altogether satisfactory and it is preferable to use machines 
for dyeing piece goods. 

Plain tubs or vats, such as those shown in Figs. 6 and 
7, are used for dyeing, and otherwise treating goods in the 
cold, or at a lukew^arm heat, w^hen the supply of hot water 
can be drawn from a separate boiler. Wlien, however, it 
is necessary to work at the boil, then the vat must be fitted 
with a steam coil. This is best laid along the bottom in 
a serpentine form. Above the pipe should be an open lattice- 
work bottom, which, while it permits the free circulation 



56 



THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 



of boiling water in the vat, prevents the material being dyed 
from coming in contact with the steam pipe. This is im- 
portant if uniform shades are to be dyed, for any excessive 
heating of any portion of the bath leads to stains being 
produced on the material in that part of the bath. Fig. 8 
shows a vat fitted with a steam pipe. That portion of the 
steam pipe which passes down at the end of the vat is in 
a small compartment boxed off from the main body of the 




Fig. 8. — Section of Dye-vat. 



vat, so that . no part of the material which is being dyed 
can come in contact with it. A closed steam coil will, on 
the whole, give the best results, as then no weakening of 
the dye -liquor can take place through dilution by the 
condensation of the steam. Many dye-vats are, however, 
fitted with perforated, or, as they are called, open steam 
coils, in which case there is, perhaps, better circulation of 
the liquor in the dj^e-vat, but as some of the steam must 



DYEING MACHINEEY AND DYEING MANIPULATIONS. 57 

condense, there is a little dilution of the dye-liquor in the 
vat. 

Dyeing Machines. 

Dye tubs and vats, such as those described above, have 
been largely superseded by machines in which the hand- 
ling, or working of the materials being dyed is effected by 
mechanical means. There have been a large number of 
dyeing machines invented, some of these have not been 
found to be very practical, and so they have gone out of 
use. Space will not admit of a detailed account of every 
kind of machine, but only of those which are in constant 
use in dye-works. 

Dyeing Loose, or Raw Cotton. — Few machines have been 
designed for this purpose, and about the only successful 
one is 

Delahunty's Dyeing Machine. — This is illustrated in Fig. 
9. It consists of a drum made of lattice work, which can 
revolve inside an outer wooden casing. The interior of the 
revolving drum is fitted with hooks or fingers, whose action 
is to keep the material open. One segment of the drum is 
made to open, so that the loose cotton or wool to be dyed can 
be inserted. By suitable gearing the drum can be revolved ; 
and the dye-liquor, which is in the lower half of the wooden 
casing, penetrates through the lattice work of the drum, and 
dyes the material contained in it. The construction of the 
machine is well shown in the drawing, while the mode of 
working is obvious from it and the description just given. 
The machine is very successful, and well adapted for 
dyeing loose, or raw wool and cotton. The material may 
be scoured, bleached, dyed, or otherwise treated in this 
machine. 

The Obermaier machine, presently to be described, may 
also be used for dj^eing loose cotton or wool. 



58 the dyeing of cotton fabeics. 

Dyeing, Slubbing, Slivee oe Caeded Cotton and Wool. 

It is found in practice that the dyeing of loose wool or 
cotton is not altogether satisfactory — the impurities they 
naturally contain interfere with the purity of the shade they 
will take. Then again the dyes and mordants used in dye- 




Fig. 9. — Delahunty's Dyeing Machine. 

ing them are found to have some action on the wire of the 
carding engine through which they are passed ; at any rate a 
card does not last as long when working dyed cotton or wool 
as when used on undyed cotton or wool fibres. Yet for the 
production of certain fancy yarns for weaving some special 
classes of fabrics, it is desirable to dye the cotton or wool 



DYEING MACHINERY AND DYEING MANIPULATIONS. 



59 



before it is spun into thread. The best plan is undoubtedly 
to dye the fibre after it has been carded and partly spun into 
what is known as slubbing or sliver. All the impurities have 
been removed, the cotton fibres are laid straight, and so it 
becomes much easier to dye. On the other hand, as it is 
necessary to keep the sliver or slubbing straight and level, no 
working about in the dye-liquors can be allowed to take 
place, and so such must be dyed in specially constructed 




Fig. 10. — Obermaier Dyeing Machine. 



machines, and one of the best of these is the Obermaier 
dyeing machine w^hich is illustrated in Fig. 10. The Ober- 
maier apparatus consists of a dye vat A. In this is placed a 
cage consisting of an inner perforated metal cylinder C, and 
an outer perforated metal cylinder D, between these two is 
placed the material to be dyed. C is in contact with the 
suction end of a centrifugal pump P, the delivery end of 
which discharges into the dye-vat A. The working of the 
machine is as follows : The slubbing or sliver is placed in the 



60 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

space between C and D rather tightly so that it will not 
move about. Then the inner cage is placed in the dye-vat 
as shown. The vat is filled with the dye-hquor which can 
be heated up by a steam pipe. The pump is set in motion, 
the dye Hquor is drawn from A to C, and, in so doing, passes 
through the material packed in B and dyes it. The circula- 
tion of the liquor is carried on as long as experience shows 
to be necessary. The dye-liquor is run off, hot water is run 
in to wash the dyed material, and the pump is kept running 
for some time to ensure thorough rinsing ; then the water is 




Fig. 11. — Holliday's Yarn-dj^eing Machine. 

run off, and by keeping the pump running and air going 
through a certain amount of drying can be effected. This 
machine works very well, and, with a little experience, con- 
stant results can be obtained. The slubbing or sliver may 
be scoured, bleached, rinsed, dyed, washed, soaped, or other- 
wise treated without removing it from the machine, which is 
a most decided advantage. 

Holliday's Yarn-dyeing Machine. — In Fig. 11 is given 
an illustration of a machine for dyeing yarn in the hank 
form made by Messrs. Eead Holliday & Sons, of Hud- 
dersfield. The illustration gives a very good idea of the 



DYEING MACHINEEY AND DYEING MANIPULATIONS. 61 

machine. It consists of a wooden dye-vat which can be 
heated by steam pipes in the usual way. Extending over 
the vat are a number of reels or bobbins ; these are best 
made of wood or enamelled iron ; these reels are in connec- 
tion with suitable gearing so that they can be revolved. There 
is also an arrangement by means of which the reels can be 
lifted bodily in and out of the dye-vat for the purpose of 
taking on and off", " doffing," the hanks of yarn for the reels. 
A reel will hold about two pounds of yarn. The working of 
the machine is simple. The vat is filled with the requisite 
dye-liquor. The reels, which are lifted out of the vat, are 
then charged with the yarn, which has been previously whetted 
out. They are then set in revolution and dropped into the 
dye- vat and kept there until it is seen that the yarn has 
acquired the desired shade. The reels are lifted out and the 
hanks removed, when the machine is ready for another lot of 
yarn. 

There are several makes of hank-dyeing machines of this 
type, and as a rule they work very well. The only source of 
trouble is a slight tendency for the yarn on one reel if hung 
loosely of becoming entangled with the yarn on one of the 
other reels. This is to some extent obviated by hanging in 
the bottom of the hank a roller which acts as a w^eight and 
keeps the yarn stretched and so prevents it flying about. 

To some makes of these machines a hank wringer is 
attached. 

Klauder-Weldon Hank-dyeing Machine. — This is illus- 
trated in Fig. 12, which shows the latest form. This 
machine consists of a half-cylindrical dye-vat built of wood. 
On a central axis is built two discs or rod carriers which 
can revolve in the dye-vat, the revolution being given by 
suitable gearing, which is shown at the side of the machine. 
On the outer edge of the discs are clips for carrying rods, on 
which one end of the hanks of yarn is hung, while the other 



62 



THE DYEING OF COTTON FABEICS. 



end is placed on a similar rod carried near the axle. The 
revolution of the discs carries the yarn through the dye-hquor 
contained in the lower semi-cylindrical part of the machine 
previously alluded to. At a certain point, every revolution of 
the discs, the rods carrying the yarns are turned a httle ; this 




Fig. 12. — Klaucler-Weldou Dyeing Machine. 

causes the yarn to move on the rods, and this motion helps 
to bring about greater evenness of dyeing. The most modern 
form of this machine is provided with an arraiigement by 
means of which the whole batch of yarn can be lifted out of 
the dye-liquor. Arrangements are made by which from time 



DYEING MACHINEEY AND DYEING MANIPULATIONS. 63 

to time fresh quantities of dye can be added if required to 
bring up the dyed yarn to any desired shade. This machine 
works well and gives good results. Beyond the necessary 
labour in charging and discharging, and a little attention from 
time to time, as the operation proceeds, to see if the dyeing is 
coming up to shade, the machine requires little attention. 

Many other forms of hank-dyeing machines have been 
devised : there is Corron's, in which an ordinary rectangular 
dye-vat is used. Bound this is a framework which carries a 
lifting and falling arrangement that travels to and fro along 
the vat. The hanks of yarn are hung on rods of a special 
construction designed to open them out in a manner as nearly 
approaching handwork as is possible. The machine works 
in this way : the lifting arrangement is at one end of the vat, 
the hanks are hung on the rods and placed in the vat. Then 
the lifter is set in motion and moves along the vat ; as it does 
so it hfts up each rod full of yarn, turns it over, opening out 
the yarn in so doing, then it drops it again in the vat. When 
it has travelled to the end of the vat it returns, picking up the 
rods of yarn in so doing, and this motion is kept up until the 
dyeing is completed. This machine is very ingenious. 

A type of machine which has been made by several 
makers consists of an ordinary rectangular dye- vat sur- 
rounded with a framework carrying a number of sets of 
endless chains, the links of which carry fingers. The hanks 
of yarn are hung on rods at one end of which is a tooth 
wheel that when in position fits into a rack on the side of the 
vat. The action of the machine is this : the hanks are hung 
on the rods and placed at the entrance end of the vat, by the 
moving of the chains it is carried along the vat and at the 
same time revolves, thus turning over the yarn which hangs 
in the dye-liquor ; when it reaches the opposite end of the 
vat, the rod full of yarn is lifted out, carried upwards and 
then towards the other end of the vat when it is again 



64 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

dropped into the dye-vat to go through the same cycle of 
movements which is continued until the yarn is properly 
dyed. 

Cop Dyeing. 

In weaving fancy-coloured fabrics the ordinary mode 
is to dye the yarn in the hank form, then those which 
have to be used for the weft are wound into the cop form 
for placing in the shuttles. The cop form is that in which 
the yarn leaves the spinning frame, and necessarily apart 
from the dyeing there is labour involved in reeHng it into 
hanks and winding it back again into the cop form, not 
only so but there is necessarily some waste made in these 
operations. Many attempts have been made, w^ith more or 
less success, to dye the yarn while in the cop form and sa 
save the cost of the hanking and copping above referred to 
as well as the waste which occurs. Cops cannot be satis- 
factorily dyed by simple immersion in a boiHng dye-bath, the 
outside becomes dyed but the central portions as often as not 
remain quite white, and there is a distinct grading of colour 
or shade throughout the cop, the outer portions being deeply 
dyed while the middle portion will only have a medium 
shade and the central portions either not being dyed at all or 
only faintly tinted, much depending on the firmness with 
which the cop has been wound. A soft, loosely wound cop is 
much more thoroughly dyed than a hard, tightly wound cop. 
This uneven dyeing of the cops is not satisfactory, and must 
be avoided if cop dyeing is to be a success. Many dyers 
have turned their attention to this question of dyeing yarn 
in the cop form, and many machines have been devised for 
the purpose ; some of these have not been a success, but a 
few have been found to yield satisfactory results and proved 
in practice very successful. 

In all machines for dyeing cops one principle has been 



DYEING MACHINERY AND DYEING MANIPULATIONS. 65 



adopted — that of drawing or forcing the dye-liquor through 
the cop. 

Graemiger's Cop-dyeing Machine. — This is shown in 
section in Figs. 13 and 14. Although simple in its work it is. 
somewhat complex in its construction and difficult to describe. 
The machine consists of a dye-vat to hold the requisite 
dye-liquors. In the upper portions of this is an iron casting 
formed with four chambers, the two lower ones of which are 
immersed in the dye-liquor while the upper chambers are 
above it. The sides of this castins: are formed of metal 



J- 




Fig. 13. — Graemiger Cop-dyeing Machine. 

plates which fit tightly against the casting and form as 
nearly air- and water-tight joints with it as it is possible to 
make. These metal plates are on a spindle and can be 
rotated. They are perforated and made to carry spindles, on 
which are placed the cops to be dyed. The two lower 
chambers are in connection with a pump which draws the 
air from them and so creates a vacuum inside the chambers. 
To fill this, liquor from the dye-vat passes through the cops 
and into the chambers, and is in turn drawn through the 
pump and returned to the dye-vat. In this way there is a 



66 



THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 



continual circulation of dye-liquors from the vat through the 
cops, chambers and pump back to the vat again. 

The left upper chamber is practically a blank chamber. 
Those portions of the cop carriers in contact with it are 
filled v^ith cops, v^hich are placed on perforated spindles ; the 
discs are given a quarter revolution which brings the cops 
into the dye-liquor and in connection with the left lower 
chamber and are dyed. At the same time the section of the 
cop carriers now in contact with the left top chamber is filled 




Fig. 14. — Graemiger Cop-dyeing Machine. 

with a new lot of cops, another quarter of a revolution is 
given to the cop carriers, which immerse the new lot of cops 
in the dye-liquor. The third quarter of the cop plates is filled 
with cops. A third movement of the cop plates now takes 
place ; this brings the first lot of cops out of the dye-liquor 
and in contact with the right upper chamber, where the sur- 
plus Hquor is drawn out of them and returned to the dye-vat. 
Another revolution brings the cops back to their first position, 
they are now removed and a new lot substituted. These 



DYEING MACHINERY AND DYEING MANIPULATIONS. 



67 



proceedings go on continuously. Although not quite free 
from defects the machine gives very good results, the cops 
being very uniformly dyed through. 

Beaumont's Cop-dyeing Machine. — This is illustrated in 
Fig. 15. It consists of a copper hemispherical dye-vessel, 
which is provided with a tightly fitting lid, although this is not 




Fig. 15.— Beaumont's Cop-dyeing Machine. 



needed in ah cases. The bottom of the vessel is in communica- 
tion with the .suction end of a centrifugal pump, while the 
dehvery end of the pump is attached to the upper end of the 
dye-vessel, the action of the pump being to secure a constant 
circulation of dye-hquor from the bottom to the top of the 
dye-vessel. Arrangements are provided by a pecuhar and 
ingenious contrivance fitted in one side of the dye-kettle for 



68 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABEICS. 

introducing steam to heat the dye-Hquor to any required 
degree. As in most forms of cop-dyeing machines, the cops 
are placed on perforated metal spindles. The cops and 
spindles are inserted in holes in a perforated metal plate, and 
over them is placed a thin metal plate, technically called 
the antifloater, whose object is to prevent the cops from be- 
coming detached from the plate. This plate, full of cops, is 
nov^ placed in the dye-vessel and rests upon a flange which 
is provided for that purpose. When the cop plate is in posi- 
tion the dye-vessel is divided into two chambers — a lower 
chamber and an upper one, in the latter being the cops. 

The pump draws liquor from the chamber under the cop 
plate and so creates a vacuum, which during the working of 
the machines ranges from 10 to 20 inches in degree. To 
supply this vacuum, dye-liquor is drawn from the upper 
chamber through the cops. The pump returns the liquor to 
the dye-vessel. A very rapid circulation of dye-liquor takes 
place, from 25 to 50 gallons per minute passing through the 
cops and pump. From five to ten minutes is sufficient to dye 
the cops. The machine is simple in its construction and 
gives good results, the cops being completely dyed through. 
One important consideration in cop dyeing is to be able to 
dye successive batches of cops to exactly the same shade, 
and this is quite possible with this machine. 

Young & Crippin's Cop-dyeing Machine. — So far as sim- 
plicity of construction is concerned this lies between the two 
preceding machines. It consists of four parts with some 
accessory mechanism. There is first a dye-liquor storage 
tank at the base of the apparatus in which the liquor is kept 
stored and boiling (if necessary) ready for use, above this and 
at the front end is the dye-chamber, this communicates at 
its lower end by a pipe with the dye-liquor in the dye-vat. 
Then there is a large vacuum chamber, in which by means 
of an injector a vacuum can be formed, this directly com- 



DYEING MACHINERY AND DYEING MANIPULATIONS. 69 

iiiunicates with a liquor-receiving chamber which again in 
turn is in communication with the upper part of the dye- 
chamber. The cops are placed on perforated spindles as 
usual, and these on a perforated plate and are kept in place by 
a plate which is screwed down on them. The charged cop 
plate is placed in the dye-chamber on which a cover is placed 
and screwed down. By means of a lever the injector is set 
at work, a vacuum created in the vacuum and receiving 
chambers, the consequence being that dye-liquor is drawn 
from the vat through the cops in the dye-chamber into the 
receiving chamber. When a certain quantity of liquor has 
passed through, by a movement of a lever, the vacuum is de- 
stroyed, and the dye-liquor runs back into the dye-vat ; these 
operations are repeated until from past experience of the 
working of the machine it is thought sufficient has passed 
through to dye the cops, when the dye-chamber is opened 
and the cops taken out. This machine works very well. 

Mommer's Cop-dyeing Machine. — This is in use in several 
continental dye-works. The central portion of this machine is 
a rectangular dye-chamber, which can be hermetically closed 
by hinged doors, the cops are placed side by side on trays 
provided with perforated bottoms, the trays being placed one 
on the top of the other in the dye-chamber. From the top 
of the dye-chamber passes a pipe to a centrifugal pump, and 
a similar pipe passes from the bottom of the chamber to the 
pump. A separate vat contains the dye-liquor which is used. 
The pump forces the dye-liquor through the cops which take 
up the dye. Arrangements are provided by which the direc- 
tion of the flow of the dye-hquor can be changed. This 
machine gives fairly good results, not perhaps equal to those 
with the machines previously described. 

Warp-dyeing Machines. — Although many warps, especially 
for fancy fabrics, are prepared from yarns dyed in the hank 



70 



THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 



or cop form, yet it is found advantageous when a warp is of 
one colour, a self -colour as it is called, to form the warp 
from grey or white yarns and to die it after warping. If 
the warp were so wound as to be able to go into a Obermaier 
dyeing machine, it would be possible to dye it in that machine, 
but generally warps are dyed in the open form and are passed 
through a dyeing vat, commonly called a warp-vat which is 
constructed as shown in Fig. 16. These warp-dyeing machines 
generally consist of a long rectangular wooden dye-vat, divided 
by two partitions into three compartments, each provided 
with steam pipes to heat up its contents ; between the first 
and second and between the second and third compartments 




Fig. 16.— Warp-dyeing Machine. 



is fitted a pair of squeezing rollers, while the third com- 
partment is fitted w^ith a heavier pair of squeezing rollers. 
Motion is given to these rollers by suitable gearing, and they 
serve to draw the w^arp through the machine. Guide rollers 
are fitted in the compartment, and the warp being taken 
round these, it passes several times up and down and through 
the dye-hquors contained in the compartments. These warp- 
dyeing machines may be made of sufficient width to take 
one, two, three or more warps at one time as desired. 

The three compartments of the machine may contain 
different hquids or all the same liquid according as the nature 
of the shade to be dyed demands. The passage is done 



DYEING MACHINERY AND DYEING MANIPULATIONS. 71 

slowly SO as to give the warp time to absorb the liquors and 
take up the dye. When all the length of warp has been 
sent through, it is said to have been dyed " one end ". Some- 
times this will be enough, but often it is not, and so the 
warp is sent through again, given another end, and still 
again if the full shade has not been attained. 

After being dyed in this machine the warp is sent through 
another one containing various wash liquors to finish the 
process. 




Fig. 17. — Warp-dyeing Machine. 

Fig. 17 shows a warp-dyeing machine similar to, but a 
little more elaborate in construction than, the vats just 
described. 

Piece-dyeing Machines. — Wherever it is possible it is far 
more preferable to dye textile fabrics in the form of woven 
pieces rather than in the yarn from w^hich they are woven. 
During the process of weaving it is quite impossible to avoid 
the material getting dirty and somewhat greasy, and the 
operations of scouring necessary to remove this dirt and 



72 



THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 



grease has an impairing action on the colour if dyed yarns 
have been used in weaving it. This is avoided when the 
pieces are woven first and dyed afterwards, and this can 
always be done when the cloths are dyed in one colour only. 
Of course when the goods are fancy goods containing several 
colours they have to be woven from dyed yarns. 

The most common form of machine in w4iich pieces 
are dyed is The Jigger, commonly called the jig. This is 
shown in Figs. 18 and 19. It consists of a dye-vessel made 
sufficiently long to take the piece full width — wide at the 




Fig. 18. — Dye-jiggers. 



-top and narrow at the bottom. At' the top at each side 
is placed a large winding roller on which the cloth is wound. 
At the bottom of the jig is placed a guide roller round which 
passes the cloth. In some makes of jigs (Fig. 19) there are 
two guide rollers at the bottom and one at the top, as shown 
in the illustration, so that the cloth passes several times 
through the dye-Hquor. In working, the cloth is first wound 
on one of the rollers, then threaded through the guide rollers 
and attached to the other winding roller. When this is done 
dye-hquor is run into the jig, the gearing set in motion, and 



DYEING MACHINERY AND DYEING MANIPULATIONS. 



73 



the cloth wound from the full on to the empty roller. With 
the object of keeping the piece tight, a heavy press roller is 
arranged to bear on the cloth on the full roller. When all 
the cloth has passed from one roller to the other it is said 
to have been given "one end''. The direction of motion is 




.9.— Dye-jigger. 



now changed, and the cloth sent in the opposite direction 
through the jig, and ^the piece has now received another 
''end". This alternation from one roller to the other is 
continued as long as is deemed necessary, much depend- 

colour which is being dyed — some 



mg on the depth of 



74 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABKICS. 

pale shades may only take two or three ends, deeper shades 
may take more. When dyeing wool with acid colours 
which are all absorbed from the dye-hquor, or the bath is 
exhausted, it is a good plan to run the pieces several 
more ends so as to ensure thorough fixation of the dye on 
the cloth. 

It is not advisable in working these jigs to add the whole 
of the dye to the liquor at the commencement, but only a 
part of it ; then when one end is given, another portion 
of the dye may be added ; such portions being always in the 
form of solution. Adding dyes in powder form inevitably 
leads to the production of colour specks on the finished goods. 
The reason for thus adding the dye-stuff in portions is that 
with some dyes the affinity for the fibre is so great that if all 
were added at once it w^ould all be absorbed before the cloth 
had been given one end ; and, further, the cloth would be 
very deep at the front end, while it would shade off to no 
colour at the other end. By adding the dye in portions this 
difficulty is overcome and more level shades are obtained ; 
it is met with in all cases of jigger dyeing, but it is most 
common in dyeing cotton or wool w^ith basic dyes like 
magenta, auramine, methyl violet or brilliant green, and in 
dyeing wool with acid dyes like acid green, formyl violets, 
azo scarlet, or acid yellow. 

Some attempts have been made to make jiggers auto- 
matic in their reversing action, but they have not been 
successful ; owing to the greatly varying conditions of length 
of pieces, their thickness, etc., which have to be dyed, and 
it is next to impossible to make all allowances for such 
varying conditions. 

The Jig Wince or Wince Dye Beck. — This dyeing machine 
is very largely used, particularly in the dyeing of woollen 
cloths. It is made by many makers, and varies somewhat 
in form accordingly. Figs. 20, 21 and 22, show three forms 



DYEING MACHINERY AND DYEING MANIPULATIONS. 75 

by different makers. In any make the jig wince, or wince 
dye beck, consists of a large rectangular, or, in some cases, 
hemicylindrical dye- vat. Probably the best shape would 
be to have a vat with one straight side at the front, and 




Fig. 20.— Jig Wince. 



one curved side at the back. In some a small guide roller 
is fitted at the bottom, under w^hich the pieces to be dyed 
pass. Steam pipes are provided for heating the dye-liquors. 
The becks should be fitted with a false bottom made of wood, 
perforated with holes, or of wooden lattice work, and below 



76 



THE DYEING OF COTTON FABEICS. 



which the steam pipes are placed ; the object being to pre- 
vent the pieces from coming in contact with the steam pipe, 
and so preventing the production of stains. Above the dye- 
vat, and towards the back, is the wince, a revolving skeleton 
wheel, which draws the pieces out of the dye-vat at the front, 
and delivers them into it again at the back. The construc- 
tion of this wince is well shown in the drawins^s. The wince 




Fig. 21. — Clotli-dveing Machine. 



will take the pieces full breadth, but often they are somewhat 
folded, and so several pieces, four, five or six strings as they 
are called, can be dealt with at one time. In this case a guide 
rail is provided in the front part of the machine. In this rail 
are pegs which serve to keep the pieces of cloth separate, and 
so prevent entanglements. The pieces are stitched end to 
end so as to form an endless band. When running through 
the vat they fall down in folds at the back part of the 



DYEING MACHINERY AND DYEING MANIPULATIONS. 



77 



beck, and are drawn out of the bottom and up in the front. 
Each part thus remains for some time in the dye-liquor,, 
during which it necessarily takes up the dye. 




Fig. 22.— Dye Beck. 

In the jig and wince dyeing machines the pieces neces- 
sarily are for a part of the time, longer in the case of, the 
jigger than' in that of the wince, out of the dye-liquor and 



78 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

exposed to the air. In the case of some dyes, indigo especi- 
ally, this is not desirable, and yet it is advisable to run 
the cloth open for some time in the liquor, so as to get it 
thoroughly impregnated with the dye-liquor, or to become 
dyed. This may be done on such a machine, as is shown in 
Fig. 24, page 79, but having all the guide rollers below the 
liquor, so that at no time is the piece out of the liquor, 
except, of course, when entering and leaving. 

The so-called hawking machines have also this object in 




Fig. 23. — Holliday's Machine for Hawking Cloth. 

view, and Fig. 23 is an illustration of Holliday's hawking 
machine, made by Messrs. Kead HolHday & Sons, of Hudders- 
field. There is the dye-vat as usual ; in this is suspended 
the drawing mechanism, whose construction is well shown 
in the drawing. This is a pair of rollers driven by suitable 
gearing, between which the cloth passes, and by which it is 
drawn through the machine. A small roller ensures the 
cloth properly leavmg the large rollers ; then there is a 
lattice-work arrangement over which the pieces are drawn. 
In actual work the whole of this arrangement is below the 



DYEING MACHINERY AND DYEING MANIPULATIONS. 



79 



surface of the dye-liquor in the vat. The piece to be dyed 
is threaded through the machine, the ends stitched together. 
Then the arrangement is lowered into the dye-vat and set 
into motion, whereby the cloth is drawn continuously in 
the open form through the dye-liquor, this being done as 
long as experience shows to be necessary. This hawking 
machine will be found useful in dyeing indigo on cotton or 
wool, or in dyeing cotton cloths with such dyes as Immedial 
blacks. Cross-dye blacks, Amidazol blacks, Vidal blacks, where 
it is necessary to keep the goods below the surface of the 
dye-liquor during the operation. 




Fig. 24.— Continuous Dyeing Machine. 

Fig. 24 shows a form of cloth-dyeing machine much used 
in the cotton trade. It consists of a number of compartments 
fitted with guide rollers at top and bottom, and round which 
the cloth is threaded, so that it passes up and down in the 
dye-hquor several times. Between each two compartments 
is a pair of squeezing rollers to press out all surplus liquors. 
All the compartments may be filled with the same dye-liquor, 
or with different dye-Hquors and developing Hquors, as may 
be most convenient and required for the work in hand. Such 
a machine is used in dyeing logwood black, aniHne black, 
and many of the direct colours, etc. 



80 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABEICS. 

From the direct colours a large number of light shades- 
are dyed on to cotton cloth by the process known as padding ; 
this consists in passing the cloth through a liquor containing 
the dye-stuff, usually a little phosphate of soda is added^ 
then between squeezing rollers, and finally drying the cloth. 



Qz:^z-q^^^.r^O 




Fig. 25. — Padding Machine. 



For this process there is used what is called a padding 
machine. This is shown in Figs. 25 and 26. 

It consists essentially of a trough, which contains two or 
more guide rollers, and in this is placed the padding liquor. 
Above the trough is fitted squeezing rollers, sometimes two 
as in Fig. 25, or three as in Fig. 26. Besides these, there 



DYEING MACHINERY AND DYEING MANIPULATIONS. 



81 



are winding and beaming and other guide rollers. Fig. 25 
shows the simplest padding machine, where the cloth passes 
once through the hquor and through the squeezing rollers. 




Fig. 26.— PaddiiiR Machine. 



In Fig. 26 the cloth passes several times through the liquor 
and twice through the squeezing rollers, thus ensuring a 
more perfect impregnation of the cloth with the dye-liquor,, 
and therefore a more uniform dyeing of the cloth. 



CHAPTEE IV. 

THE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF COTTON DYEING. 

Students of cotton dyeing should have a good knowledge 
of the principles that underlie the processes of dyeing cotton 
fabrics. It is only by recognising these principles and then 
endeavouring to apply them to each individual case of dyeing, 
that the dyer or student will obtain a thorough grasp of his 
subject. It is the aim of the author to lay down these prin- 
ciples in a clear and intelligible form. Cotton is dyed in its 
loose raw condition, as yarn in the form of hanks, yarn in the 
form of cops, and in the woven pieces of every kind. For- 
merly the idea was prevalent among cotton dyers that the 
process which succeeds with piece goods would not answer 
with yarns. It is now recognised however that this is not so, 
that a process which will dye cotton yarn will also dye cotton 
piece goods or loose cotton. The differences which do exist 
in the practical working of the processes entirely arise from 
the difference in the form in which the cotton is presented to 
the dyer, for it must be obvious to any one that the mode of 
handling a piece of cotton cloth during the time it is in the 
dye-bath must be different from that of a hank of yarn, a 
parcel of loose cotton or a number of cops. The various 
machines used for dyeing all these forms and the manner of 
working them have been already described. 

The dyes, whether natural — derived from the various 
dye-woods, etc. — or artificial — prepared from coal tar — may 
according to their varied chemical composition and consti- 



THE PEINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF COTTON DYEING. 83 

tution be divided into seventeen or eighteen distinct groups, 
but it is not intended here to give any account of them ; the 
reader is referred to other books such as The Dictionary of 
Coal Tar Colours, by George H. Hurst ; The Chemistry of Coal 
Tar Colours, by Benedikt and Knecht ; or The Chemistry of 
Organic Colouring Matters, by Nietzki, where the composition 
and properties of the dyes are fully described. 

From the manner in which the various dyes are applied 
to cotton, linen, wool and other fibres we can divide them 
into five groups, thus : — 

Group 1.,^ Direct dyes.f 



2. \ Basic dyes.o v 



3f Acid dyes 



4. Mordant dyes. \ 

5. Miscellaneous dves. 



/t 



First ,L;rou]). dirc'ct dyes, [\vv now vory numerous ; they 
dye cotton, linen and otlier vegetable fibres from a plain 
^aFh, and do not icijuire those fibres to be prepared in any 
way. Hence the reason of their being named direct, or by 
some the substantive colours. They will also dye wool ^^^ 
silk. 

"^ The second group, basic dyes, comprise some of the oldest 
of tlu' coal-tar dyes ; they dye wool and silk direct from plain 
baths, but require cotton, linen and other vegetable fibres to 

~^ previously prepared in baths of tannic acid, sumach or other 
taiihTng material. 

"~ The third group, acid dyes, are very numerous, and from 
both their chemical composition and mode of dyeing can be 
divided into several sub-groups. Their principal feature is 
t-hat they dye wool and silk from baths containing Glauber's 
salt and some acid, hence their name of "acid dyes". They 
do not dye cotton or linen well, some not at all, others ^re 
absorbed to a slight extent by the cotton, but only pale tints 



84 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABEICS. 

are produced, while others may be used along with metallic 
mordants to dye bright but pale and fugitive shades. The 
acid dyes comprise such as Acid green, Formyl violet, Acid 
magenta, Azo scarlet. Orange, Thiocarmine E* Patent blues, 
Wool greens, indigo extract, Eosines, etc. 

The fourth group, mordant dyes, includes the ahzarine 
series of coal-tar col(^urs, logwood, Brazil wood and most 
natural colours, and some others. The principal feature of 
these dyes is that they require the cotton to be prepared with 
some metallic oxide, like those of chrome, alumina and iron, 
before dyeing, and the colour which is got depends partly upon 
the^particular dye-stuff used and partly upon the oxide with 
which the cotton has been prepared. 

The fifth group includes a few dyes like indigo, which are 
dyed on to cotton by various and special processes. 

The processes of cotton dyeing employed to-day may be 
comprised under eight heads, namely : — 

(1) Direct dyeing. 

(2) Direct dyeing followed by fixation with metallic salts. 

(3) Direct dyeing followed by fixation with developers. 

(4) Direct dyeing followed by fixation with couplers. 

(5) Dyeing on tannic mordant. 

(6) Dyeing on metallic mordant. 

(7) Developing the colour direct on fibre. 

(8) Dyeing by impregnating the cotton with the dye-stuff, 

followed by oxidation or steaming. 

It is of course not easy to elaborate a simple scheme of 
grouping the processes that shall definitely include all pro- 
cesses, but the above grouping will be found as successful 
as any, and each will be considered as fully as is deemed 
necessary. 



the principles and practice of cotton dyeing. 85 

(1) Direct Dyeing. 

Nothing in the history of cotton dyeing caused such a 
revohition in the methods of working as did the introduction 
some fifteen years ago of the forerunners (Congo red, Benzo 
purpurine, Chrysamine, Azo bhie) of the now numerous group 
of direct dyes, followed as they were by the Benzo, Congo, 
Diamine, Titan, Chicago and Zambesi members of the group. 
Prior to their introduction cotton dyeing was always more 
or less complicated and mordanting methods had to be 
employed. 

With the introduction of the direct dyes cotton dyeing has 
become even more simple than wool or silk dyeing, and now 
all that is necessary is to prepare a dye liquor containing the 
necessary amount of dye-stuff and Glauber's salt, or common 
salt or soda, or some similar body, or a combination thereof. 
The method of working is to place the cotton in a lukewarm 
or even in a hot bath, raise to the boil, allow the goods to 
remain in the IxMliiii^- bath for half an hour to an hour, then 
take them out, wruig, wash and dry. This method is simple 
and will answer for all the dyes of this group. There are some 
that do not require the working to be done boiling ; it is simply 
needful to enter the cotton into a boiling bath and work with- 
out steam until the bath has cooled down. Furious boihng 
IS not needed — a gentle simmer gives the best results. Un- 
even dyeing seems to he an impossibihty in this group of 
dyes, unless the cotton is dirty ; no matter how the opera- 
tiohs are carried on, level dyeing is the rule not the exception. 
An enormous variety of shades and tints can be obtained from 
these dyes, and they can be combined together in every con- 
ceivable manner and proportions. 

No satisfactory explanation has yet been given as to 
what feature in the chemical composition of these dye-stuffs 
give them such an affinity for the cotton fibre as to enable 



86 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABEICS. 

them to dye in so simple a manner such fast shades as they 
do ; it is a fact there is such an affinity and there the matter 
must rest. 

It lias been found in practice that the efficiency of the 
dyeing operation depends, primarily of course, on the par- 
ticuhar dye^tuff used, but also upon other factors, that a 
certain assistant be used. Some dyes work on the cotton 
better from a bath containing Glauber's salt, while with others 
common salt works best, while a little soda along with the 
salFfacilitates the dyeing in some cases. It is practically 
impossible to specify here the best assistant for all the direct 
colours, on account of the great number of such dyes which 
are known, but in the practical recipes given below much 
useful advice will be found. Then the quantity of such 
assistants used is of much importance ; there is one pro- 
portion at which the best results are obtained for each dye. 
The dyer should find out for himself by experiment and the 
use of the dyes he employs in his work what assistant and 
how much is best, and make his baths up to that strength. 
With some dyes 10 per cent, of the assistant will be found 
sufficient, while with others, 25 to 30 per cent, will not be 
too much. The percentage refers to the weight of the cotton 
that is taken. 

~ One function of the assistants must be pointed out here : 
it is that in some cases they — especially the alkaline ones, 
soda, potash, borax, phosphate of soda— help the dyeing by 
promoting the solubihty of the dye-stuff in the bath, thereby 
retarding the exhaustion of the bath and ensuring the pro- 
duction of level shades. 

The following formulae show the application of the fore- 
going principles to the dyeing of numerous shades on to 
cotton and also the dyes which are applicable, some of the 
combinations which are possible with these direct dyes, and 
give some idea of the tints and shades of the colours that can 



THE PEACTICE OF DIRECT COTTON DYEING, 87 

be got by their means. The best assistants to use are also 
indicated in the formulae. 

All the formulae here given and all that will be given in 
future chapters are intended for 100 lb. weight of cotton 
fabrics in any condition, whether of loose cotton, yarn in 
cops, hanks or wraps and woven fabrics of every kind. 

Bright Bed. — Dye with 3 lb. Benzo purpurine 4 B, 3 lb. 
soda and 15 lb. Glauber's salt. This dye may also be used 
with 3 lb. soap and 10 lb. soda in the bath with equally good 
results. 

Pale Salmon. — Prepare a dye-bath with 3 lb. salt, 5 lb. 
phosphate of soda, 1 lb. soap, ^ oz. Benzo orange K. For 
a pale shade like this it is not necessary to heat to the boil, 
a temperature of 170 ° to 180 ° F. is sufficient. 

Dark Plum. — Prepare a dye-bath with 20 lb. of Glauber's 
salt, 2 J lb. soap, 1^ lb. Diamine black E 0, and 2 lb. Diamine 
red N. Enter at 180 °F., work for a few minutes, then raise 
to boil and dye to shade ; lift, wash and dry. 

Turkey Bed. — Prepare a dye-bath with If lb. Benzo pur- 
purine 4 B, 1 lb. Brilhant purpurine, 2 lb. soap, 10 lb. borax. 
Enter the cotton at the boil and work for one hour ; lift, wash 
and dry. 

Lilac Red. — Prepare the dye-bath with 2 lb. soap, 5 lb. 
soda, 3 lb. Kose azurine G. Work at the boil for one hour. 

Pink. — Prepare a bath containing 10 lb. soda, 1 oz. Kose 
azurine B. Enter at a boil and work for one hour, boiling to 
shade ; lift, wash and dry. 

Bordeaux. — Prepare a dye-bath with 15 lb. Glauber's salt, 
5 lb. soda crystals, 3 lb. Diamine fast red F, 1 lb. Diamine 
violet N. 1 lb. Eose azurine G. Enter cold, then raise to the 
boil, and work for one and a half hours ; lift, wash and dry. 

Bose Pink. — The dye-bath is made with 2 lb. Erika B, 
20 lb. Glauber's salt and 3 lb. soap, working at near the 
boil to shade. 



88 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABKICS. 

Brilliant Bed. — Make the dye-bath with 2| lb. BriUiant 
purpiirine K and 25 lb. Glauber's salt, working at the boil 
for one hour. 

Deep Pink. — Make the dye-bath with h lb. Diamine rose 
B D, J lb. soda, 1 lb. soap and 5 lb. Glauber's salt, working 
at 150° F. for half an hour. 

Dark Bed. — Use in the dye-bath 3 lb. Diamine red 5 B, 

2 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, working at the boil for 
one hour. 

Pink. — Prepare the dye-bath with 4 oz. Diamine rose 
B D, 1 lb. Turkey-red oil, 40 lb. Glauber's salt. Dye at the 
boil for one hour. 

Scarlet. — Prepare the dye-bath with 4 lb. Diamine scarlet 

3 B, 1 lb. Turkey-red oil, 20 lb. Glauber's salt. Dye at the 
boil for one hour. 

Scarlet. — Prepare the dye-bath with 3 lb. Titan scarlet C*, 
J lb. Titan orange, 50 lb. salt. Work at the boil for thirty 
minutes, then hft, wash and dry. The dye-bath is not 
exhausted and may be used for further lots. 

Crimson Bed. — Prepare the dye-bath with 5 lb. Titan 
scarlet D and 50 lb. salt. Work at the boil for fifty minutes, 
then Hft, wash and dry. The bath is not exhausted, the 
cotton taking up only about 3 lb. of the dye-stuff; it may 
therefore be kept for further use, when for each succeeding 
lot 3 to 3 J lb. of colour and 25 lb. of salt only need be added. 

Scarlet. — Prepare the dye-bath with 5 lb. Kosophenine 5 B, 
dissolved in 50 gallons hot water, 2 gallons caustic soda lye 
(60° Tw.). ^Vhen thoroughly dissolved add 150 lb. salt. 
Make up the bath to 100 gallons. Enter the yarn and work 
for a quarter to half an hour at about 180° F ; squeeze off 
and wash thoroughly in cold water until the water runs off 
clean. 

Bose Bed. — Use 1 lb. Diamine red 10 B, 3 lb. soda, and 
20 lb. Glauber's salt. 



THE PRACTICE OF DIRECT COTTON DYEING. 89 

Deep Crimson. — Use 3 lb. Diamine red 10 B, 3 lb. soda and 
-20 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Claret. — Use 3 lb. Diamine Bordeaux B, 3 lb. soda and 
20 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Pinik. — The dye-bath is made with 5 oz. Dianil red 4 B, 
5 lb. salt and 3 lb. soda. 

Scarlet. — Use in the dye-bath 3 lb. Dianil red 4 B, 15 lb. 
salt and 5 lb. soda. Work at the boil for one hour. 

Claret. — Dye with IJ lb. Dianil claret G, 3 lb. soda and 
20 lb. salt. Work at the boil for one hour. 

Maroon. — Dye with 3 lb. Dianil claret B, 3 lb. soda and 
20 lb. salt. Work at the boil for one hour. 

Brifjht Scarlet. — Use in the dye-bath 2| lb. Dianil red 4 B 
5 oz. Dianil orange G, 3 lb. soda and 15 lb. salt. 

Dark Maroon. — Make the dye-bath with 1 lb. Dianil red 
4 B, 2 lb. Dianil claret G, 13 oz. Dianil claret B, 5 lb. soda 
and 20 lb. salt. 

Crimson. — Dye with 3 lb. Congo rubine, 5 lb. soda and 
20 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Dark Marooii. — Use in the dye-bath 1 lb. Benzo purpurine 

4 B, 3 lb. Congo Corinth G, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's 
salt, working at the boil to shade. 

Pale Fawn Red. — Use in the dye-bath li oz. Diamine red 

5 B, 1\ oz. Diamine catechine G, 3 lb. soda and 10 lb. 
Glauber's salt. 

Bose Red. — Prepare the dye-bath with f lb. Diamine 
Bordeaux B, 3 oz. Diamine orange B, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. 
salt. 

Crimson. — Use in the dye-bath | lb. Diamine Bordeaux B, 
3 oz. Diamine fast yellow B, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's 
salt. 

Salmon. — Dye with Ih oz. Diamine fast red F, 1^ oz. 
Diamine fast yellow B, 3 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's 
salt. 



90 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

Terra-Cotta Red. — Dye with 1^ lb. Diamine brown M,. 
f lb. Diamine fast red F, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Lilac Red. — Dye with 4 lb. Heliotrope B B, 8 lb. soda 
and 15 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Bright Pink. — Use in the dye-bath 2 oz. Rose azurine G, 
1 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt. Nearly all the direct 
reds give good pink tints when used in proportion, varying 
from O'l to 0*25 per cent, of dye-stuff. 

Bright Straw. — Dye m a bath made of \ lb. Titan yellow 
G G, 10 lb. salt, for three-quarters of an hour, then lift, wash 
and dry. 

Yellow. — Prepare a dye-bath with 1 lb. Titan yellow Y,. 
10 lb. salt. Heat to 180° F., enter the goods, raise to boil, 
and dye for one hour ; hft, wash and dry. 

FeZ/ow.-- Prepare the dye-bath with \ lb. Diamine fast 
yellow A, 1 lb. Turkey red oil, 20 lb. Glauber's salt. Dye 
at the boil for one hour. 

Sun Yellow. — Prepare the dye-bath with 2 lb. Sun yellow, 
30 lb. common salt. Dye at the boil. The bath is kept for 
further lots. 

Yellow. — Prepare the dye-bath with 1 lb. Direct yellow R^ 
20 lb. Glauber's salt. Dye at the boil for one hour. 

Yellow. — Prepare the dye-bath with 2 lb. Curcuphenine, 
20 lb. common salt. Work at the boil for one hour ; lift,. 
rinse and dry. 

Old Gold. — Make the dye-bath with 5 lb. Diamine yellow 
N powder, 20 lb. phosphate of soda, 10 lb. soap. Work at 
the boil for one hour ; finish in the usual way. The bath 
may be kept for other lots of goods. 

Dark Yellow. — The bath is made from 2 lb. Toluylene 
orange G, 10 lb. phosphate of soda, and 2J lb. soap, working 
at the boil to shade. 

Bright Yelloiv. — Use 1 lb. Chrysophenine, 2 lb. phosphate 
of soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt. 



THE PEACTICE OF DIRECT COTTON DYEING. 91 

Lemon Yelloiv. — Use 1 oz. Chiysamine G, '2 lb. phosphate 
of soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Yelloiv. — Dye with 2 lb. Oxypheniiie and 20 lb. salt. 

Yellow Olive. — Use in the dye-bath 2 oz. Cotton brown N, 
4| oz. Diamine bronze G, 4:1 oz. Diamine fast j^ellow B, 8 11). 
soda and 20 lb. salt. 

Green Yelloiv. — Dye with h lb. Diamine fast yellow B, 

2 oz. Diamine bronze G, 3 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's 
salt. 

Gold Yellow. — Use in the dye-bath 8 lb. Columbia yellow, 

3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Cream. — Dye with ^ oz. Toluylene orange G, 24 grains 
Brilliant orange G, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Primrose. — Dye with 3 oz. Dianil yellow 3 G, 2 lb. soda 
and 10 lb. salt. 

Gold Yellow. — Dye with 2i lb. Dianil yellow G, h lb. soda 
and 15 lb. salt. 

Buff Yellow. — Dye with 3i oz. Dianil yellow 2 K, h lb. soda 
and 10 lb. salt. 

Orange. — Prepare the dye-bath with 2 lb. Chlorophenine 
orange E, 20 lb. common salt. Work at the boil for one 
hour ; lift, rinse and dry. 

Bed Orange. — Make the dye-bath with 3 lb. Mikado orange 

4 E and 25 lb. salt. Work at the boil for one hour. 

Orange. — Make the dye-bath with 3 lb. Mikado orange G 
and 25 lb. salt. Work at the boil for one hour. 

Pale Orange. — The dye-bath contains 6 oz. Diamine Orange 
G, H oz. Diamine fast yellow B, J oz. Diamine scarlet B,. 
3 lb. soda and 15 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Olive Yellow. — Dye with | lb. Diamine fast yellow B, 1 oz. 
Oxydiamine black N, Ih oz. Diamine bronze G, 3 lb. soda and 
20 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Dark Orange. — Dye with 3 lb. Columbia orange E, 3 lb. 
soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt at the boil for one hour. 



92 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

BrigJit Orange. — Use 3 lb. Congo orange E, 3 lb. soda 
and 20 lb. Glauber's salt at the boil for one hour. 

Pale Orange.— Dye with 3 lb. Dianil orange 2 K, 2 lb. soda 
and 10 lb. salt at the boil for one hour. 

Brilliant Orange. — Dye with 4 lb. Dianil orange G and 
20 lb. salt for one hour. 

Deejj Orange. — Dye with 2 lb. Oxydianiine orange E, | lb. 
soda and 20 lb. salt for an hour. 

Pale Orange. — Dye with f lb. Diamine fast yellow B, 1 lb. 
Diamine orange B, 3 lb. soda and 15 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Bright Orange.— Dye with 1^ lb. Benzo orange E, Ih lb. 
Chrysamine E, 10 lb. phosphate of soda and 2 lb. soap. 

Green. — Prepare the dye-bath with 2 lb. Benzo green G, 
10 lb. Glauber's salt. Enter lukewarm, bring slowly to the 
boil, dye for one hour at the boil. 

Russian Green. — Make the dye-bath with 16 oz. Diamine 
black H W, 4 oz. Diamine fast yellow A, 3 lb. soda, 15 lb. 
Glauber's salt, working at the boil for one hour, then lift, 
wash and dry. 

Dark Olive. — Prepare a dye-bath with Sh lb. Benzo olive, 
2h lb. Diamine black B 0, 2 lb. Diamine yellow, 20 lb. 
common salt, 2 lb. soap. The goods are entered into the 
bath at 160° F., then heat is raised to the boil, and the 
dyeing continued for one hour, then lift, wash and dry. 

Dark Olive. — Dye in a bath of 2 lb. Titan yellow Y, 1 
lb. Diamine brown Y, Ih lb. Diamine blue 3 B, 2 lb. soda. 
Work for one hour, then lift, wash and dry. 

Olive. — -Prepare a dye-bath with 15 lb. phosphate of soda, 
3 lb. soap, 1Mb. Diamine yellow N, 4 oz. Diamine blue 3 B, 
1| oz. Diamine brown V. Dye at the boil to shade ; Hft, wash 
and dry. 

Green Olive. — Prepare the dye-bath with 1 lb. Diamine 
black E 0, 1 lb. Chrysamine, I lb. Benzo brown, 5 lb. soda, 
5 lb. salt, 2 lb. soap. The goods are entered at about 180" 



THE PEACTICE OF DIRECT COTTON DYEING. 93 

F. and worked for a short time, then the temperature is 
raised to the boil, and the goods are worked for one hour, 
hfted, washed and dried. 

BesedcL — Prepare a bath with 10 lb. Glauber's salt, 2 lb. 
soap, h lb. Diamine black K 0, 2 lb. Diamine yellow^ N. Enter 
at 120^ F., heat to boil and dye for one hour at that tempera- 
ture ; lift, wash and dry. 

Sage Green. — Prepare a dye-bath with 10 lb. Glauber's 
salt, h lb. Diamine black K O, 2 lb. Diamine yellow N. Enter 
at about 150° F. and then raise to boil and dye boiling for 
one hour, wash and dry. 

Drab. — Prepare the dye-bath with 10 lb. Cross dye drab, 
5 lb. soda crystals. Enter at the boil and work at this 
temperature for half an hour. Whilst dyeing add gradually 
75 lb. salt. Einse well and dry. 

Olive. — Prepare the dye-bath with 2 lb. Dianil olive, 5 lb. 
phosphate of soda, 5 lb. common salt. Dye at the boil for 
one hour. 

Olive. — The dyeing is done in a bath containing 4 oz. 
Diamine black H W, If lb. Diamine bronze G, 5 lb. soda, 15 
lb. Glauber's salt. Work at the boil for one hour. 

Grass Green. — Make the dye-bath with 2 lb. Chrysamine 

G, 1 J oz. Benzo azurine G, 3 lb. soap and 10 lb. borax, working 
at the boil for one hour. 

Green. — Make the dye-bath with 2 lb. Titan yellow Y, 1 lb. 
Titan blue 3 B and 20 lb. salt. 

Bright Grass Green. — Dye for an hour at the boil with 
1 lb. Sulphon azurine D, 2 lb. Thiazole yellow and 20 lb. 
Glauber's salt. 

Green. — Use in the dye-bath 3 lb. Diamine green B, 
3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, working at the boil to 
shade. 

Dark Green. — Dye with 3 lb. Diamine dark green N, 3 lb. 
soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt. 



94 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

Green. — Use in the bath 3 ib. Benzo green B B, 3 lb. 
soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt at the boil for one hour. 

Dark Sea Green. — Dye with 5 oz. Diamine black H W, 3 
oz. Diamine catechine G, 3 oz. Diamine fast yellow B, 3 lb. 
soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Pale Green. — Use in the dye-bath 3 lb. Diamine fast yellow 
B, 2 oz. Diamine black H W, 3 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's 
salt. 

Bright Pea Green. — Use in the dye-bath 1 oz. Thiofiavine 
S, I oz. Diamine sky blue F F and 20 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Dark Green. — Use If lb. Diamine green G, J lb. Oxy- 
diamine yehow G G, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, 
working at the boil for one hour. 

Deep Green.— 'JJ^e 1| lb. Diamine green G, | lb. Diamine 
black B H, ^ lb. Oxydiamine yellow G G, 3 lb. soda, and 
20 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Sea Green. — Use 2 oz. Dianil yellow K, 21 oz. Dianil 
blue B, If oz. Dianil dark blue B, 1 lb. soda, and 20 lb. salt, 
w^orking at the boil. 

Leaf Green. — Dye with li lb. Dianil yellow 3 G, 1 lb. 
Dianil blue B, 11 oz. Dianil blue 2 E, 3 lb. soda, and 20 lb. 
salt at the boil for one hour. 

Deep Green.— Bye with 2^ lb. Dianil yellow 3 G, 2^ lb. 
Dianil blue 2 R, 6 oz. Dianil dark blue B, 3 lb. soda, and 
20 lb. salt at the boil for one hour. 

Greens are largely produced by mixing yellows and blues 
together as will be seen from the recipes given above ; the 
particular shade of green which is got from a combination 
of blue and green depends upon the quality of the dye-stuffs 
used : thus, to produce bright greens of a pure tone, it is 
essential that the yellow used shall have a greenish tone 
like Thiofiavine S, Thiazole yellow, or Dianil yellow 3 G, 
while the blue must also have a greenish tone like Diamine 
sky blue, Benzo blue 3 B, etc. By using yellows like 



THE PRACTICE OF DIRECT COTTON DYEING. 95 

Diamine fast yellow E, and dark blues like Benzo azurine 
8 E, Diamine blue E W, Dianil dark blue E, the green 
which is got is darker and duller in tone. The addition of 
such a dye as Diamine black B H throws the shade more 
on to an olive, while a brown dye-stuff, Hke Diamine brown 
M, or an orange dye, like Titan orange N, throws the green 
on to a sage tone. Examples of these effects will be found 
among the recipes given above. 

It may be added here that by using smaller quantities, 
but in the same proportions as given in the above recipes, 
a great range of tints and shades of green can be dyed 
from very pale to very deep. 

Bright Blue. — Prepare a dye-bath with \ lb. Congo blue 
2 B, 5 lb. salt, 5 lb. phosphate of soda, 2 lb. soap. Work 
at the boil for one hour, then rinse and dry. 

Dark Navy. — Prepare a dye-bath with 1 lb. Diamine black 
E 0, 2 lb. Diamine blue 3 E, 8 lb. Glauber^s salt, 2 lb. soap. 
Enter the cotton at 180" F., and boil for one hour. 

Pale Blue. — Prepare a dye-bath with 10 lb. salt, 3 lb. 
soda, 3 oz. diamine blue 3 E. Work for one hour at the 
boil, then lift, wash and dry. 

Sky Blue. — Prepare a dye-bath with 2 lb. Titan como G, 20 
lb. common salt, 2 oz. acetic acid. Work at the boil for half 
an hour, then lift, wash and dry. 

Bright Blue. — Prepare the dye-bath with 1 J lb. Chicago blue 
B, 20 lb. Glauber's salt, 3 lb. soap. Work at the boil for 
one hour, then lift, wash and dry. 

Pale Sky Blue. — Make the dye-bath with 1 oz. Chicago 
blue 6 B, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, 2 lb. soap. Work at the 
boil for one hour, then lift, wash and dry. 

Sky Blue. — Prepare the dye-bath with 1 lb. Diamine sky 
blue F F, 1 lb. Turkey-red oil, 20 lb. Glauber's salt. Dye 
at the boil for one hour. 

Dark Blue. — Prepare the dye-bath with 2h lb. Diamineral 



96 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABKICS. 

blue K, 2| lb. Diamine deep black Cr, 1 lb. Turkey- red oil, 
40 lb. Glauber's salt. Dye at the boil for one hour. 

Dark Blue. — Prepare the dye-bath with 3 lb. Triamine 
black B, 15 lb. Glauber's salt, in 50 gallons of water. Enter 
at 150° F., and boil for one hour. Allow the goods to remain 
until the water is cold, when the dye-bath will be completely 
exhausted. 

Blue. — Prepare the dye-bath with 2 lb. Diamine steel blue L, 
2 lb. soda, 15 lb. Glauber's salt. Dye at the boil for one hour. 

Blue. — Prepare the dye-bath with 4 lb. Diamine blue B G, 
2 lb. soda, 20 lb. Glauber's salt. Dye at the boil for one 
hour. In shade this is very similar to that got w^ith Diamine 
briniant blue G, which however should be used for light 
shades on account of its brightness. For deep shades 
Diamine blue B G, is preferable, because of its greater 
tinctorial power. 

Light Indigo Blue. — 'Prepare the dye-bath with 1 lb. Para- 
mine indigo blue, 2 lb. soda, 20 lb. Glauber's salt. Enter 
at about 150° F., and dye at the boil for one hour. 

Navy Blue. — Prepare the dye-bath with 4 lb. Paramine 
navy blue K, 2 lb. soda, 20 lb. Glauber's salt. Enter at 
about 150° F., and dye at the boil for one hour. 

Blue. — Prepare the dye-bath with 1 lb. Paramine navy 
blue E, 2 lb. soda, 20 lb. Glauber's salt. Enter at about 150° 
F., and dye at the boil for one hour. 

Navy Blue. — Prepare the dye-bath with 4 lb. Benzo chrome 
black blue B, 15 lb. Glauber's salt, 3 lb. soda. Work at the 
boil for one hour ; lift, rinse and dry. 

Grey Blue. — Prepare the dye-bath with 2 lb. Paramine 
blue black S, 2 lb. soda, 20 lb. Glauber's salt. Enter at 
150° F., and dye for one hour at boil. 

Blue. — Prepare the dye-bath with 1 lb. Paramine blue B, 
2 lb. soda, 20 lb. Glauber's salt. Enter at about 150' F., 
and dye at the boil for one hour. 



THE PRACTICE OF DIEECT COTTON DYEING. 97 

Slate Blue. — Prepare the dye-bath with ^ lb. Diamine black 
B H, J oz. Diamine fast yellow B, 2 lb. soda, and 10 lb. 
Glauber's salt. Dye at the boil to shade. 

Deep Blue. — Use 3 J lb. Diamine blue B X, | lb. Oxydiamine 
black N, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt at the boil for 
one hour. 

Blue. — Dye at the boil for one hour with 1^ lb. Diamine sky 
blue, 2 oz. Diamine green B, 2 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's 
salt. 

Navy. — Dye with 1 lb. Dianil dark bhie E, 8 oz. Dianil 
black C E, 5 lb. soda and 20 lb. salt at the boil for one hour. 

Dark Navy. — Use 2 lb. Dianil blue B, 2 lb. Dianil dark blue 
E, J lb. Dianil black C E, 2 lb. soda and 25 lb. salt, working 
at the boil for one hour. 

Deej^ Blue. — Dye with 3^ lb. Diamine bhie black E, 5 lb. 
soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt at the boil for one hour. 

Deep Blue. — Dye with 3 lb. Zambesi black B E, 3 lb. soda 
and 20 lb. Glauber's salt at the boil for one hour. 

Dark Navy. — Use 3 lb. Dianil dark blue E, 3 lb. caustic 
soda 70° Tw., and 25 lb. salt, working at the boil for one hour. 

Violet Blue. — Dye with 3 lb. Dianil dark blue 3 E and 25 
lb. salt at the boil for one hour. 

Bright Blue. — Use 1 lb. Dianil blue B, and 20 lb. salt, 
working at the boil for one hour. 

Full Blue. — Dye with 3 lb. Brilliant azurine 5 G, 5 lb. 
common salt, 5 lb. phosphate of soda and 2 lb. soap at the 
boil for one hour. 

Dark Blue.— Dye with 3 lb. Erie blue B X, 3 lb. soda and 
and 20 lb. Glauber's salt at the boil for one hour. 

Pale Bhie. — Dye with 1 lb. Chicago blue 6 B, 3 lb. soda 
and 20 lb. salt at the boil for one hour. 

Deep Blue. — Dye with IJ lb. Oxydiamine black A, 2 lb. 
Diamine deep blue E, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt at 
the boil for one hour. 

7 



98 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

Blue. — Dye with oz. Diamine blue 3 B, li oz. Diamine 
sky blue F F, 3 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Navy. — Dye with 4 lb. Diamine new blue E, 3 lb. soda and 
20 lb. Glauber's salt at the boil for one hour. 

Dark Navy. — Dye with If lb. Diamineral blue K, 3 lb. soda 
and 20 lb. Glauber's salt at the boil for one hour. 

Sky Blue. — Prepare the dye-bath with 6 oz. Diamine sky 
blue F F, 3 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, working at the 
boil for one hour. 

Dark Blue. — ^Use in the dye-bath 3 lb. Diamine blue K W, 
2 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, working at the boil for 
one hour. 

Dark Blue. — Prepare the dye -bath with 3 lb. Triamine 
black B T, and 15 lb. Glauber's salt ; work at the boil to 
shade. 

Bhie. — Use 2 lb. Direct indigo blue and 15 lb. Glauber's 
salt ; work at the boil. 

Bright Blue.—Uiie in the dye-bath 3 lb. Titan como S N, 
"2 lb. acetic acid and 20 lb. salt, working at the boil for one 
hour. 

Turquoise Blue. — Dye with 1 lb. Diamine sky blue, 1 oz. 
Diamine fast yellow B, 2 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, 
working at the boil to shade. 

Dark Navy. — Use 4 lb. Titan navy E, and 20 lb. salt at the 
boil for one hour. 

Green Blue. — Dye with 1 lb. Dianil blue G, 2J oz. Dianil 
yellow G, 1 lb. soda and 20 lb. salt at the boil for one hour. 

Many more formulae could have been given, but the above 
will perhaps suffice ; they include all the best of the direct 
blues. Paler tints of blue maj^ be got by using from 1 to 2 
per cent, of any of these blues and also of the many direct 
blacks now on the market. The direct blues as a rule have a 
good degree of fastness to light. 

Lilac. — Prepare a dye-bath with | lb. Hessian brown 2 M, 



THE PRACTICE OF DIRECT COTTON DYEING. 99 

1 oz. Azo mauve A M, 1 lb. soap, 2 lb. soda, 10 lb. salt. 
Work at the boil for one hour, then lift, wash and dry. 

Plum. — Dye with 8 lb. Oxydiamine violet G, 8 lb. soda and 
20 lb. salt. 

Dark Plum. — Use in the dye-bath 3 lb. Oxydiamine violet 
B, 8 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, working at the boil. 

Violet. — Make the dye-bath with f lb. Oxydiamine violet 
B, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and dye at the boil 
to shade. 

Violet. — Dye with 12 oz. Dianil blue 4 K, 2 oz. Dianil 
blue B and 10 lb. salt at the boil. 

Lilac. — Dye with Ih oz. Diamine rose G D, | oz. Diamine 
sky blue F F, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt at the boil 
to shade. 

Bed Violet. — Make the dye-bath with h lb. Diamine violet 
N, \ oz. Diamine brilliant blue G, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb. 
Glauber's salt, working at the boil. 

Bed Violet. — Dye with 1 lb. Diamine violet N, 1 lb. soda 
and 10 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Brujht Bed Lilac. — Dye with If lb. Erika B N, 4 oz. 
Chicago blue 4 K, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt at the 
boil. 

Grey Lilac. — Dye with 12 oz. Neutral grey G, 3 oz. erika 
B N, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt at the boil for one hour. 

Pale Lilac. — Dye with 2i oz. Dianil claret B, 2^ oz. Dianil 
blue 4 E, and 10 lb. salt. 

Light Plum. — Dye with 10 oz. Dianil claret B, 10 oz. 
Dianil blue and 20 lb. salt. 

Dull Lilac. — Dye with J lb. Diamine brown V, 1 lb. soda 
and 10 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Heliotrojje. — Dye with 4 oz. Hehotrope 2 B, 1 lb. soda and 
10 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Plum. — Dye with 3 lb. Congo Corinth B, 3 lb. soda and 
10 lb. Glauber's salt. 



100 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABEICS. 

Dull Violet. — Use in the dye-bath Ih lb. Chicago bkie 4 E, 
14 oz. Erika B N, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, 
working at the boil for one hour. 

Bed Lilac. — Dye with 6 oz. Oxydianiine violet G, 2 oz. 
Oxydiamine violet B, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt at 
the boil for one hour. 

Violet. — Dye with 3 oz. Diamine violet N, 2 oz, diamine 
blue 3 B, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Fmvn Drab. — Prepare a dye-bath with 1 lb. Cachou de laval, 
I oz. Benzo purpurine B. Enter the cotton into this bath in 
the cold and heat to the boil, taking about one hour for the 
operation, then add 4 lb. common salt and boil for three- 
quarters of an hour longer ; lift, wash and dry. 

Pale Olive Broivn. — The dye-bath is made with 1 11). 
Diamine bronze G, 1 oz. Cotton brown N, 3 oz. Diamine gold, 
5 lb. soda, 15 lb. Glauber's salt. AYork at the boil for one 
hour, then lift, wash and dry. 

Bed Broum. — Prepare a dye-bath with IJ lb. Cotton yellow, 
4 lb. Hessian brown 2 B N, 2 lb. Diamine black K 0, 1 lb. 
soda, 2 lb. salt. Enter the goods at 180° F., then raise to the 
boil and work to the shade ; lift, wash and dry. 

Broivn Drab. — Prepare a dye-bath with J lb. Cotton brown 
N, f oz. Diamine yellow N, f oz. Diamine black B O, 15 lb. 
phosphate of soda, 3 lb. soap. Work at the boil for one 
hour. 

Gold Broion. — Prepare the dye-bath with 16:^ oz. Toluylene 
orange G, 9J oz. Toluylene orange E, 4| oz. azo mauve, 
2^ lb. soap, 5 lb. soda. Dye at the boil for one hour. 

Chestnut Broivn. — Prepare a dye-bath with 10 lb. common 
salt, 2 lb. Benzo brown G, ^ lb. Benzo azurine G, h lb. 
Chrysophenine. Enter the goods at 150° F., raise to the boil 
and dye boiling for one hour. 

Purple Brown. — Prepare a dye-bath with 10 lb. common 
salt, 2 lb. Benzo brown N B, 1 lb. Azo violet. Enter the 



THE PEACTICE OF DIRECT COTTON DYEING. 101 

cotton at 150° F., raise to the boil and dye boiling for an 
hour ; lift, wash and dry. 

Brown. — Prepare a dye -bath with 5 lb. soda, 10 lb. 
Glauber's salt, 12 oz. Chrysamine, 1 oz. Benzo purpurine, 
6J oz. Benzo azurine. Dye at the boil for one hour, rinse 
and dry. The brown thus got is fast to washing. 

Dark Chestnut Broivn. — Prepare a dye-bath with 10 lb. 
salt, 3 lb. Benzo brown N B X, raise to 150° F., enter goods, 
heat to boil, and work for one hour ; lift, rinse and dry. 

Dark Broivn. — Prepare a dye-bath with 20 oz. Glauber's 
salt per gallon of water used, 2^ lb. soap, 1^ lb. Diamine 
black E 0, 2 lb. Cotton brown N. Enter the yarn at 180° 
F., give three turns, raise temperature to boil, and work to 
shade ; lift, rinse and wash. 

Gold Broivn. — Prepare the dye-bath with 4 lb. Titan gold, 
50 lb. salt. Work at the boil for thirty minutes, then lift, 
wash and dry. The dye-bath is not exhausted, only about 
3 lb. of the colour being taken up by the cotton. It may, 
therefore, be kept for further lots, adding 3 lb. more colour 
and about 20 lb. more salt for each batch of cotton, or if it 
is not desired to keep the bath, add less colour to start 
with, and towards the end of the operation add more salt. 

Broivn. — Prepare the dye-bath with 4 lb. Paramine brown G, 
20 lb. Glauber's salt, 2 lb. soda. Dye at the boil for one hour. 

Light Brown. — Prepare the dye-bath with 3 lb. Diamine 
catechine G, 3 lb. soda, 15 lb. Glauber's salt. Dye at the 
boil for one hour. 

Dark Brown. — Prepare the dye-bath with 5 lb. Diamine 
catechine B, 3 lb. soda, 15 lb. Glauber's salt. Dye at the 
boil for one hour. 

Dark Drab. — Prepare the dye-bath with 1 lb. Titan brow^n 
Y, 3 oz. Columbia green, 32f oz. Diamine bronze, 17 lb. 
Glauber's salt. Work at the boil for one hour, then lift, 
wash and dry. 



102 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

Pale Broion. — The dye-bath is made with 2 lb. Mikado 
orange 4 K, 3 oz. Benzo fast grey, 30 lb. Glauber's salt. 
Work at the boil for one hour, then lift, wash and dry. 

Gold Broiun. — Make a dye-bath with 1 lb. Titan gold, 50 
lb. common salt. Enter at the boil, work for an hour, then 
lift, wash and dry. Keep the bath for another lot of goods ; 
it will only require the addition of about 14 oz. of colour 
and 10 lb. salt. 

Buff Broivn. — Make the dye-bath with f lb. Titan gold, 
i-lb. Titan brown K, 5 oz. Titan blue 3 B, 40 lb. common salt. 
Work at the boil to shade, then hft, wash and dry. 

Deep Chestnut Brown. — Make the dye-bath with 3 lb. Titan 
brown K, 1| lb. Titan blue K, 25 lb. common salt. Work at 
the boil for an hour, then Uft, w^ash and dry. 

Light Seal Broiun. — Make the dye-bath with 10 lb. salt, 
2 lb. soda, 14 oz. Oxyphenine, | lb. Atlas red K, 6 oz. Diamine 
blue B X. Work at the boil to shade, then hft, wash and dry. 

Orange Broion. — Make a dye-bath with 10 lb. salt, 2 lb 
soda, 14 oz. Oxyphenine, 1 lb. Atlas red K, 1 oz. Diamine blue 
B X. W^ork at the boil to shade, then lift, wash and dry. 

Pale Nut Brown. — Use in the dye-bath 4^ oz. Diamine 
catechine G, 1 oz. Diamine brown M, 1 oz. Diamine catechine 
B, 2 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, working at the boil 
for one hour. 

Walnut Brown. — Dye with 1 lb. Diamine brown M, 3 oz. 
Diamine orange G, 2 oz. Diamine black H W, 2 lb. soda and 
10 lb. Glauber's salt at the boil for one hour. 

Black Brown. — Use in the dye-bath 3 lb. Diamine brown 
M, i lb. Diamine blue black E, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's 
salt, working at the boil. 

Beddish Brown. — Dye with 2 lb. Dianil brown K, 5 lb. salt 
and 5 lb. phosphate of soda at the boil for one hour. 

Chocolate Brown. — Dye with 2 lb. Dianil brown T, 5 lb. 
phosphate of soda and 5 lb. salt at the boil for one hour. 



THE PRACTICE OF DIRECT COTTON DYEINO. 103 

Dark Brown. — Dye with '2 lb. DiaDil dark brown, 5 lb. salt 
and 5 lb. phosphate of soda at the boil for one hour. 

Light Brown. — Prepare the dye-bath with 5 lb. Diamine 
catechine G, 3 lb. soda and 15 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Broivn. — Dye with 2J lb. Cotton brown N, 1 oz. Diamnie 
black H W, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt at the boil for 
one hour. 

Dark Walnut Broiun. — Make the dye-bath with 3^ lb. 
Diamine brow^n M, 6 oz. Diamine catechine B, 6 oz. Diamine 
red 5 B, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt ; work at the boil. 

Dark Chestnut Broiun. — Dye with 2^ lb. Dianil browai B, 
1 lb. soda and 20 lb. salt at the boil. 

Dark Broiun. — Dye with 2 lb. Dianil brown 3 G 0, 2 lb. 
Dianil brown B D, 1 lb. Dianil red 4 B, 3 lb. soda and 25 lb. 
salt at the boil for one hour. 

Brown. — Prepare the dye-bath with 5 lb. Mikado brown 
M and 25 lb. salt ; work the cotton in this at the boil for 
one hour. 

Nut Brown. — Use in the dye-bath 2^ lb. Benzo brown G 
and 15 lb. salt, working at the boil. 

Dark Brown. — Use in the dye-bath 3 lb. Benzo brown N B 
and 15 lb. Glauber's salt, working at the boil. 

Dark Brown. — Make the dye-bath with 4 lb. Diphenyl 
brown B N, 10 lb. Glauber's salt and 4 lb. soap, working at 
the boil to shade. 

Black Brown. — Use in the dye-bath 2^ lb. Dianil brown 
3 G 0, li lb. Dianil brown G, f lb. Dianil dark blue K, 3 lb. 
soda and 25 lb. salt. 

Dark Brown. — Dye with Ih lb. Zambesi black D, IJ lb. 
Brilhant orange G, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt at 
the boil to shade. 

Gold Brown. — Dye w^ith 2 lb. Curcumine S, 1 lb. Columbia 
orange R, 5 oz. Columbia black F B, 3 lb. soda and 15 lb. 
Glauber's salt at the boil. 



104 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

Dark Chestnut. — Dye at the boil with 2 lb. Columbia 
Orange K, 8 oz. Columbia black F B, 2 lb. soda and 10 lb. 
Glauber's salt. 

Sage Broion. — Dye with 1 lb. Zambesi black D, 1 lb. 
Curcumine S, f lb. Diamine orange G D, 3 lb. soda and 
30 lb. Glauber's salt at the boil. 

Deej) Broivn. — Dye 3i lb. Diamine brown M, | lb. Oxy- 
diamine orange G, \ lb. Diamine black H W, 3 lb. soda and 
20 lb. Glauber's salt at the boil. 

Chestnut. — Dye with 2^ lb. Diamine brown G, f lb. Oxy- 
diamine orange R, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Pale Walnut Brown. — Dye with 3i- lb. Diamine brow^n M, 
f lb. Oxydiamine orange G, 1^ oz. Diamine black B H, 3 lb. 
soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Various other browns may be obtained by combining the 
various direct browns together or with other direct dyes. The 
use of a yellow or orange will brighten them ; that of a red 
will redden the shade ; the addition of a dark blue or a 
black will darken the shade considerably. It may be useful 
to remember that a combination of red, orange and blue or 
black produces a brown, and by using various proportions a 
great range of shades can be dyed. 

Black. — Prepare a dye-bath with 6 lb. Diamine black 
E 0, 2 oz. Thioflavine S, 2 lb. soap, 10 lb. salt. Enter 
the cotton at the boil and dye for one hour ; lift, wash and 
dry. 

Black. — Prepare the dye-bath with 5 lb. Direct deep black 
E extra, and ^ to Ih oz. common salt per gallon of water. 
Dye at the boil for one hour. 

DeejJ Black. — Prepare the dye-bath with bh lb. Diamine 
deep black R B, 2 lb. soda, 20 lb. Glauber's salt. Dye at the 
boil for one hour ; lift, wash and dry. 

Black. — Prepare the dye-bath with 5 lb. Direct triamine 
black G X, 15 lb. Glauber's salt. Dye for one hour at the 



THE PRACTICE OF DIRECT COTTON DYEING. 105 

boil ; lift, rinse and dry. In working for from two to three 
hours the dj^e-bath will exhaust completely. 

Black. — Prepare the dye-bath with 5 lb. Oxydiamine black 
A, 20 lb. Glauber's salt, 2 lb. soda. Dye at the boil for one 
hour. 

Black. — Prepare the dye-bath with 6 lb. Pluto black B. Dye 
at the boil for one hour with the addition of | to 1\ oz. 
Glauber's salt, i^ to J oz. soda ash per gallon of liquor. To 
develop the shade it is necessary to dye in a boiling liquor. 

Black. — Use 2\ lb. Diamine jet black Cr, 2^ lb. Diamine 
jet black E B, 2 lb. soda, and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, working 
at the boil for one hour. 

Black. — Use 6 lb. Oxydiamine black N K, 2 lb. soda and 
20 lb. Glauber's salt, working at the boil for one hour. 

Black. — Use 6 lb. Columbia Black F B B, 3 lb. soda and 
20 lb. Glauber's salt, w^orking at the boil to shade. 

Besides the blacks given in the above recipes, there are 
other brands which are used in the same w^ay, and vary 
slightly in the shade of black they give. 

All the direct blacks require w^orking in strong baths to 
give anything like black shades ; they all have, more or less, 
■a bluish tone, which can be changed to a jetter shade by 
the addition of a yellow or green dye in small proportions, 
which has been done in one of the recipes given above. 

By coupling, chroming or developing, the direct blacks 
can be made to give full, deep and fast blacks, and examples 
of their use in this manner will be found in following sections. 

By using all the direct blacks in proportions varying from 
^ to 1 per cent, of dye-stuff to the weight of the cotton they 
give greys of various tints and depths ; a few examples of 
such greys will now be given. 

Blue Grey. — Prepare the dye-bath with h lb. Oxydiamine 
black A, 1 lb. soda, 10 lb. Glauber's salt. Dye at the boil 
for one hour. 



106 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

Bright Grey. — Prepare a dye-bath with 4i oz. Azo inanve- 
x\ M, Ih oz. Direct yellow G, 3 lb. soda, 15 lb. common 
salt. 

Silver Grey. — Prepare the dye-bath w^ith h oz. Neutral grey 
G, 10 lb. sulphate of soda. Work at the boil to shade, then- 
lift, wash and dry. 

Slate. — Dye in a bath with \ lb. Diamine black B H, 3 oz. 
Diamine bronze G, 15 lb. Glauber's salt at the boil for 
three-quarters of an hour. 

Bronze Grey. — Prepare a dye-bath with | lb. Diamine 
bronze G, 15 lb. Glauber's salt, 3 lb. soap. Enter at about 
160° F., raise to boil and work for one hour ; lift, wash and 
dry. 

Dark Slate. — Prepare a dye-bath with 10 lb. Glauber's 
salt, li lb. soap, 1 lb. Diamine black K O, 2 lb. Cotton brown 
N. Heat to about 150° F. Enter the goods, work for a 
short time, then raise to the boil and work for one hour ; lift, 
wash and dry. 

Green Grey. — Prepare a dye-bath w^ith 10 lb. Glauber's 
salt, 1 lb. Diamine black E O, j oz. Thioflavine S. Enter at 
from 150° Tw. to 180"" F., raise to boil and dye for one hour ; 
wash and dry. 

Light Slate. — Prepare a dye-bath containing 2} lb. soap,. 
15 lb. Glauber's salt, 6 oz. Diamine black K 0, ^ oz. thioflavine 
S. Enter cotton at 140° F., work a little, then heat to boil 
and dye to shade ; lift, wash and dry. 

Grey. — Prepare the dye-bath with i lb. Diamine grey G, 
h oz. Diamine scarlet B, 1 lb. soda, 1 lb. soap, 5 lb. Glauber's 
salt. Dye for one hour at the boil. 

Light Grey. — Prepare the dye-bath with 1 lb. Diamine grey 
G, 1 lb. soda, 1 lb. soap, 5 lb. Glauber's salt. Dye for one 
hour at the boil ; lift, rinse and dry. 

It may be convenient here to deal w^ith the question of 
the fastness of the direct dyes to such influences as light, air. 



THE FASTNESS OF DIRECT DYES. 107 

acids, alkalies, washing and soaping, that have a very material 
influence on the use of these dyes in dyeing various fabrics. 
This matter can only be dealt v^ith here in very general terms, 
for space is limited and the dyes are too numerous for detailed 
mention. They vary very greatly in. degrees ofjastness^soine 
are absolutely fast to all influences ; the blacks are among 
the fastest, generally these resist washing and soaping, stand 
acids well and are fast to alkalies, light however affects 
them more or less, though they cannot be reckoned fugitive 
colours. The few direct greens known are good colours ; 
they stand washing, soaping and light well, but they are 
affected by acids and alkalies. The blues vary very much^ 
generally they stand soaping and have a fair degree of fast- 
ness to light, acids have but little action, alkalies tend to 
redden the shade, while heat also affects them. The direct 
l)rowns are very variable ; they are in general not fast to 
light ; they stand washing and soaping and resist alkalies, 
but are altered by acids shghtly. The yellows rank among 
the fastest of colours to light and washing and soaping ; acids 
have but httle effect ; they are reddened by alkahes. Among 
the reds there is great variation in properties, generally they 
are not fast to hght, standing washing and soaping well and 
resisting weak alkaHes ; some of them, such as the Benzo pur- 
purines and Congo reds are very sensitive to acids, being 
turned blue with very weak acids, but on washing or soaping 
the original colour comes back ; others, like the Titan reds, 
Diamine reds and Delta purpurines are not so sensitive, but 
these are affected by moderately strong acids ; there are one 
or two reds hke Benzo fast scarlet 4 B S and Purpuramine 
D H, which are fast to acids. The dep th of shade which is i^ 
dyed has some consi derable influence on the degree of fast- 
liess, the deeper shades of a colour are always faster than 
the paler shades, particularly as regards light, a difference 
of h per cent, of dye-stuff has been known to make a very 



108 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

appreciable degree of difference as regards the fastness of a 
colour to light. 

In dyeing cotton with all the direct dyes, it is found that 
the whole of the dye-stuff is not removed from the dye-bath, 
liow much is taken up b}^ the cotton, and the depth of the 
shade which is dyed upon the cotton chiefly depends upon 
three factors : — 



\ 



(1) Volume of water used. 

(2) Quantity of saline salts used. ^-O 

(3) Degree of affinity of the dye-stuff for the fibre. 



There may also be some minor factors such as tempera- 
ture at which the dyeing is carried on, the character and 
condition of the fabrics being dyed, etc. 

The volume of water used in making the dye -bath has a 
very great influence upon the amount of dye taken up by 
the cotton, the greater the volume of water the less dye is 
absorbed and the paler the colour which is produced upon 
the fibre. It is therefore important to use as little water 
as possible in making up the dye-bath, indeed, for anything 
like good results to be obtained with some dyes, especially 
those of the sulphur series like Vidal black, Immedial blacks, 
Katigen browns. Cross-dye blacks, Amidazol blacks, etc., it is 
necessary to employ what is called a short bath, that is mak- 
ing it as strong as possible. The proportion of water with 
such dyes should not exceed fifteen times the weight of the 
cotton being dyed, that is, for every pound of cotton, \\ gallons 
of water can be allow^ed. This will suit the dyeing of yarns 
and loose fabrics like knitted stockings and hosiery goods very 
well. In the case of dyeing piece goods on a jigger or con- 
tinuous dyeing machines even stronger liquors can be used 
with advantage. With some of the older, direct dyes like 
Congo red, Benzo azurine. Diamine scarlets, the proportion of 
water maj^ be increased to twenty times the w^eight of the 



CONTINUOUS WORKING IN DIRECT COTTON DYEING. 109 

cotton. In any case the quantity of water used should not 
exceed twenty-five times the weight of the cotton. 

The second factor, the quantity of sahne sahs, Hke Glauber's 
salt, soda, borax, etc., added in the dyeing, is not without 
influence, generally the more that is added the more dye 
there is left in the bath, but here again much depends upon 
the salt and the colouring matters used. Some salts, more 
particularly Glauber's salt and common salt, tend to throw 
some dye-stuffs out of the Imth, and so the mor e there is used 
of them the deeper t lu' ^liade prodiict'd on th e fabr ic. It is 
quite impossible, having regard to the scope of this book, to 
deal with this question in detail. The dyer should ascertain 
for himself the best salts and the best proportions of these to 
use with the particular dyes be is using. The recipes given 
above will give him some ideas on this point. 

The third factor, the degree of affinity of the dye for the 
cotton fibre, has some influence on the depth of shade which 
can be dyed from any given strength of the dye-bath. There 
is a very considerable difference among the direct dyes in this 
respect. There arc ^oiiu' \\hich liavc a fair degree of affinity, 
while there arc cUhtT^ which liavc but little affinity, and 
while in the former case there is little dye left in the bath, 
in the latter case there is a good deal. When dyeing plain 
shades with single dye-stuffs this is not of much moment, 
because if the bath be kept for further use, as will be spoken 
of presently, the bath may be brought up to its original 
strength by adding a proportionate amount of dye-stuff, but 
when compound shades are being dyed, using two or more 
dyes, then this feature has some influence, for they will 
not be absorbed by the fibre in the same proportion as 
they were put in the bath, and so wdien making up the 
dye-bath for the second lot, and adding the same proportion 
of dyes, the shade which is produced Vvill not be quite the 
same, for the first lot of cotton in taking up the dyes in vary- 



110 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

ing quantities has altered their relative proportions, and so 
the bath for the second lot of cotton will actually contain 
more of one dye than did the first bath, and the influence of 
this excess of the one constituent will show itself in the 
shade ultimately dyed. The more lots of cotton there are 
dyed in the bath the greater will this influence be. The 
dyer must by practical experience find out for himself in 
what direction this feature of the direct dyes exerts its in- 
fluence on the particular dyes he is working with and make 
due allowance. 

It is found in practice that from one-fourth to one-half of 
the original w^eight of dye-stuff is left in the bath, and in order 
to be as economical as possible a custom has arisen of keeping 
the bath and using it again for dyeing further lots of cotton. 
In thus making a continuous use of dye-baths it is important 
in preparing the baths for the next lot of cotton to add first 
the requisite quantities of dye-stuffs, how much w411 depend 
upon the factors and conditions already detailed, but from 
one-half to three-fourths of the original quantities are added. 
Practical experience alone is the guide to be followed. 

Having added the dye-stuff, then sufficient water must be 
added to bring up the volume of the bath to the proper amount, 
for it will have lost some. The loss of water arises from two 
sources : first there is the evaporation, wliich always occurs 
when dye-baths are heated up, and, second, there is the mech- 
anical loss due to its absorption by the material which is being 
dyed. When a piece of cotton or other textile fabric is im- 
mersed in a dye liquor it absorbs mechanically some of it, and 
this amount may be roughly put down as about its own weight; 
thus 100 lb. weight of cotton will take up 10 gallons of Hquor 
and carry that quantity out of the bath. To some extent 
this may be minimised by a previous wetting out of the 
cotton, which will then have in it as much liquor as it will 
take up, and so practically no more will be taken up from the 



CONTINUOUS WORKING IN DIRECT COTTON DYEING. Ill 

dj^e-bath. Aii}^ loss of volume which may thus occur can be 
remedied by the addition of water. 

The dye-baths containing in solution, in addition to the 
dye-stuff, salt, or Glauber's salt, or any other added substance, 
the cotton in taking up the dye liquor will of course take up 
some of these in proportion to the volume of liquor absorbed. 
The amount may range from 4 oz. to 1 lb. per gallon of liquor, 
and if 100 lb. cotton is being dyed and takes up from 10 to 
15 gallons of Hquor, it is obvious that it must absorb from 8 
to 10 lb. of saline matter, and as the salinity of the dye Hquor 
is of some importance in dyeing direct colours, in making up 
the bath for the next lot of cotton this must be allowed for 
and suitable additions made. In order to do this properly it 
is a good plan to reiy upon the Twaddell. 

The dyer should take the Twaddell of his bath before use 
and always make up his baths to that strength. This will be 
found to range from 3° to 12° Tw. 

Thus, for instance, a dye-bath made from 120 gallons of 
water with 20 lb. to 25 lb. connnon salt or Glauber's salt 
with the dye-stuffs will stand at 4' Tw., one made with 50 lb. 
common salt or Glauber's salt at 8° Tw., while one which is 
made with 80 lb. to 100 lb. salt will stand at 12° to 13° Tw. 
If the dyer always maintains his liquors at one uniform 
degree Twaddell he can invariably depend upon getting uni- 
form shades from his dye-baths. This uniform strength is 
attained by adding more salt or more water as the case may 
require. 

Of course the continuous working of dye-baths cannot 
go on for ever ; sooner or later the baths become thick and 
dirty, and then they must be thrown away and a new bath 
started. 



112 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABKICS. 

(2) DiEECT Dyeing Followed by Fixation with 
Metallic Salts. 

It is an acknowledged principle in dyeing that to produce 
colours fast to washing, soaping and rubbing, there must be 
produced on the fibre an insoluble coloured substance. Now 
as the direct dyes do not essentially produce such insoluble 
bodies when dyed on the cotton, the colours they form 
are not always fast to washing and soaping. It has been 
ascertained, however, that some of the direct dyes, e.g., 
Benzo azurine, Chicago blue. Catechu browns, Diamine blues, 
Diamine browns, etc., are capable of uniting with metallic 
bodies to form insoluble colour lakes, and this combination 
can take place on the fibre. Fast shades may be dyed with 
the dye-stuffs named above, and with others of this group, 
by first dyeing them in the usual way, then passing through 
a boiling bath containing bichromate of potash or copper 
sulphate, either together or separately. The two fixing 
agents here named have been found to be the best, although 
others, as, for instance, zinc sulphate, chromium fluoride and 
iron sulphate have been tried. With some dyes there is 
little or no alteration in shade, but in others there is seme 
change, thus the blues as a rule tend to become greener 
in tone, and browns also tend to acquire a greener tone 
and deeper shade. The treated shades thus obtained are 
notable for considerable fastness to washing, soaping and 
light. It is to be noted that bichromate of potash exercises 
both a fixing and an oxidising action on dye-stuffs, hence 
it is needful to use it with some degree of caution and 
not in too great an amount, otherwise with some dyes there 
is a risk of over-oxidation, and in consequence poor shades 
will be developed. The following recipes will serve to show 
what dyes may thus be used, and the colours that can be 
obtained with them. 



THE PEAOTICE OF DIRECT COTTON DYEING. 113 

Dark Bed. — Use io the dye-bath 3 lb. Diamine fast red F, 
3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, work at the boil for one 
hour, then jift, rinse and pass into a boiling bath containing 
3 lb. fluoride of chromium for ten to fifteen minutes, then lift, 
rinse and dry. By using 1 lb. of the dye-stuff in the same 
way a light red shade is got. 

Orange. — Dye at the boil for one hour with 1 lb. Chrys- 
amine G, 3 lb. soap and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, then rinse 
and fix in a fresh boiling bath with 1 lb. bichromate of 
potash, 3 lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb. acetic acid. 

Yelloio.—Dje with 3^ lb. Diamine yellow N, 3 lb. soap 
and 15 lb. phosphate of soda, then fix with 4 lb. fluoride of 
chromium. 

Gold Yelloiv. — Prepare the dye-bath w^ith 3 lb. Benzo 
chrome brown 5 G, 1 lb. soda ash, 12 lb. Glauber's salt. 
Dye at the boil for one hour and rinse. This gives an 
orange brown. To get the yellow shade, afterwards chrome 
with 3 lb. bichromate of potash, 3 lb. sulphate of copper, 1 lb. 
acetic acid, in a fresh bath. Enter at about 130° F., bring to 
the boil, and boil for half an hour. 

Pale Leaf Green. — Dye with 3 lb. Dianil yellow 3 G, 1 lb. 
Dianil yellow E, 1 lb. Dianil blue G, and 20 lb. salt, then fix 
with 3 lb. copper sulphate and 2 lb. acetic acid. 

Leaf Green. — Dye with 3 lb. Dianil yellow 3 G, 3 lb. Dianil 
blue G, and 20 lb. salt, fixing with 4 lb. copper sulphate and 
2 lb. acetic acid. 

Dark Green. — Dye w^ith 2 lb. Dianil yellow K, 1^ lb. Dianil 
dark blue K, 1 lb. soda and 20 lb. salt, fixing with 3 lb. 
copper sulphate. 

Pale Olive Greeji. — Dye with 2| lb. Diamine fast yellow B, 
11 lb. Diamine blue K W, | lb. Diamine blue K W, J lb. 
Diamine catechine G; fix w^ith 4 lb. sulphate of copper and 
2 lb. acetic acid. 

Russia Green. — Dye with 2h lb. Diamine blue R W, 10 oz. 



114 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

Diamine dark blue B, 2k lb. Diamine fast yellow B, 3 lb. soda 
and 20 lb. Glauber's salt ; fix with 4 lb. sulphate of copper 
and 2 lb. acetic acid. 

Blue Green. — Dye with If lb. Diamine sky blue F F, 6 oz. 
Diamine fast yellow B, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt ; 
fix with 2 lb. sulphate of copper and 1 lb. acetic acid. 

Bronze Green. — Use in the bath at the boil 4 lb. Diamine 
bronze G, 2 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, then fix with 
4 lb. fluoride of chromium. 

Pea Green. — Dye in a boiling bath with h lb. Diamine sky 
blue F F, 2J lb. Diamine fast yellow A, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb. 
Glauber's salt, then fix in a fresh bath with 2 lb. sulphate of 
copper and 1 lb. acetic acid. 

Leaf Green. — Dye at the boil for one hour in a bath con- 
taining 2f lb. Diamine fast yellow B, If lb. Diamine blue 
R W, 7 oz. Diamine catechine B, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb. 
Glauber's salt, then fix in a new bath with 4 lb. sulphate of 
copper and 2 lb. acetic acid. 

Light Green. — Prepare the dye-bath with 7;^ oz. Diamine 
blue R W, 5 J oz. Diamine orange B, 2 lb. Diamine fast yellow 
B, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, work at the boil for one 
hour, then treat in a fresh bath with 3 lb. sulphate of copper. 

Olive Green. — Dye with 2^ lb. Chicago blue R W, 15 oz. 
Chrysamine G, 2 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt ; fix with 
1 lb. bichromate of potash, 3 lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb. 
acetic acid. 

Pea Green. — Use in the dye-bath 3 lb. Chrysophenine G, 
1 lb. Chicago blue 6 B, 2 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, 
working at the boil for one hour, then fix in a fresh boiling 
bath with 3 lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb. acetic acid. 

Green. — Dye with 2| lb. Chicago blue 6 B, 5 oz. Chrysa- 
mine G, 2 lb. soap and 20 lb. Glauber's salt ; fix with 1 lb. 
bichromate of potash, 3 lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb. 
acetic acid. 



THE PEACTICE OF DIEECT COTTON DYEING. 115 

Dark Green. — Dye with 1\ lb. Diamine green B, IJ oz. 
Diamine bronze G, 1 lb. Diamine fast yellow A, 3 lb. soda 
and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, working at the boil for one hom% 
then lift, rinse and fix in a fresh boiling bath with 3 lb. 
fluoride of chromium for one to fifteen minutes. 

Dark Bronze. — Use in the dye-bath 2| lb. Diamine bronze 
G, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, working at the boil 
for one hour, then lift, rinse and fix with 3 lb. fluoride of 
chromium as above. 

Dark Blue. — Prepare the dye-bath with 3 lb. Benzo blue 
K W, 10 lb. Glauber's salt ; dye for one hour at the boil, 
then treat in fresh bath with 1 lb. sulphate of copper at the 
boil for half an hour. 

Blue. — Dye with If lb. Diamine brilliant blue G, 1\ lb. 
Diamine sky blue F F, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt ; 
fix in a bath with 4 lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb. acetic 
acid. 

Light Navy. — Dye with 1 lb. Diamine blue 3 B, 2J lb. 
Diamine blue K W, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt ; fix 
with 4 lb. sulphate of copper and 20 lb. acetic acid. 

Bright Navy. — Dye with 4 lb. Diamine brilliant blue G, 
2 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt ; fix with 4 lb. sulphate 
of copper and 2 lb. acetic acid. 

Blue. — Dye with 3 lb. Chicago blue B W, 3 lb. soda 
and 20 lb. Glauber's salt ; fix with 3 lb. sulphate of copper 
and 2 lb. acetic acid. 

Dark Blue.— Dye with 3 lb. Chicago blue B W, \\ lb. 
Zambesi black F, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt ; fix 
with 3 lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb. acetic acid. 

Deep Slate Blue. — Dye with IJ lb. Zambesi black F, 1\ lb. 
Chicago blue B, 6 oz. Columbia yellow, 3 lb. soda and 
20 lb. Glauber's salt ; fix with 3 lb. sulphate of copper and 
2^1b. acetic acid. 

Light Blue. — Prepare the dye-bath with 2 oz. Diamine 



116 THE DYEING- OF COTTON FABRICS. 

sky blue F F, J oz. Diamine fast yellow A, h lb. soda, 2 lb. 
soap and 5 lb. Glauber's salt ; dye for one hour at the boil, 
then treat in a fresh bath with li lb. sulphate of copper for 
half an hour. 

Dark Blue. — Prepare the dye-bath with 4 lb. Benzo chrome 
black blue B, 15 lb. Glauber's salt and 3 lb. soda. Work 
at the boil for one hour, then chrome in a fresh bath with 

1 lb. bichromate of potash, 1 lb. sulphate of copper and J lb. 
sulphuric acid. 

Dark Bhie. — Dye with 2^ lb. Diamineral blue R, 3 lb. 
soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt ; fix with 2 lb. sulphate of 
copper, 2 lb. bichromate of potash and 2 lb. acetic acid. 

Turquoise Blue. — Dye with 1 lb. Chicago blue 6 B, 2 lb. 
soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and fix with 3 lb. sulphate 
of copper and 2 lb. acetic acid. 

Dark Turquoise Blue. — Dye with 3 lb. Chicago blue 4 B, 

2 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and fix with 3 lb. 
sulphate of copper and 2 lbs. acetic acid. 

Black Blue. — Dye with 4|- lb. Diamine dark blue B, 1 lb. 
Diamine new blue R, 2 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, 
fixing with 5 lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb. acetic acid. 

By mixing together the various Diamine blues a very great 
range of shades can be produced, from pale sky-blue tints to 
the deepest of blues. 

Bright Blue.— Dye with 2i lb. Dianil blue B and 20 lb. 
Glauber's salt ; fix with 3 lb. of fluoride of chromium. 

Dark Blue. — Dye with 3 lb. Dianil blue B, 1 lb. Dianil 
dark blue R, 1 lb. soda and 20 lb. salt, fixing with 3 lb. 
fluoride of chromium. 

Bed Violet. — Dye with 1 lb. Dianil blue 4 R and 10 1b, 
salt, fixing with 4 lb. fluoride of chromium. 

Dark Plum. — Dye with 3 lb. Dianil blue 4 R and 15 lb. 
salt, fixing with 4 lb. fluoride of chromium. 

Bed Violet. — Dye with 1 lb. Diamine blue 3 R, 1 lb. soda 



THE PKACTICE OF DIKECT COTTON DYEING. 117 

and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, fixing with 1^ lb. sulphate of copper 
and 1 lb. acetic acid. 

Bed Plum. — Use 3f lb. Diamine blue 3 K, 3 lb. soda and 
20 lb. Glauber's salt, fixing with 5 lb. sulphate of copper and 

2 lb. acetic acid. 

Dark Broion. — Prepare the dye-bath with 5 lb. Diamine 
catechine B, 3 lb. soda and 15 lb. Glauber's salt and dye at 
the boil for one hour, then treat with 2 lb. sulphate of copper 
and 2 lb. bichromate of potash. 

Broion. — Prepare the dye-bath with 4 lb. Paramine brown C, 
20 lb. Glauber's salt, 2 lb. soda and dye at the boil for one 
hour ; treat with 3 lb. copper sulphate. 

Light Brown. — Dye at the boil for one hour in a bath con- 
taining 5 lb. Diamine catechine G, 3 lb. soda and 15 lb. 
Glauber's salt, then treat in a fresh bath with 2 lb. sulphate 
of copper and 2 lb. bichromate of potash. 

Dark Chestnut Broion. — Dye for an hour in a boiling bath 
with 2^ lb. Diamine catechine G, 1\ lb. Diamine fast yellow B, 

3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt ; then fix in a fresh 
boiling bath with 2 lb. sulphate of copper, 2 lb. bichromate 
of potash and 2 lb. acetic acid, working for fifteen to twenty 
minutes, then rinsing and drying. 

Broion. — Use 3 lb. Catechu brown G K, 15 lb. Glauber's 
salt and h lb. soap ; after dyeing for one hour at the boil 
treat in a fresh boiling bath with 3 lb. copper sulphate. 

Dark Broion. — Dye at the boil for one hour w^ith 3 lb. 
Catechu brown F K, 15 lb. Glauber's salt and 1 lb. soap, then 
treat in a fresh boiling bath with 3 lb. copper sulphate. 

Brown. — Prepare the dye-bath with 9 oz. Diamine blae 
B W, 12\ oz. Diamine orange B, If lb. Diamine fast yellow B, 
2 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt ; after working for one 
hour at the boil treat in a fresh boiling bath with 4 lb. 
sulphate of copper. 

Brown. — Prepare the dye-bath with 4 lb. Benzo chrome 



118 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

brown 2 K, 20 lb. Glauber's salt (crystals) and dye at the boil 
for one hour ; afterwards treat with bichromate of potash 
and sulphate of copper. 

Nut Broion. — Dye in a bath with 4 lb. Benzo chrome brown 
G and 20 lb. salt, then treat in a fresh bath with 4 lb. 
bichromate of potash, 4 lb. copper sulphate and 1 lb. acetic 
acid. 

Chestnut Broiun. — Dye at the boil for one hour in a bath 
containing 4 lb. Benzo chrome brown E, and boihng bath 
with 4 lb. bichromate of potash, 4 lb. sulphate of copper and 

1 lb. acetic acid. 

Dark Olive Brown. — Dye with 4 lb. Diamine bronze G, 1 lb. 
Diamine orange B, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt ; fix 
with 5 lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb. acetic acid. 

Deep Brown. — Use in the Dye-bath If lb. Diamine brown B, 
If lb. Diamine fast yellow B, | oz. Diamine black B H, 3 lb. 
soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt. The fixing bath contains 

2 lb. sulphate of copper, 2 lb. bichromate of potash, and 2 lb. 
acetic acid. 

Dark Brown. — Dye with 2 lb. Diamine brown M, 1 lb. 
Diamine fast red F, | lb. Diamine jet black Cr, 3 lb. soda and 
20 lb. Glauber's salt. The fixing bath contains 2 lb. sul- 
phate of copper, 2 lb. bichromate of potash and 2 lb. acetic 
acid. 

Black Broivn. — Dye with 1 j lb. Diamine dark blue B, f lb. 
Diamine orange B, If lb. Diamine fast yellow B, 2 lb. soda 
and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, fixing with 5 lb. sulphate of copper 
and 2 lb. acetic acid. 

Light Sage Brown. — Dye with | lb. Diamine brown B, 
1| lb. Diamine fast yellow B, 3 oz. Diamine dark blue B, 2 lb. 
soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, fixing with 3 lb. sulphate of 
copper and 1 lb. acetic acid. 

Pale Brown. — Use in the dye-bath 1 lb. Dianil brow^n 3 G 0, 
4 oz. Dianil brown E, 4 oz. Dianil black N, 1 lb. soda and 20 



THE PRACTICE OF DIRECT COTTON DYEING. 119 

lb. salt, fixing with Ih lb. sulphate of copper and 1 lb. acetic 
acid. 

Walnut Broum. — Dye with '2h lb. Diamine blue 3 E, 1 11). 
Diamine brown M, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, then 
fix with 5 lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb. acetic acid. 

Pale Fawn Broivn. — -Dye with 2 lb. Diamine blue 8 E, 1 lb. 
Diamine brown M, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, then 
fix with 5 lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb. acetic acid. 

Pale Faiun Brown. — Dye with \ lb. Diamine orange B, ^ lb. 
Diamine fast yellow B, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, 
fixing with 2 lb. sulphate of copper and 1 lb. acetic acid. 

Sage Brown. — Dye with 9 oz. Diamine blue E W, J lb. 
Diamine orange B, 1 J lb. Diamine fast yellow B, 2 lb. soda and 
20 lb. Glauber's salt. The fixing is done with 4 lb. sulphate 
of copper and 2 lb. acetic acid. 

Bed Chocolate. — ^Dye with 8 lb. Diamine orange B, 1 lb. soda 
and 10 lb. Glauber's salt ; fix with 2 lb. sulphate of copper 
and 1 lb. acetic acid. 

Dark Chestnut. — Dye with 2^ lb. Dianil brown 8 G O, 18 oz. 
Dianil brown E, 18 oz. Dianil brown B D, 1 lb. soda and 20 lb. 
salt, fixing with 3 lb. copper sulphate and 1 lb. acetic acid. 

Broimi. — Dye with 2 J lb. Chrysophenine G, Ij lb. Diamine 
brown G, IJ' lb. Chicago blue E W, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glau- 
ber's salt ; fix with 8 lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb. acetic acid. 

Nut Broivn. — Dye with 8 lb. Chromanil brown 2 G, 8 lb. 
soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt ; fix with 1 lb. bichromate of 
potash, 3 lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb. acetic acid. 

Dark Grey. — Dye at the boil for one hour with 1 lb. Zam- 
besi black F, 3 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt ; fix in a 
fresh boiling bath with 8 lb. sulphate of copper, 1 lb. bichro- 
mate of potash and 10 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Dark Grey. — Dye with 3 lb. Chromanil black 4 E F, 8 lb. 
soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt ; fix with 1 lb. bichromate of 
potash, 8 lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb. acetic acid. 



120 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

Dark Grey. — Use in the dye-bath 1 lb. Diamine bkie K W, 
J lb. Diamine orange B, } lb. Diamine new blue K, 2 lb. soda 
and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, fixing with 4 lb. sulphate of copper 
and 2 lb. acetic acid. 

Pale Greenish Grey. — Dye with ^ oz. Diamine orange B, 
3 oz. Diamine blue E W, h lb. soda, 2 lb. soap and 5 lb. 
Glauber's salt, fixing w^ith 1 lb. sulphate of copper and i lb. 
acetic acid. 

Slate Blue. — Dye with ^ lb. Diamine dark blue B, 2 oz. 
Diamine new blue R, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt ; 
fix with 2 lb. sulphate of copper and 1 lb. acetic acid. 

Grey. — Prepare the dye-bath with 2 lb. Cross-dye black 
2 B, 5 lb. soda ash, 15 lb. common salt ; after rinsing leave 
the cotton in the air to age overnight, rinse again and work 
for half to three-quarters of an hour at from 150° to 160° F. 
in a bath containing 5 lb. bichromate of potash and 5 lb. 
sulphuric acid, then thoroughly rinse and dry. 

Dark Grey. — Dye with 1 lb. Diamine jet black Cr, 1 lb. 
soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, fixing with 1 lb. bichromate of 
potash and ^ lb. acetic acid. 

Green Grey. — Dye with 1 lb. Diamine dark blue B, 2 oz. 
Diamine orange B, 4 oz. Dianaine fast yellow B, 1 lb. soda 
and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, fixing with 3 lb. sulphate of copper 
and 1 lb. acetic acid. 

Grey. — Dye with 4 oz. Dianil black N, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb. 
salt, fixing with 1 lb. copper sulphate and h lb. acetic acid. 

Black. — Prepare the dye-bath with 5^ lb. Diamine jet black 
R B, 1 lb. Diamine dark blue B, 20 lb. Glauber's salt ; dye 
at the boil for one hour, rinse and then treat the goods 
simmering for twenty minutes with 4 lb. bichromate of 
potash. 

Black. — Prepare the dye-bath w^ith 8 lb. Chromanil black 
R F and 20 lb. Glauber's salt ; dye at the boil for one hour, 
then treat boiling hot for about thirty minutes in a fresh bath 



THE DYEING OF SULPHUR COLOUES. 121 

with 1 lb. bichromate of potash and 3 lb. sulphate of copper. 
Add 6 lb. only of the dye-stuff to the bath for a second batch. 

Black. — Use 5 lb. Dianil black N, 5 lb. soda and 20 lb. salt ; 
then fix with 3 lb. copper sulphate, 3 lb. bichromate of potash 
and 2 lb. acetic acid. 

Black. — Use in the dye-bath 5 lb. Dianil black C K, 3 lb. 
caustic soda, 36° Tw. and 20 lb. salt, fixing with 3 lb. copper 
sulphate, 3 lb. bichromate of potash and 2 lb. acetic acid. 

Jet Black. — D3^e with 5 lb. Diamine jet black Cr, 1 lb. soda 
and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, fixing with 4 lb. bichromate of 
potash and 2 lb. acetic acid. 

It will be convenient here to deal with a small but 
growing and important class of dye-stuffs which contain 
sulphur in their composition, and which, therefore, are 
nam.ed : — 

Sulphur or Sulphyl Colours. 

The original type of this group is Cachou de laval, sent 
out a good many years ago, but of late years Vidal black, 
St. Dennis black. Cross-dye blacks and drab, Immedial blacks, 
blues and browns, Amidazol blacks, browns and olives, 
Sulf aniline black and brown, Katigen blacks, greens and 
browns, etc., have been added, and the group is likely to 
become a very numerous one in the future. 

All these colours are dyed on to the cotton or linen from 
baths containing soda and salt, while some require the 
addition of sodium sulphide or caustic soda in order to 
have the dye-stuff properly dissolved. They are very weak 
dyes compared with the direct colours, and require from 
20 to 60 per cent, to produce full shades, although of this 
fully one-third remains in the bath unabsorbed by the cotton. 
It is, therefore, important in order to work as economically 
as possible to retain the bath, bringing it up to strength by 
the addition of fresh dye-stuffs, etc. 



122 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

Most of the dyes require the dyed goods to pass through a 
second bath of some reagent, bichromate of potash, sulphate 
of copper, etc., in order to fully develop and fix the dye on 
the fabric. 

The best method of using the various dyes of this group 
will be given in the form of formulae. Two points of 
importance are to use as strong a dye liquor as possible, 
and to expose the cotton as little as possible to the air 
during the dyeing operation. The dj^e-stuffs when exposed 
to the air readily become oxidised, and are thereby converted 
into insoluble products which become fixed on the fibre in a 
loose form, and in that case the dyed fibre rubs rather badly. 

Pale Broivn. — Prepare a dye-bath with 15 lb. Cachou de 
laval, 10 lb. of soda, and 10 lb. salt. The bath is not 
exhausted of colouring matter, and by adding one-half of 
the above quantities of dye-stuff and salt may be used again 
for another lot of cotton. After the dyeing the cotton is 
passed into a fixing bath of 2 lb. bichromate of potash and 

1 lb. acetic acid, working at 180° F. ten to fifteen minutes. 

Black. — Prepare the dye-bath with 200 gallons of water, 
10 lb. soda, 10 lb. sulphide of sodium, 60 lb. salt and 16 lb. 
Immedial black V extra. Work at the boil for one hour, 
keeping the cotton well under the surface during the opera- 
tion, in the case of yarns this is effected by using bent iron 
rods on which to hang the hanks in the vat, in the case of 
pieces by working with vats the guide rollers of which are 
below the surface of the dye liquor.- After the dyeing the 
yarn or pieces are squeezed, well rinsed in water, then passed 
into the fixing bath, which contains 2 lb. sulphate of copper, 

2 lb. bichromate of potash and 3 lb. of acetic acid, for half an 
hour at 170° to 180"" F. Bichromate of potash used alone 
gives a reddish shade of black, sulphate of copper a greenish 
shade, a mixture of the two gives a greenish shade. 

There are three brands of Immedial black, viz., V extra, G 



THE DYEING OF SULPHUR BLACKS. 123 

extra and F F, which vary a httJe in the tone of black they 
produce. The method of using is identical for all three. The 
dye-bath is not exhausted of colour and so should be kept 
standing, for each subsequent lot of cotton add 8 lb. Immedial 
black and 3 lb. sulphide of soda, and to every 10 gallons 
of water added to bring the bath up to volume | lb. soda and 

3 lb. salt. 

These blacks are very fast to washing, light, etc. By 
using smaller quantities of dye-stuff good greys can be dyed. 

Black. — Prepare the dye-bath with 10 lb. soda, 10 lb. 
sulphide of sodium, 60 lb. salt and 25 lb. Vidal black, work 
at the boil for one hour, then rinse and fix with 3 lb« 
bichromate of potash and 2 lb. sulphuric acid. 

Black. — Prepare the dye-bath with 30 lb. Cross-dye black 
B, 10 lb. soda, 150 lb. salt. Dissolve the dye-stuff* in boiling 
water, then add the soda crystals and finally the salt. Enter 
the previously well-boiled cotton at about 175° F. After 
a few turns raise the temperature to the boil as quickly 
as possible, and work for one hour 'just at the boil). Lift 
and thoroughly rinse without delay. (The better the cotton 
is washed the clearer the ultimate shade.) After washing, 
wring up and let air age for about one hour ; the intensity 
of the black is thereby increased. 

Meanwhile prepare a bath with 5 lb. bichromate of potash* 

4 lb. sulphuric acid (168° Tw.). Enter at 150° to 160° F., and 
work at this for about ten minutes. After chroming, wash 
thoroughly to remove all traces of acid. At this stage, the 
usual softening may take place if desirable, and finally dry at 
a low temperature. 

The bath is kept up for further lots, and three-fourths the 
quantity of colouring matter, and about half soda and one 
fourth salt are used. Wood, or iron cisterns are most suit- 
able, and copper pans or pipes must be avoided. 

The dye-bath should be kept as short as possible, about 



124 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABEICS. 

twelve to fifteen times the amount of water on the weight 
oT cotton is advisable. The cotton w^ien in the dye-bath 
shouldHBe exposed as little as possible to the air. 

There are several brands of these Cross-dye blacks varying 
in the tone of black they give. 

Black. — Prepare the dye-bath with 5 lb. soda ash, 200 lb. 
salt and 20 lb. Amidazol black G, this is heated to 150° F., 
the cotton is entered, the heat raised to the boil, and the 
dyeing done for an hour at that heat. Lift, rinse well, then 
pass into a chroming bath, made from 5 lb. bichromate of 
potash and 3 lb. sulphuric acid, used at 160° F. for twenty 
minutes, then lift, wash well and dry. The bath may be 
kept standing and used for other lots of cotton by replenish- 
ing with about two-thirds of the original weight of dye-stuff 
and a httle soda. There are four brands of these Amidazol 
blacks which dye from a jet black with the G to a deep blue 
black with the 6 G brand. The G, 2 G, and 4 G, used in 
small quantities, 2^ to 3 lb., dye good greys of a bluish tone, 
the 6 G gives a dull blue, the 4 G and 6 G, used in the 
proportions of Ih, to 10 per cent., give dark blues. 

All these blacks may be combined with aniline black with 
good results as shown in the following recipe : — 

Black, — Prepare the dye-bath with 10 lb. Amidazol black 
2 G, 5 lb. soda and 100 lb. salt. Work at the boil for an 
hour, then rinse, pass into a cold bath made from 2^ lb. 
aniline oil, 2 J lb. hydrochloric acid, 6^ lb. sulphuric acid, 
7i lb. bichromate of potash, and 5^ lb. perchloride of iron, 
66° Tw\ This is used cold for an hour, then the heat is 
slowly raised to 160° F., when the operation is finished, and 
the cotton is taken out well rinsed and finished as usual. 
Any of this class of black may be so topped with aniline 
black if thought necessary A very fast black is thus got. 

Black. — Make the dye-bath with 15 lb. Sulfaniline black G, 
60 lb. salt, 10 lb. soda, and 5 lb. sulphide of sodium. Work 



THE DYEING OF SULPHUR COLOURS. 125 

at a little under the boil, then lift, rinse well and pass into 
a hot bath of 3 lb. bichromate of potash, 3 lb. sulphate of 
copper, and 4 lb. acetic acid for half an hour, then lift, rinse 
well and dry. 

It has been observed in the practical application on a 
large scale of these sulphur blacks that the cotton is liable 
to become tendered on being stored, although there are few 
signs of such after the dyeing is finished. The exact cause 
of this is somewhat uncertain, the most probable reason is 
that during the process of dyeing a deposit of sulphur in 
a fine state of division has been thrown down on the cotton 
by decomposition of the dye-stuff, and that this sulphur has 
in time become oxidised to sulphuric acid wdiich then exerts 
its well-known tendering action on the cotton. 

The remedy for this evil lies partly with the dye manu- 
facturer and chiefly with the dyer. The dye manufacturer 
should see that his product is made as free from sulphur 
as possible, while the dyer by careful attention to thorough 
washing, thorough fixation in the chrome, etc. baths, tends 
to eliminate all sulphur from the goods, and so prevent all 
possibility of the cotton becoming affected. 

Blue. — Make the dye-bath with 22 lb. Immedial blue C, 
13 lb. sulphide of sodium, 50 lb. salt and 15 lb. caustic soda 
lye at 70° Tw. Work at just under the boil for one hom% 
keeping the goods well under the surface of the liquor. After 
the dyeing the goods are well rinsed in the water and then 
passed into a vat which contains 1 lb. peroxide of sodium 
and 1 lb. sulphuric acid. This is started cold, after about 
fifteen minutes heat slowly to about 150°, work for tw^enty 
minutes, then lift, wash and dry. For subsequent lots of 
cotton there only need be used 7 lb. Immedial blue C, 2 lb. 
sulphide of sodium, 3 lb. salt and 1^ lb. caustic soda lye at 
70° Tw. The blue may also be developed by steaming with 
air in a suitable chest or steaming chamber. By topping 



126 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

with I lb. New methylene blue N, very bright blue shades can 
be dyed. 

Dark Navy. — Prepare the dye-bath with 25 lb. Immedial 
blue C, 24 lb. sulphide of sodium, 35 lb. common salt and 
12 lb. caustic soda lye, working at the boil for one hour, then 
rinse and develop in a bath made from 2 J lb. peroxide of 
sodium and 2J lb. sulphuric acid, started cold, then after 
twenty minutes heated to 160° F., tw^enty minutes longer at 
that heat will be sufficient. For second and subsequent lots 
of cotton there is added to the old bath 15 lb. Immedial blue 
C, 4 lb. sulphide of sodium, 5 lb. salt and 2 lb. caustic soda 
lye of 70° Tw. 

Blue. — A pale but not very bright shade of blue is dyed in 
a bath of 3 lb. Amidazol black 6 G, 5 lb. soda and 25 lb. salt. 
After working for one houi- at the boil, lift, rinse and pass 
into a bath which contains 2J lb. peroxide of sodium and 
2 J lb. sulphuric acid ; this is started cold, then heated to 
150° F., and kept at that heat for twenty minutes, when the 
cotton is taken out, well washed and dried. 

DeejJ Blue. — Dye with 20 lb. Amidazol black 6 G, 5 lb. 
soda and 200 lb. salt ; develop with 2 lb. peroxide of sodium 
and 2 J lb. sulphuric acid, working as noted above. 

Dark Drab. — Prepare the dye-bath with 20 lb. Cross-dye 
drab, 5 lb. soda crystals and 80 lb. salt, work at the boil for 
an hour, then lift, wash well and dry ; this can be chromed 
if desired. 

Broion. — Dye with 20 lb. Amidazol cutch, 5 lb. soda ash 
and 150 lb. salt, working at the boil for one hour, then hft, 
wash thoroughly and dry. By after treatment in a bath of 
3 lb. potassium bichromate and 3 lb. sulphuric acid the 
colour is made fast to washing. The shade is not altered. 

Buff. — Dye with 2 J lb. Amidazol cutch, 5 lb. soda and 
25 lb. salt, working at the boil for one hour, then hft, wash 
and dry. 



THE DYEING OF SULPHUR COLOURS. 127 

Pale Sea Green. —Dye with 4 lb. Amidazol green Y, 5 lb. 
soda and 25 lb. salt, working at the boil for one hour, then 
lift, wash well and dry. 

Dark Green. — Dye with 20 lb. Amidazol green B, 5 lb. 
soda and 20 lb. salt ; work at the boil for one hour, then lift, 
wash thoroughly and dry. 

Dark Brown. — Dye with 20 lb. x\inidazol cachou, 5 lb. soda 
and 200 lb. salt, working for an hour at the boil, then lift, 
rinse well and pass into a chrome bath of 4 lb. potassium 
bichromate and 3 lb. sulphuric acid at 50° F. for half an 
hour, then wash well and dry. 

Dark Sage. — Dye with 20 lb. Amidazol drab, 5 lb. soda ash 
and 150 \b. salt for an hour at the boil, then lift and chrome 
with 4 lb. potassium bichromate and 8 lb. sulphuric acid for 
thirty minutes at 150° F., washing well afterwards. 

All the Amidazol dyes are very fast to washing, acids, etc. 
They can be treated with salphate of copper or peroxide of 
sodium when they produce good shades. They may even be 
diazotised and developed with beta-naphthol and phenylene 
diamine. The pale tints got by using from 2 to 4 per cent, 
of dye-stuff are useful ones, as also are the medium shades 
with 10 per cent, of dye-stuff. 

BroiDii. — Prepare the dye-bath with 10 lb. Sulfaniline 
brown 4 B, 50 lb. salt, 10 lb. soda and 5 lb sulphide of sodium ; 
work at the boil for one hour, then lift, wash and treat in a 
fresh bath with 3 lb. potassium bichromate and 2 lb. acetic 
acid at 160° F. for half an hour, then wash well and dry. 

OZwe.—Dye with 10 lb. Katigen olive G, 50 lb. salt, 10 lb. 
soda and 6 lb. sulphide of sodium ; work for one hour at the 
boil, then lift, wash and treat in a fresh bath w^ith 2 lb. bi- 
chromate of potash, 2 lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb. acetic 
acid for half an hour at the boil, then wash. 

Dark Olive. — Dye with 20 lb. Katigen olive G, 50 lb. salt, 
10 lb. soda, and 6 lb. sulphide of sodium, working at the boil 



128 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABEICS. 

for one hour, then hft, wash and dry. By chroming a darker 
and faster ohve is got. 

Broivn. — Dye with 20 lb. Katigen dark brown, 50 lb. salt, 
10 lb. soda and 6 lb. sulphide of sodium at the boil for one 
hour, then treat in a fresh bath with 2 lb. bichromate of 
potash, 2 lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb. acetic acid for half 
an hour at the boil, then wash w^elk 

Pale Broivn. — Dye with 8 lb. Immedial bronze A, 2 lb. 
soda, 2 lb. sulphide of sodium and 10 lb. Glauber's salt at 
the boil for one hour, then lift, rinse and pass into a fresh 
bath containing 1 lb. bichromate of potash and 2 lb. acetic 
acid at 150° F. for half an hour, then Hft, wash and dry. 

Dark Broivn. — Dye with 12 lb. Immedial brown B, 5 lb. 
sulphide of sodium, 5 lb. soda and 20 lb. salt at the boil for 
one hour, then lift and treat in a fresh bath with 2 lb. bi- 
chromate of potash, 2 lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb. acetic 
acid. 

The Immedial blacks, blue, bronze and brown dye very 
fast shades, standing soaping, acids and light. They may 
be combined together to produce a great range of shades of 
blue, brown, green, grey, etc. 

These examples will perhaps suffice to show how this 
new but important class of sulphyl colours are applied to the 
dyeing of cotton. They may be topped with aniline black, 
indigo, basic dyes, or combined with such direct dyes as 
produce shades fast to chronaing to form a very great range 
of shades which have the merit of fastness. 

(3) DiEECT Dyeing Followed by Fixation with 
Developers. 

A large number of the dyes prepared from coal tar are 
called azo colours, such for instance are the Biebrich and 
Croceine scarlets and oranges, Naphthol black, Congo red, etc., 
just to name a few. The preparation of these is about the 



COTTON DYEING BY DEVELOPMENT. 129 

simplest operation of colour chemistry, and consists in taking 
as the base an amido compound as the chemist calls such. 
These amido compounds, of which aniline, toluidine, benzi- 
dine, naphthylamine are familiar examples, are characterised 
by containing the molecular group NH^, which radicle is 
built up of the two elements nitrogen and hydrogen. All 
compounds which contain this group are basic in character 
and combine with acids to form well-defined salts. When 
these amido bodies are treated with sodium nitrite and 
hydrochloric acid they undergo a chemical change, the 
feature of which is that the nitrogen atoms present in the 
amido compound and in the nitrite unite together and a new 
compound is produced which is called a diazo compound, 
and the operation is called " diazotisation "'. 

For example when paranitroaniline is subjected to this 
reaction it undergoes a change indicated in the chemical 
equation : — 

C,H,NO,NH, + NaNO, + '2B.C\ = 

Paranitroaniline, Sodium nitrite, Hydrochloric acid. 

C,H,NO,N : NCI + NaCl + 2H,0 = 

Paranitro benzene Sodium chloride, Water, 

diazo chloride, 

The above, put into words, means that when parani- 
troaniline is dissolved with hydrochloric acid and treated with 
nitrite of soda it forms diazonitro benzene chloride, sodium 
chloride and water. Now the diazo compounds are rather 
unstable bodies, but they have a great affinity for other 
compounds, such as naphthol, phenylene diamine, phenol, 
and combine easily with them when brought into contact 
with them. The new compounds thus made form the dye- 
stuffs of commerce. 

The azo dyes contain the characteristic group of two 
nitrogen atoms shown in the formula N : N. In dealing with 



130 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

the production of colours direct on the fibre this subject will 
be elaborated more fully. 

Now many of the direct dyes, Diamine blacks, Diamine 
cutch, Primuhne, Diazo brown, Zambesi blues, browns, etc., 
contain amido groups, by reason of having been made from 
such bodies as phenylene diamine, amido naphthol, toluidine, 
etc., and it has been found that when dyed on the fibre they 
are capable of being diazotised by passing the dyed fibre into 
a bath of sodium nitrite acidified with hydrochloric acid, and 
if then they are placed into a bath containing such a body as 
beta-naphthol, phenylene diamine, etc., new compounds or 
dyes are produced, which are characterised by being insoluble 
in water, and therefore as formed on the fibre in the manner 
indicated are very fast to washing, soaping and similar 
agencies. 

Often the new or developed dye formed on the fibre differs 
markedly in colour from the original dye. Perhaps in no 
case is this more strong^ shown than with Primuline. The 
original colour is a greenish yellow, but by using various 
developers, as they are called, a great variety of shade can be 
got, as shown in this table. 

Developer. Colour produced. 



Beta-naphthol 
Alpha-naphthol . 
Phenylene diamine 
Phenol 
Resorcine 

Naphthylamine ether 
Blue developer A N 



Bright scarlet. 

Crimson. 

Brown. 

Gold yellow. 

Orange. 

Blue. 

Green. 



As regards the dyeing operation, it no way differs from 
that described for simple direct colours. It should, however, be 
noted that if good results are required full shades must be 
dyed. The cotton must be rinsed in cold water, and be 



COTTON DYEING BY DEVELOPMENT. 131 

quite cold before it is subjected to the diazotising operation. 
Diazotising is a simple operation, yet it must be carried out 
with care if good results are desired. It consists essentially 
in the use of an acidulated bath of sodium nitrite. 

To make the bath for diazotising there is taken (for each 
100 lb. of goods) sufhcient water to handle them in comfort- 
ably, 3 lb. of sodium nitrite and 6 lb. hydrochloric acid. 
This bath must be quite cold otherwise it does not work w^ell. 
The goods are handled in this for from fifteen to twenty 
minutes, when they are ready for the next operation. The 
bath is not exhausted of nitrite, etc., hence it can be kept 
standing, and for each succeeding lot of cotton it is strength- 
ened up by adding one-third of the quantities of nitrite and 
acid originally used. Of course the bath cannot be kept for 
ever, sooner or later it will get dirty, and then it must be 
thrown away and a new bath be made up. 

The diazo compounds formed on the fibre are not very 
stable bodies. They decompose on being exposed for any 
great length of time to the air, w^hile light has a strong action 
on most, if not all of them ; hence it follows that the diazo- 
tising process should not be carried out in a room where 
direct, strong sunlight can enter or fall upon the goods. 
Then again, after diazotising, the treated goods should not 
be allowed to lie about exposed to air and light, but the 
operation of developing should be proceeded with at once, other- 
wise the diazo body will decompose, and weak and defective 
colours are liable to be obtained on subsequent development. 

For developing, quite a large number of substances are 
used. Some of these are regular articles of commerce, others 
are the special productions of certain firms, who advise their 
use with the dyes that they also manufacture. These latter 
are sent out under such designations as Developer B, Developer 
A N, or Fast-blue developer. Those most in use are beta- 
naphthoi for red from Primuline, and for bluish blacks from 



182 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

Diamine blacks, Diazo blacks, Zambesi blacks, etc. ; for dark 
blues from Diamine blues, Diazo blues, etc. ; for greys from 
Diamine blues, Neutral grey, etc. Alpha-naphthol for dark 
reds from Primuline, greys from Diamine blues, Neutral grey, 
etc. Phenylene diamine for blacks from Diamine blacks, 
Diazo blacks, Zambesi blacks, Triamine blacks, etc. ; for dark 
browns from Diamine browns, Diazo browns, etc. ; for light 
browns from Cotton browns. Diamine cutch, Primuline, etc. 
Naphtbylamine ether for blues from Diamine blacks, etc. 
Phenol for claret from Diamine cutch, and for gold yellow 
from Primuline, etc. Besorcine for orange from Primuline, 
etc. Soda for browns from Diamine cutch, Diazo browns, 
Zambesi browns, for orange from Diamine orange, and yellow 
from Primuline. 

Beta-naphthol. — This is by far the most important of the 
developers. It is a white body, insoluble in water, but readily 
soluble in soda lye, and a solution is easily made by taking 
10 lb. beta-naphthol and heating it with 10 lb. caustic soda 
lye of 70° Tw. and 60 gallons of water. This bath may be 
used as the developing bath, or it may be diluted with more 
water. It is not desirable to use any more caustic soda than 
is necessary to dissolve the beta-naphthol, so that the bath is 
not too alkaline. To produce full shades it usually takes 1 
per cent, of the weight of the cotton of the beta-naphthol, 
but it is best to use the bath as a continuous one and for the 
first lot of cotton use '2 per cent, of naphthol, while for each 
succeeding lot only 1 per cent, more naphthol need be added 
to the same bath. 

This bath is alkaline, while the diazotising bath is acid, 
unless, therefore, the cotton be well washed when it is taken 
from the latter bath there is a risk of the alkali of the one 
being neutralised by the acidity of the other, and the naphthol 
being thrown out in an insoluble form. This, of course, is 
easily remedied should it occur. 



DEVELOPERS FOR COTTON DYEING. 133 

Developer A (Bayer) is a mixture of beta-naphthol and 
caustic soda in the powder form, so that a sohition is obtained 
by simply adding water. Rather more (about 1^ per cent.) of 
this is required than of beta-naphthol. 

Alpha-naphthol has similar properties to, and is used in 
the same way as, beta-naphthol ; it develops much darker 
and rather duller colours, which are less fast to washing. 

Resorcine, like naphthol, is insoluble in water, but it can 
be dissolved by using either soda ash or caustic soda. The 
latter is preferable, as the former is liable to give a developing 
bath that froths in working, especially if much acid has been 
left in the cotton from the diazotising bath. The proportions 
are : 10 lb. resorcine, 25 lb. caustic soda lye of 70° Tw., and 
60 gallons of water ; or 10 lb. resorcine, 20 lb. soda ash, and 
60 gallons of water, heated until a solution is obtained. In 
the developing bath 1 per cent, of resorcine is usually sufhcient 
to use. It develops an orange with Primuline. 

Developer F (Bayer) is a mixture of resorcine and soda 
ash. It requires 1^ per cent, to make a developing bath. 

Phenol, better known as carbolic acid, finds a use as a 
developer. It is dissolved in caustic soda, 10 lb. phenol, 
15 lb. caustic soda lye of 70° Tw., and 60 gallons of water. 
Generally 1 per cent, is sufficient to use as a developer. It 
is often called yellow^ developer. 

Naphthylamine ether is used as a developer for blues in 
conjunction with the Diamine blacks. It is prepared for use 
by dissolving in hydrochloric acid, 10 lb. naphthylamine ether 
powder heated with 5 lb. hydrochloric acid and 50 gallons 
water. About 1:^ per cent, is required to form a developing 
bath. Naphthylamine ether is also sent out in the form of 
a paste mixed with acid, and containing about 25 per cent, 
of the actual developer. 

Fast blue developer A D (Cassella), is amidodipheny- 
lamine. It is insoluble in water, but soluble in dilute acid, 



134 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

10 lb. fast blue developer A D, 5 lb. hydrochloric acid and 
35 gallons of water making the bath. To develop full shades 
1 to 1^ per cent, is required. 

Blue developer A N (Cassella). The base of this is in- 
soluble in water, but dissolves in soda, and is probably a 
naphthol-sulpho acid. The product, as met with in the 
market, is soluble in water, and '27 lb. dissolved in '20 gallons 
of water form the bath. To produce full shades 1^ per cent, 
is usually required. 

Phenylene diamine is a most important developer. It 
comes into the market in two forms, as a powder, very nearly 
pure, made into a solution by dissolving 10 lb. with 20 gallons 
of water and 5 lb. hydrochloric acid, and as a solution pre- 
pared ready for use. Developer C (Bayer) and developer E 
(Bayer) are preparations of diamine, the former in a powder, 
the latter in a solution. Phenylene diamine can be used 
with the addition to the developing bath of acetic acid or 
soda. 

SchaefFer's acid is a sulpho acid of beta-naphthol, and is 
dissolved by taking 10 lb. of the acid and 7^ lb. soda, boiling 
with 50 gallons of water. About 1| per cent, is required for 
developing full shades. 

Developer B (Bayer) is ethyl beta-naphthylamine, in 
the form of its hydrochloric acid compound. The bath is 
made from 10 lb. of the developer and 50 gallons of water, 
IJ per cent, being used to obtain full shades. 

Developer D (Bayer) is dioxy-naphthalene-sulpho acid, 
and simply requires dissolving in water to jnake the bath. 

Toluylene diamine is a homologue of phenylene diamine 
and is used in precisely the same way. 

Generally the special developers issued by the various 
colour firms simply require dissolving in water to form the 
developing bath. 

The cotton, previously being passed through the diazo- 



COTTON DYEING BY DEVELOPMENT. 135 

tising bath, is then run into the developing bath, in which it 
is kept for from twenty to thirty minutes or until the required 
shade is fully developed, after which it is taken out, rinsed and 
dried. The method of working is the same for all the de- 
velopers, and may be carried out in any kind of vessels. As 
is indicated above, the developing baths may be kept standing 
and be freshened up as required ; they are used cold. Some- 
times two developers are mixed together, in which case care 
should be taken that an alkaline developer naphthol or 
phenol be not mixed w^ith an acid developer (phenylene 
diamine, naphthylamine, etc.), unless the acidity of the 
latter has been neutralised with soda ; otherwise the de- 
veloper might be thrown out of the bath in an insoluble and 
hence useless form. 

The advantages of the diazotising and developing process 
just described may be summed as — easy and quick working, 
superior fastness to washing, soaping and milling, increased 
fastness to light and softness of the dj^ed fibre. 

Scarlet. — Dye with 8 lb. PrimuHne and 20 lb. salt, at the 
boil for one hour, diazotise and develop with beta-naphthol. 

Crimson. — Dye with 3 lb. Primuline and *20 lb. salt, then 
diazotise and develop with alpha-naphthol. 

Bed Broimi. — Dye with 4 lb. Primuline and '20 lb. salt, 
then diazotise and develop with phenylene diamine. 

Deep Oramje. — Dye with 3 lb. Primuline and 20 lb. salt, 
then diazotise and develop with resorcine. 

Pale Orange, — Dye with 3 lb, Primuline and 20 lb. salt, 
then diazotise and develop with phenol. 

Sage Broion. — Dye with 6 lb. Prinmline, 3 lb. Titan 
ingrain blue and 20 lb. salt, then diazotise and develop with 
resorcine. 

Dark Maroon. — Dye with 6 lb. Primuline, 3 lb. Titan 
ingrain blue and 20 lb. salt, then diazotise and develop with 
beta-naphthol. 



136 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

Dark Crimson. — Dye with 5f lb. Primuline, J lb. Titan 
ingi'ain blue and 20 lb. salt, then diazotise and develop with 
beta-naphthol. 

Dark Blue. — Dye with 3 lb. Zambesi blue B X, 2 lb. soda 
and 20 lb, Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop with 
amidonaphthol ether. 

Dark Brotvn. — Dye with 3 lb. Zambesi brown 2 G, 2 lb. 
soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop 
with toluylene diamine. 

Blue Black. — Dye with 4 lb. Zambesi blue B X, 2 lb. 
Zambesi black D, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb. salt, then diazotise 
and develop with f lb. toluylene diamine and J lb. beta- 
naphthol. 

Bed. — Dye with 4^ lb. Primuline, h lb. Diamine fast ^^ellow 
A and 20 lb. salt, then diazotise and develop with beta- 
naphthol. 

Dark Broivn. — Dye with 4 lb. Primuline, 1 lb. Diamine azo 
blue E E, and 20 lb. salt, then diazotise and develop with 
beta-napthol. 

Deej:) Chestnut Broicn. — Dye with 5 lb. Diamine cutch, 1 lb. 
soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop by 
passing for tw^enty minutes in a boiling bath of soda. 

Dark Broivn. — Dye with 4 lb. Diamine cutch, 1 lb. Diamine 
black B H, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, then diazotise 
and develop with phenol. 

Black Brown. — Dye with 1 lb. Diamine brown M, Ih lb. 
Primuhne, 1 oz. Diamine black B H, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb. 
Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop with phenylene 
diamine. 

Blue. — Dye with 2 lb. Diaminogene blue B B, i lb. soda 
and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop with 
beta-naphthol. A dark blue is got ])y using 3 lb. of Diamino- 
gene blue B B in the same way. 

Dark Blue. — Prepare the dye-bath with 1^ lb. Diaminogene- 



COTTON DYEING BY DEVELOPMENT. 137 

blue B B, lyV lb. Diamine azo blue K E, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb. 
Glauber's salt. Dye at the boil for one hour, rinse slightly in 
cold water, then enter into a fresh cold bath prepared with 41b 
nitrite of soda previously dissolved in water, and 12^ lb. hydro- 
chloric acid. For subsequent lots in the same bath one-third 
of these additions is sufficient. After diazotising rinse the 
goods in a bath w^eakly acidulated with hydrochloric or 
sulphuric acid, and then immediately develop with beta- 
naphthol. 

Black, — Prepare the dye-bath with 3 lb. Triamine black B, 
15 lb. Glauber's salt, in fifty gallons of water. Dye exactly 
as in the preceding recipe. Wash and rinse very thoroughly 
after lifting, then diazotise in a bath of about 250 gallons of 
cold water, to which add separately 2^ lb. sodium nitrite 
dissolved in five times its bulk of water and 8 lb. hydrochloric 
acid diluted. Enter the damp cotton and treat it for about 
half an hour. Lift, pass through a weak acid bath, rinse, 
and develop immediately in a bath of about 250 gallons of 
cold water, containing 1 lb. developer T, 1 lb. soda, previously 
dissolved together in hot w^ater. Enter the damp goods, w^ork 
well for half an hour, then lift, w^ash and dry. 

Blue Black. — Dye with 4 lb. Diamine black B H, 2 lb. soda 
and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop w^ith 
naphthylamine ether. 

Dark Navy. — Dye with 3 lb. Diamine azo blue K E, 2 lb. 
soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop with 
beta-naphthol. 

Light Chestnut Broicn. — Dj^e with 2 lb. Cotton brow^n N, 
1 lb. diamine fast yellow A, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb. salt, then 
diazotise and develop with phenylene diamine. 

Dark Broicn. — Dye with 5 lb. Diamine cutch, 3 lb. soda 
and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop with fast 
blue developer A D. 

Black. — Dye with 4 lb. Diamine black B H, 3 lb. soda and 



138 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABEICS. 

20 lb. Glauber's salt, diazotise and develop with 2 lb. resorcine 
and 1 lb. phenylene diamine. 

Bliie Black. — Dye with 4 lb. Diaminogene B, 2 lb. soda 
and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop with 
beta-naphthol. 

Black. — Dye with 4^ lb. Diaminogene B, i oz. Diamine fast 
yellow B, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, then diazotise 
and develop with 3 lb. resorcine and 1 lb. phenylene diamine. 

Light Blue. — Dye with 1| lb. Diaminogene blue B B, 1 lb. 
soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, then diazotised and develop 
with beta-naphthol. 

Maroon. — Dye with 6 lb. Primuline and 20 lb. salt, dia- 
zotise and develop with blue developer A N. 

Olive Brotun. — Dye with 5^ lb. Diamine cutch, 3 lb. soda 
and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop with 
fast blue developer A D. 

Gold Broion. — Dye with 1 lb. Cotton brown N, | lb. Diamine 
bronze G, 2 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, then diazotise 
and develop with phenylene diamine. 

Walnut Broion. — Dye with 3 lb. Diamine brown M, 3 lb. 
soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop 
with beta-naphthol. 

Broion. — Dye with 1^ lb. Diamine brown M, 1 lb. Diamine 
fast yellow B, 1 lb. cotton brown N, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glau- 
ber's salt, then diazotise and develop with phenylene diamine. 

Dark Plum. — Dye with 3 lb. Diamine brown V, 1 lb. soda 
and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop with 
beta-naphthol. 

Black Broion. — Dye with 3 lb. Diamine cutch, 31b. Diamine 
black B H, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, then dia- 
zotised and develop with phenylene diamine. 

Blue Black. — Dye with 4J lb. Diamine black K 0, 3 lb. 
soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop 
with beta-naphthol. 



COTTON DYEING BY DEVELOPMENT. 139 

Bliie Black. — Dye with 4^ lb. Diamine black R 0, 3 lb. soda 
and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop with 
naphthylamine ether. 

Blice Black. — Dye with 5 lb. Diamine black B O, 3 lb. 
soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop 
with beta-naphthol. 

Dark Bltie. — Dye with 4 lb. Diamine black R O, 3 lb. soda 
and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop with 
blue developer A N. 

Black. — D3^e with 5 lb. Diamine black K O, 1 oz. Diamine 
bronze G, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, then diazotise 
and develop with phenylene diamine. 

The Diamine blacks are a range of very useful dye-stuffs, 
and by their means alone and in conjunction with the various 
developers as seen in the examples given above a range of 
useful shades of blue, navy blue, and blacks of every tone can 
be obtained. It may also be added that many of the direct 
dyes, although not diazotisable, are not altered by the process 
and so may be used along with diazotisable dyes for the pur- 
pose of shading them, and in that way a great range of 
shades can be produced, particularly by combining Primuline 
with other dyes. 

(4) Direct Dyeing Followed by Fixation with 
Couplers. 

A further development in the application of the direct 
dyes has of late years been made. This is a two-bath method. 
The cotton is dyed with certain of the direct dyes : Primuline, 
Diamine jet blacks, Diazo blacks, Toluylene orange and brown, 
Diazo brown, Diamine nitrazol dyes, Benzo nitrol dyes, etc., 
in the usual way. Then a bath is prepared l)y diazotising 
paranitroaniline, benzidine, metanitraniline, dianisidine, etc., 
or by using the ready diazotised preparations which are novf 
on the market, Nitrazol C, Azophor red P N, x\zophor blue 



140 THE DYEINCt of COTTON FABEICS. 

P N, etc., and immersing the dyed cotton in this bath. Com- 
bination takes place between the dye on the fibre and the 
diazo compound in this bath, and a new product is produced 
direct on the fibre, w^hich being insohible is very resistant to 
washing and soaping. These " coupled " shades, as they will 
probably come to be called, differ from those produced on the 
fibre b}^ the original dye-stuff, thus the Diamine jet blacks 
and some of the Diazo blacks give, with paranitroaniline,. 
browns of various shades. 

In this section also may be considered the method of 
dyeing cotton by using the direct colours in the ordinary 
way, and then " topping," as it is called, with a basic dye 
in a fresh bath. 

Practically in the " coupling process " of dyeing only 
diazotised paranitroaniline is used as the coupler, although 
other amido bases of a similar nature are available. 

When paranitroaniline is used as the source for the coupling 
bath it is well to prepare a stock bath of diazotised parani- 
troaniline, which may be done in the following manner : — 

Preparation of diazotised paranitroaniline. — Take 1 lb. 
paranitroaniline, mix with 1 gallon boiling water and 1 quart 
hydrochloric acid, stir well, when the paranitroaniline will 
dissolve the solution may if necessary be assisted by a little 
heat. Now add 1^ gallons of cold water, and set aside to 
cool, when the hydrochloride of paranitroaniline will separate 
out in the form of fine crystals ; when the mixture is quite 
cold (it cannot be too cold) there is added ^ lb. sodium nitrite 
dissolved in ^ gallon cold w^ater, stir well for fifteen to 
twenty minutes, by the end of which time the paranitroaniline 
will have become fully diazotised, cold water is added to 
bring up the volume of the mixture to 10 gallons. This 
stock bath well prepared and kept in a cool, dark place 
will keep good for three to four weeks. This bath contains 
1 lb. of paranitroaniline in 10 gallons, and it is a good rule 



COTTON DYEING BY COUPLING AND TOPPING. 141 

to allow i lb., or 5 gallons of this stock bath to each pound 
of dye-stuff used in dyeing the ground colour to be developed 
up. 

To prepare the coupling bath there is taken 5 gallons of the 
stock bath, 1 lb. sodium acetate with sufficient water for each 

1 lb. of dye that has been used. 

This bath is used cold, and the cotton is worked in it for 
half an hour, then it is taken out, washed well and dried. 

Nitrazol C is a ready prepared diazotised paranitroanihne 
in a powder form which keeps well if stored in a dry place. 
The method of using is to take 8 lb. Nitrazol C, stir into a 
paste with water and then add this paste to the coupling 
bath, together with '2 lb. soda and | lb. acetate of soda. This 
bath is used cold and the dyed cotton is innnersed in it for 
half an hour, then taken out, well washed and dried. 

The quantity of Nitrazol C given will suffice for all shades 
dyed with from 2 to 4 per cent, of dye-stuff, but when paler 
shades are dyed, using less than say ^ per cent, of dye-stuff, 
about 4 lb. Nitrazol C, with the soda and acetate of soda in 
proportionate quantities, may be used. 

Azophor red P N is also a preparation of diazotised para- 
nitroanihne in the form of a dry powder which keeps well. 

To prepare the coupling bath there is taken 2 lb. of Azo- 
phor red P N, which is dissolved in water and added to the 
bath along with 1 lb. acetate of soda. The dyed goods are 
worked in the cold bath for half an hour, then taken out, well 
washed and dried. 

The quantities given are sufficient for shades dyed with 

2 to 4 per cent, of dye-stuff"; for weaker shades half the quan- 
tities may be taken. 

Benzo-nitrol developer is sold in the form of a yellow 
paste. To use it take 5 lb., stir into a smooth paste with 
water, then add to the coupling bath. There is then added 
S pints of hydrochloric acid, with some stirring. Allow to 



142 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

stand for half an hour, add Ih lb. acetate of soda and 6| oz, 
soda, when the bath is ready for use. The cotton is entered and 
worked for half an hour, then lifted out, washed and dried. 

It may be mentioned that solutions of the three couplers 
just named may be kept for some time without decomposition* 
but as soon as soda and acetate of soda are added they begin 
to decompose and then cannot be kept more than a few hours 
in a good condition. It is a good plan therefore not to add 
the acetate of soda until the bath is to be used. 

An excess of coupler in the bath does no harm, but a 
deficiency may lead to poor and weak shades being developed. 

The following recipes show the dyes which may be applied 
by this method and give some idea of the colours that can 
be got. Only the dye-stuffs are given. Any of the above 
couplers can be used with them as may be most convenient. 

Black. — Dye with 5 lb. Benzo-nitrol black B, 1 lb. soda 
and 20 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Olive Green. — Dye with 6 lb. Primuline, 3 lb. Titan mgrain 
blue and 20 lb. salt. 

Black. — Dye with 4 lb. Dianil black C K, 2 lb. soda and 
25 lb. salt. 

Dark Blue. — Dye with 2 lb. Dianil dark blue R, 1 lb. Dianil 
dark blue 3 R, 2 lb. soda and 25 lb. salt. 

Gold Broivn. — Dye with 1 lb. Primuline, 8 oz. Dianil brown 
R and 20 lb. salt. 

Chestnut. — Dye with 3 lb. Primuline, f lb. Dianil brown 
G 0, 1 lb. Dianil brown R, 1 lb. soda and 20 lb. salt. 

Dark Broion. — Dye with 1 lb. Dianil brown 3 G O, 3 lb. 
Dianil brown D, 1 lb. soda and 20 lb. salt. 

Dark Green. — Dye with 4 lb. Primuline, li lb. Dianil black 
C R, 1 lb. soda and 20 lb. salt. 

Walnut Brow7i. — Dye with 1 lb. Dianil brown 3 G 0, 8 oz. 
Dianil brown R, 3 lb. Dianil brown B D, 1 lb. soda, and 20 lb. 
salt. 



COTTON DYEING BY COUPLING AND TOPPING. 143 

Light Green. — Dye with 3 lb. Primuline, 8 oz. Dianil blue 
B, 5 oz. Dianil dark blue B, 1 lb. soda, and 20 lb. salt. 

Orange Yelloiv. — Dye with 3^ lb. Primuline, 1 lb. Oxydianil 
yellow, and 25 lb. salt. 

Olive. — Dye with 3^ lb. Primuline, 8 oz. Dianil brown 3 
G 0, 8 oz. Dianil blue B, 4 oz. Dianil dark blue E, 1 lb. soda,, 
and 25 lb. salt. 

Bright Yelloiv. — Dye with 2 lb. Primuline, and 20 lb. salt. 

Gold Yellow. — Dye with 2 lb. Diamine fast yellow A, 1 lb. 
soda, and 20 lb. salt. 

Bright Walnut. — Dye with h lb. Diamine nitrazol brown B^ 
1 lb. Oxydiamine orange R, 1 lb. soda, and 20 lb. Glauber's 
salt. 

Gold Brown. — Dye with ^ lb. Diamine nitrazol brown G,. 
1 lb. Primuline, and 20 lb. salt. 

Green. — Dye with 2 lb. Primuline, 1 lb. Diamine nitrazol 
black B, 1 lb. soda and 20 lb. salt. 

Pale Chestnut. — Dye with 1 lb. Primuline, I ^^' Oxydiamine 
orange R and 20 lb. salt. 

Moss Broivn. — Dye with 2 lb. Primuline, 1 lb. diamine jet 
black and 20 lb. salt. 

Chocolate. — Dye with IJ lb. Diamine brown V, 2 lb. Diamine 
nitrazol brown R D, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Olive Broivn. — Dye with 2 lb. Diamine nitrazol brown G, 
1 lb. Diamine nitrazol black B, 1 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's- 
salt. 

Bussian Green. — Dye with 2 lb. Diaminogene extra, 2 lb. 
soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Bronze Green. — Dye with 2 lb. Diamine grey G, 2 lb. soda 
and 20 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Terra-cotta Bed. — Dye with 2 lb. Oxydiamine orange R^ 
1 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Terra-cotta Broivn. — Dye with 2 lb. Diamine nitrazol brown 
R D, 1 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt. 



144 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

Olive Green.— Dye with 1 lb. Primuline, 2 lb. Diamine 
bronze G, 1 lb. soda and '20 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Dark Green. — Dye with 1 lb. Primuline, 2 lb. Diamine 
nitrazol black B, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb. salt. 

Sage Broion. — Dye with 1 lb. Primuline, 2 lb. Diamine jet 
black 0, 1 lb. soda and 20 lb. salt. 

Black Brown, — Dye with 1 lb. Diamine brown V, 2 lb. 
Diamine nitrazol black B, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's 
salt. 

Dark Walnut. — Dye with 1 lb. Diamine brown V, 2 lb. 
Oxydiamine orange K, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Pcfle Sage. — Dye with 1 lb. Diamine brown V, 2 lb. Primu- 
line, 1 lb. soda and 20 lb. salt. 

Broivn. — Prepare the dye-bath with 3 lb. P)iamine jet black 
0, 20 lb. Glauber's salt, 2 lb. soda. Dye at the boil for one 
hour. 

Brown. — Prepare the dye-bath with | lb. Benzo nitrol 
brown G, 20 lb. Glauber's salt, 2 lb. soda. Dye for one hour 
at the boil. 

Dark Broion. — Prepare the dye-bath with 2 lb. Benzo nitrol 
dark brown N, 20 lb. Glauber's salt, 2 lb. soda. Dye for one 
hour at the boil. 

Brown. — Prepare the dye-bath with 4 lb. Direct fast brown 
B, 20 lb. Glauber's salt, 2 lb. soda. Dye for one hour at the 
boil. 

Broion. — Prepare the dye-bath with 1 lb. 11 oz. Diamine 
jet black 0, 2 lb. Cotton brown N, 1 lb. 5 oz. Diamine brown 
V, 20 lb. Glauber's salt, 2 lb. soda. Dye at the boil for one 
hour. 

Brown. — Prepare the dye-bath with 2 lb. Diamine bronze 
G, 6i oz. Cotton brown N, 9| oz. Diamine fast yellow A, 
20 lb. Glauber's salt, 2 lb. soda. 

Black. — Prepare the dye-bath with 5 lb. Pluto black B, 
20 lb. Glauber's salt, 2 lb. soda. Dye for one hour at the boil. 



COTTON DYEING BY TOPPING. 145 

Solidogen A is a new coupler that has latterly been applied. 
It is a syrupy liquid, and the coupling bath is made by taking 
from 4 lb. to 6 lb. of the Solidogen A, and 1 lb. to 2 lb. of 
hydrochloric acid, in place of which 3 lb. to 5 lb. alum may 
be used. This bath is used at the boil, the goods being 
treated for half an hour, then well rinsed and dried. It 
increases the fastness of the colours to washing and 
soaping. 

The following recipes show its application : — 

Bright Red. — Dye with 3 lb. Dianil red 4 B, 2 lb. soap, 3 lb. 
soda and 15 lb. Glauber's salt, then fix with SoHdogen A. 

Scarlet. — Dye with 3 lb. Dianil scarlet G, 2 lb. soda and 
25 lb. salt ; fix with Solidogen A. 

Plum. — Dye with 3 lb. Dianil claret B, 5 lb. soda and 10 lb. 
Glauber's salt, then fix with SoHdogen A. 

Topping with Basic Dyes. — The shades dyed with the 
direct dyes may be materially brightened and new shades 
produced by topping with any of the basic dyes, which are 
applied in a fresh warm bath. A great variety of effects 
may be thus got of which the following recipes give a few 
examples : — 

Green. — Dye with 1 lb. Titan yellow G and 20 lb. salt ; top 
with i lb. Brilliant green. 

Bhce. — Dye with If lb. Diamine azo blue K, 1 lb. soda and 
20 lb. Glauber's salt, then top with 2 oz. New Methylene 
blue N. 

Bright Blue. — Dye with | lb. Diamine brilliant blue G, 1 lb. 
soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt ; top with 2 oz. New Methylene 
blue 3 E. 

Blue. — Dye with 1 lb. Diamine sky blue, 1 lb. soda and 
10 lb. Glauber's salt, and top with 4 oz. Brilliant green. 

Bose Lilac. — Dye with 1^ oz. Diamine violet N, 1 lb. soda 

and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, then top with 2 oz. Tannin heliotrope. 

Green. — Dye at the boil for one hour with 2 lb. Benzo 

10 



146 THE DYEINa OF COTTON FABRICS. 

green G and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, then top in a fresh bath 
with ^ lb. Turquoise blue B B. 

Violet. — Dye with 5 oz. Diamine violet N, 2 oz. Diamine 
brilliant blue G, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb. salt, and top with 1 oz. 
Methyl violet 2 B. 

Plum. — Dye with 1^ lb. Oxydiamine violet B, 5 oz. Diamine 
red 10 B, 2 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, then top with IJ 
oz. Methyl violet E. 

Bright Green. — Dye with 1\ lb. Diamine green G, 1^ lb. 
Oxydiamine yellow G G, 2 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, 
then top with 2 oz. Brilliant green. 

Blue. — Dye with 2 lb. Benzo azurine G, 3 oz. Brilliant 
azurine B, 1 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, topping with 6 
oz. Turquoise blue G and 3 oz. New Victoria blue B. 

Dark Lilac. — Dye with 3| lb. Heliotrope B B, 1 lb. soda 
and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, then top with 1 lb. Methyl violet K, 
and I lb. Methyl violet 3 E. 

Scarlet. — Dye with 3 lb. Brilliant Congo E, 3 lb. soda and 
20 lb. Glauber's salt, then top with 8 oz. Safranine. 

Bright Green. — Dye with 3 lb. Chrysamine G, 2 lb. soap and 
10 lb. phosphate of soda, topping with f lb. Malachite green. 

Bright Violet.— Bye with IJ lb. Chicago blue 6 B, 1 lb. 
soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, topping with 10 oz. Methyl 
violet B. 

Dark Green. — Dye with 2 lb. Columbia green, 3 lb. soda 
and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, topping with 10 oz. Malachite 
green. 

Claret. — Prepare a dye-bath with | oz. Diamine black E O, 
2J lb. Benzo purpurine 6 B, 10 lb. Glauber's salt. Dye at the 
boil for one hour, then enter in a fresh cold bath of J lb. 
Safranine G. Work for twenty minutes, lift, wash and dry. 

Seal Brow7i. — Make up a dye-bath with 2 lb. Benzo azurine 
G, 20 lb. Glauber's salt. Enter yarn at 180° F., dye at the 
boil for one hour, lift, wring, and enter into a fresh bath of 



COTTON DYEING WITH BASIC COLOURS. 147 

IJ lb. Bismarck brown. Work for one hour at about 180° F., 
lift, rinse well and dry. 

(5) Dyeing on Tannic Mordant. 

The oldest group of coal-tar dyes are the basic dyes, of 
which Magenta, Brilliant green, Chrysoidine, Bismarck brown, 
Auramine are typical representatives. For a long time these 
dyes were only used for dyeing w^ool and silk ; for cotton, 
linen, and some other vegetable fibres they have little or no 
affinity, and hence cannot dye them direct. However, it was 
found out that if the cotton be prepared or mordanted (as it 
is called) with tannic acid or with any substance containing 
that compound they could be used for dyeing cotton. 

The mordant used, tannic acid, has the property of com- 
bining with the dyes of this group to form insoluble coloured 
tannates. Now tannic acid has a certain amount of affinity 
for cotton, if the latter be immersed in sokition of tannic acid 
or any material containing it some of the latter is taken up 
and more or less fixed by the cotton fibre. Tannic acid is a 
vegetable product found in a large number of plants, and 
plant products, such as sumac, myrabolams, divi-divi, galls, 
oak bark, gambler, cutch, algarobilla, valonia, etc., which are 
commonly known as tannins, or tannin matters, on account 
of their use in the conversion of animal skins or hides into 
leather, which is done in the tanning industry. 

By itself the tannin-colour lake, which may be formed on 
the cotton fibre by immersion first in a bath of tannin and 
then in a dye-bath, is not fast to washing and soaping, but 
by taking advantage of the fact with such metals as tin, iron, 
antimony, etc., it combines to form insoluble tannates ; the 
tannic acid can be fixed on the cotton by immersion in a bath 
containing such fixing salts as tartar emetic, tin crystals, 
copperas, antimony fluoride, and antimony oxalate. The dye- 



148 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABEICS. 

ing of cotton with the basic colours therefore resolves itself 
into three operations : — 

(1) Tanning with tannic acid or some tanning matters. 

(2) Fixation with tartar emetic or other fixing agent. 

(3) Dyeing with the required colour or mixture of colours. 

(1) The Tanning Operation. — The practice of tanning or 
mordanting cotton with tannin is variously carried on by 
dj^'ers. Some steep the cotton in the tannin bath over night, 
others immerse it from two to three hours in a lukewarm bath, 
while some enter it in a boiling bath, which is then allowed 
to cool down and the cotton is lifted out. The last is 
perhaps the quickest method, and experiments have shown 
that it is as good as any other method, if the quantity of 
tannic acid taken up be regarded as the criterion of success. 

In the natural products which have just been enumerated, 
the tannic acid is accompanied by some colouring matter, 
which is also absorbed by the cotton ; in some (sumac and 
galls) this colour is present in but small quantities ; in others 
(divi-divi, myrabolams, algarobilla), there is a large quantity; 
therefore cotton treated with these comes out more or less 
coloured. Now it is obvious that such forms of tannin 
cannot be used when light tints are to be dyed, for such the 
acid itself must be used, for medium shades sumac or galls 
may be used ; while when dark shades — browns, maroons, 
dark greens, navy blues, etc., are to be dyed, then such 
tannin matters as divi-divi or myrabolams may be conveni- 
ently and economically adopted. The quantity used varies 
according to circumstances ; the character of the shades that 
are to be dyed, the dye-stuff used, the quality and character 
of the tannin matter used. For pale shades about 1 per cent, 
of tannic acid may be used, deep shades require from 3 to 4 
per cent. Of tannin matters from 5 per cent, may be used 
for pale shades, from 20 to 25 per cent, for deep shades. The 



COTTON DYEING WITH BASIC COLOURS. 149 

tannin baths are not exhausted, and may be kept standing, 
adding for each succeeding lot of cotton from i to f of the 
above quantities of tannin matters. Of course sooner or 
later the baths become unusable from various causes, and 
then they may be throw^n away ; but old tannin baths often 
work better than the new ones. 

(2) The Fixing Bath. — Following on the tannin bath comes 
the fixing bath to fix the tannin on the cotton in the form 
of insoluble metallic tannates. A variety of metallic salts 
may be used for this purpose, those of antimony, tin, iron, 
lead, etc., the substances most commonly used being tartar 
emetic, antimonj^ fluoride, oxalate of antimony, tin crystals 
and copperas. 

Beyond forming the insoluble tannate of antimony or tin, 
as the case may be, the salts of antimony and tm have no 
further effect on the tanned cotton, and they may be used 
to fix the tannin for all tints or shades, from very pale to 
very deep. Of all these salts tartar emetic has been found 
to be the best, probably because it is the least acid in its 
reactions, and therefore there is no tendency to remove any 
tannin from the fibre, as is the case with the other salts. 
Tin salt is little used for this purpose, because of its acidity, 
which prevents it from fixing the tannin as completely as is 
the case with tartar emetic. 

With copperas or iron liquor the question comes up not 
only of the mere fixation of the tannin, but also the fact that 
iron forms with tannin grey to black compounds, hence 
cotton which has been tanned and then immersed in a 
bath of copperas becomes coloured grey to black, according 
to the quantity of the tannin matter used. The property is 
useful when dark shades of maroons, clarets, greens, browns, 
blues, etc., are to be dyed, and is frequently employed. 

(3) Dyeing. — After the tannin and fixing operations comes 
the dyeing. This is not by any means a difficult operation. 



150 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

It is best carried out by preparing a cold bath, entering the 
prepared or mordanted cotton in this and heating slowly up. 
It is not necessary to raise to the boil nor to maintain the 
dye-bath at that heat, a temperature of ISO"" F. being quite 
sufficient in dyeing with the basic colours, and the operation 
should last only until the colouring matter is extracted from 
the dye-bath. Working in this way, level uniform shades 
can be got. 

One source of trouble in the dyeing of basic dyes, more 
especially with magentas, violets and greens, lies in their 
slight solubihty and great strength. In preparing solutions of 
such dyes it is best to dissolve the dye-stuff by pouring boiling 
water over it, and stirring well until all appears to be dissolved. 

This solution should be strained through a fine cloth, as 
any undissolved specks will be sure to fix themselves on the 
cloth and lead to dark spots and stains, as, owing to the weak 
solubility of the dye, and this being also fixed as insoluble 
t annate by the tannic acid on the fibre, there is no tendency 
for the dye to diffuse itself over the cloth, as occasionally 
happens in other methods of dyeing. No advantage is gained 
by adding to the dye-bath such substances as common salt 
or Glauber's salt. 

Some few of the dyes, e.g., Soluble blue, Victoria blue, 
which will dye on a tannic mordant, are sulphonated com- 
pounds of the colour base. These can be dyed in medium 
or light shades on to unmordanted cotton from a bath 
containing alum, and in the ordinary method of dyeing the 
addition of alum is beneficial, as tending to result in the 
production of deep shades. These are somewhat faster to 
washing and soaping, which is owing to the dyestuff com- 
bining with the alumina in the alum to form an insoluble 
colour lake of the sulphuric acid groups it contains. 

Many recipes can be given for the dyeing of basic dyes 
on cotton ; for the range of tints and shades of all colours 



COTTON DYEING WITH BASIC COLOUES. 151 

that can be produced by their means is truly great. Typical 
recipes will be given showing what basic dyes are available 
and how they can be combined together. The dyer, however, 
who knows how to produce shades by combining one dye-stuff 
with another is able to get many more shades than space 
will permit to be given here. 

Sky Blue. — -Mordant with 1 lb. tannic acid and h lb. tartar 
emetic, then dye with 2\ oz. Victoria blue B, and h oz. Tur- 
quoise blue G. 

Bright Bhte. — Mordant with 2 lb. tannic acid and 1^ lb. 
tartar emetic, then dye with IJ lb. New Victoria blue B, and 
f lb. Turquoise blue G. 

Pale Green. — Mordant with IJ lb. tannic acid and \ lb. 
tartar emetic, then dye with \ oz. Brilliant green and J oz. 
Aur amine I I. 

Bright Green. — Mordant with 1 lb. tannic acid and 1 lb. 
tartar emetic, then dye with 6 oz. Brilliant green and 8 oz. 
Aur amine I I. 

Turcpcoise Bhoe. — Mordant with 2 lb. tannic acid and Ih 
lb. tartar emetic ; dye with 1 lb. Turquoise blue G. 

Crimson. — Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 2 lb. tartar 
emetic, then dye with 1\ lb. Brilliant rhoduline red B and 5 
oz. Aur amine I I. 

Bright Violet. — Mordant with 2 lb. tannic acid and 1 lb. 
tartar emetic ; dye with 1\ lb. Ehoduline violet and 3 oz. 
Methyl violet B. 

Bose Lilac. — Mordant with 2 lb. tannic acid and 1 lb. tartar 
emetic ; dye with | lb. Ehoduline violet. 

Yelloiv. — Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 2 J lb. tartar 
emetic ; dye with 2 lb. Aur amine I I. 

Orange. — Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 2J lb. tartar 
emetic ; dye with 2 lb. Chrysoidine. 

Green. — Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 2h lb. tartar 
emetic, then dye with 2 lb. Brilliant green. 



152 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

Bed Violet. — Mordant with IJ lb. tannic acid and 1^ lb. 
tartar emetic, then dye with 8 oz. Methyl violet 4 K. 

The same method may be followed with all the brands of 
Methyl, Paris and Hoffmann violets, and so a range of shades 
from a pm^^Ie to a pm^e violet can be dyed. The 4 K to E 
brands of these violets dye reddish shades, the redness de- 
creasing according to the mark, the B to 6 B brands dye 
bluish shades, the blueness increasing till the 6 B brand dyes 
a very blue shade of violet. 

Bright Sea-Green. — Mordant with 1 lb. tannic acid and 
J lb. tartar emetic, then dye with 2 oz. Turquoise blue G and 
\ oz. New Victoria blue B. With these two blues a very 
great variety of tints and shades of blue can be dyed. 

Sea Green. — Mordant with 1 lb. tannic acid and f lb. tartar 
emetic, and dye with 2 oz. Malachite green. 

Dark Green. — Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 2 lb. 
tartar emetic, then dye with 1^ lb. Malachite green and f oz. 
Auramine I I. 

By combination of Brilliant green or Malachite green 
(which are the principal basic greens) with Auramine in 
various proportions a great range of greens of all tints and 
shades, from pale to deep and from very yellow to very green 
tints, can be dyed. 

Scarlet. — Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 2 lb. tartar 
emetic, then dye with I'i lb. Ehodamine 6 G and \ lb. 
Auramine I I. 

Pink. — Mordant with 1 lb. tannic acid and | lb. tartar 
emetic, and dye with \ lb. Ehodamine G. 

Pink. — Mordant with 1 lb. tannic acid and f lb. tartar 
emetic, and dye with J lb, Irisamine G. 

Slate Blue. — Mordant with li lb. tannic acid and 1 lb. 
tartar emetic, then dye with J lb. Victoria blue B and 2 oz. 
Malachite green. 

Indigo Blue. — Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 2^ lb. 



COTTON DYEING WITH BASIC COLOURS. 153 

tartar emetic, then dye with 1 lb. Methylene blue 2 B and 
^ lb. Malachite green. 

Dark Scarlet. — ^Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 2^ lb. 
tartar emetic, then dye with 1 lb. Safranine prima and | lb. 
Auramine I I. 

Grey. — Mordant with 1 lb. tannic acid and ^ lb. tartar 
emetic, then dye with J lb. New Methylene grey B. 

Bluish Bose. — Mordant with 2 lb. tannic acid and 1 lb. 
tartar emetic, then dye with 1 lb. Khodamine B. 

Maroon. — Mordant with 4 lb. tannic acid and 2 lb. tartar 
emetic, and dye w^ith 2 lb. Magenta and J lb. Auramine. 

Dark Green. — Mordant with 5 lb. tannic acid and 2| lb. 
tartar emetic, and dye with h lb. Methylene blue B B, i lb. 
Methyl violet 2 B and 2J lb. Auramine I I. 

Orange. — ^Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 2 lb. tartar 
emetic, and dye w^ith 1 lb. New Phosphine G. 

Lilac Grey. — Mordant with 1 lb. tannic acid and IJ lb. 
tartar emetic, and dye with I lb. Methylene grey B F, 

Gold Broiun. — Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 1| lb. 
tartar emetic, and dye with | lb. Thioflavine T and | lb. 
Bismarck brown. 

Orange. — Mordant with 2 lb. tannic acid and 1 lb. tartar 
emetic, and dye with 1 lb. Auramine and I lb. Safranine. 

Dark Blue. — Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 2 lb. tartar 
emetic, and dye with 2|- lb. New Methylene blue R and | lb. 
Naphtindone B B. 

Olive Green. — Mordant with 5 lb. sumac extract and 2 lb. 
copperas, and dye with 1 lb. Auramine. 

Bussian Green. — Mordant with 5 lb. sumac extract and 
2 lb. copperas, and dye with 2 lb. Malachite green. 

Scarlet. — Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 2 lb. tartar 
emetic, and dye with Ih lb. Thioflavine T and ^ lb. Irisamine 
G. With these two dye-stuffs it is possible to produce a 
variety of useful shades from a pure greenish yellow, with 



154 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

Thioflavine T alone, to a bright bluish pink, with the Irisamine 
alone, through orange, scarlet, etc., with combinations of the 
two dye-stuffs. 

Dark Grey. — Mordant with 5 lb. sumac extract and 3 lb. 
copperas, then dye with 1 lb. New Methylene grey G. 

Blue Black. — Mordant with 8 lb. sumac extract and 4 lb» 
copperas, or better with iron liquor, then dye with 2 lb. 
Indamine blue N. 

Olive Broiun. — Mordant with 5 lb. sumac extract and 3 lb. 
copperas, and dye with IJ lb. New Phosphine G. 

Indigo Blue. — Mordant with IJ lb. tannic acid and 1 lb. 
tartar emetic ; dye with J lb. New Methylene blue N. 

Sky Bhie. — Mordant with | lb. tannic acid and J lb. tartar 
emetic ; dye with IJ oz. New Methylene blue G G. 

Dark Violet. — Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 2 lb. 
tartar emetic, then dye with 4 lb. Fast neutral violet B. 

Bright Yelloio. — Mordant w^ith 2 lb. tannic acid and 1 lb. 
tartar emetic, and dye with 2 lb. Thioflavine T. 

Primrose Yelloio. — Mordant with 1 lb. tannic acid and \ lb. 
tartar emetic, and dye with 2 oz. Thioflavine T. 

Navy Blue. — Mordant with 5 lb. sumac extract and 3 lb. 
copperas, then dye with 2 lb. New Methylene blue R. 

Violet. — Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 2 lb. tartar 
emetic, and dye with 2 lb. New Methylene blue 3 R. 

Dark Blue. — Mordant with 5 lb. sumac extract and 3 lb_ 
copperas, and dye with 2 lb. New Methylene blue N X. 

Blue Black. — Mordant with 8 lb. sumac extract and iron 
liquor, then dye with 3 lb. Metaphenylene blue B. 

Emerald Tint. — Mordant the cotton in the usual way with 
1 lb. tannic acid and 1 lb. tartar emetic ; dye to shade at 
180° F. in a bath containing 14 oz. Auramine G, 2 oz. Brilliant 
green, then lift, wash and dry. 

Orange. — Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 2 lb. tartar 
emetic, then dye with 4 lb. Tannin orange R. 



COTTON DYEING WITH BASIC COLOURS. 155 

Scarlet. — Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 2 lb. tartar 
emetic, and dye with 2 lb. Tannin orange K and 1 lb. 
Safranine S. 

Dark Scarlet. — Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 2 lb. 
tartar emetic, and dye with i lb. Tannin orange K and 2 lb. 
Safranine S. 

The Janus colours are a series of dyes of a basic nature 
which can be applied somewhat differently to the ordinary 
basic dyes, although the ordinary method can be followed. 
With these Janus dyes a two-bath process is followed. A 
dye-bath is prepared containing the dye-stuff, sulphuric acid and 
common salt, and this is used at the boil from half to three- 
quarters of an hour, and the goods are allowed to remain 
in another three-quarters of an hour while the bath cools 
down. Next the dyed goods are run in a fixing bath of 
sulphuric acid, tannic acid and tartar emetic, this is used 
at the boil from half to one hour, after which the dyed goods 
are taken out and washed. If necessary the goods may be 
now topped with basic colours in order to produce any desired 
shade. The following recipes will show how the Janus dyes 
may be used : — 

Blue. — Dye with 9 oz. sulphuric acid, 8 oz. Janus blue 
G, and 5 lb. common salt ; fix with f lb. sulphuric acid, 8 oz. 
tannic acid and 4 oz. tartar emetic. 

Turquoise Blue. — Dye with 9 oz. sulphuric acid, 1 lb. Janus 
green B and 10 lb. salt, fixing with f lb. sulphuric acid, 1 lb. 
tannin and ^ lb. tartar emetic. 

Dark Bhte. — Dye with 9 oz. sulphuric acid, 2J lb. Janus 
blue R and 15 lb. common salt ; fix with | lb. sulphuric acid, 
2^ lb. tannic acid and 1| lb. tartar emetic. 

Buff. — Dye with 9 oz. sulphuric acid, 2 oz. Janus yellow 
E and 3 lb. salt ; fix with | lb. sulphuric acid, 3 oz. tannic 
acid and 3 lb. tartar emetic. 

Crimson. — Dye with 9 oz. sulphuric acid, 2J lb. Janus red 



156 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABKICS. 

B and 15 lb. salt, fixing with f lb. sulphuric acid, 2^ lb. 
tannic acid and 1^ lb. tartar emetic. 

Bed Violet. — Dye with 9 oz. sulphuric acid, 1 lb. Janus 
claret red B and 10 lb. salt; fix with 12 oz. sulphuric acid, 
1 lb. tannic acid and i lb. tartar emetic. 

Orange. — Dye with 9 oz. sulphuric acid, 1 lb. Janus yellow 
R and 10 lb. salt ; fix with 12 oz. sulphuric acid, 1 lb. tannic 
acid and \ lb. tartar emetic. 

Dark Violet. — Dye with 9 oz. sulphuric acid, 2 lb. Janus 
grey B and 15 lb. salt ; fix with 12 oz. sulphuric acid, 2| lb 
tannic acid and 1^ lb. tartar emetic. 

Chocolate Broivn. — Dye with 9 oz. sulphuric acid, 3J^ lb. 
Janus brown B and 15 lb. salt, fixing with 2 oz. sulphuric 
acid, 2J lb. tannic acid and 1 lb. tartar emetic. 

(6) Dyeing on Metallic Mordants. 

There are a number of dye-stuffs or colouring matters like 
alizarine, logwood, fustic, barwood, cutch, resorcine green, 
etc., which have no affinity for the cotton fibre, and of them- 
selves will not dye it. They have the property of combining 
with metallic oxides such as those of iron, chromium, alu- 
minium, tin, lead, calcium, etc., to form coloured bodies which 
are more or less insoluble in water. These coloured bodies 
are called "colour lakes," and the metallic compounds used 
in connection with their production "mordants," hence often 
the dye-stuffs applied by this method are termed " mordant 
dyes ". In the case of the natural dye-stuffs — logwood, fustic, 
Persian berries, Brazil wood, camwood, cochineal, quercitron, 
cutch, etc. — which belong to this group of "mordant dyes," 
the whole of the material does not enter into the operation, 
but only a certain constituent contained therein, which is com- 
monly soluble in boiling water, and extracted out by boiling. 
This constituent is called the " colouring principle " of the 
dye-stuff or wood, and naturally varies with each. It is not 



THE PEACTICE OF COTTON DYEING WITH MORDANTS. 157 

intended here to deal in detail with these colouring principles. 
The methods of applying and the colours which can be got 
from these dyes varies very much. Roughly, the modes of 
application fall under three heads : (1) the particular metallic 
mordant is first fixed on the fibre by any suitable method, 
and then the fibre is dyed ; (2) the dye-stuff is first applied 
to the fibre, and then the colour is fixed and developed by 
treatment with the mordant ; and (3) the dye-stuff and the 
mordant are applied at the same time. This last method is 
not much used. In the following sections many examples of 
these methods will be given. 

The dyes fixed with metallic mordant vary in their com- 
position and properties. There is first the group of eosine 
dyes, which are acid derivatives of a colour-base, and, in virtue 
of being so, will combine with the metallic oxides. The colour 
of these colour lakes is quite independent of what oxide is 
used, depending only on that of the particular eosine dye 
employed. Then there are some members of the azo dyes, 
particularly the croceine scarlets, which can also be dyed on 
the cotton by the aid of tin, lead or alum mordants. Here, 
again, the mordant has no influence on the colour, but only 
fixes it on the cotton. 

The most important class of dye-stuffs which are dyed on 
to cotton with a metallic mordant is that to which the term 
"mordant dyes" is now given. This includes such dyes as 
logwood, fustic, madder, alizarine, and all the dyes derived 
from anthracene. Many of these are not really dyes, that is, 
they will not of themselves produce or develop a colour on to 
any fibre when used alone ; it is only when they combine 
with the mordant oxide which is used, and then the colour 
varies with the mordant. Thus, for instance, logwood with 
iron produces a bluish black ; with chrome, a blue ; with 
alumina, a reddish blue. Alizarine with iron produces a dark 
violet ; with alumina, a scarlet ; with chrome, a red ; with 



158 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

tin, a bright scarlet. Fustic gives with tin and akunina, 
bright yellows ; with chrome, a dark yellow ; with iron, an 
olive, and so on with other members of this group, of which 
more will be said later on. 

Dyeing loith Eosines. 

At one time a fairly large quantity of cotton was dyed 
with the eosines, owing to the brightness of the shades given 
by them ; but the introduction of such direct dyes as the 
Erikas, Ceranines, etc., has thrown the eosines out of use. 

The method adopted for the production of eosine pinks 
and scarlets on cotton involves three operations : (1) impreg- 
nating the cloth with sodium stannate ; (2) fixing oxide of 
tin by a bath of weak sulphuric acid ; and (3) dyeing with the 
eosine. 

(1) Preparing with Sodium Stannate. — A- bath of 8° Tw. 
is prepared, and the cotton is allowed to steep in this bath 
until it becomes thoroughly impregnated, after which it is 
taken out and wrung. 

(2) Fixing the Tin Oxide — A bath of sulphuric acid of 2° 
to 4° Tw. is prepared, and the cotton is sent through it, after 
which it is washed well with water, when it is ready for 
dyeing. 

Stannate of soda is easily decomposed by acids ; even the 
carbonic acid present in the air will bring about this change. 
The tin contained in the stannate is deposited on the cotton 
in the form of stannic oxide, or, more strictly, stannic acid. 
As this is somewhat soluble in acids, it is important that the 
sulphuric acid bath be not too strong, or there will be a 
tendency for the tin oxide to be dissolved off the cotton, and 
then but weak shades will be obtained in the final operation of 
dyeing. Further, owing to the decomposition of the stannate 
by exposure to the air, it is important that the substance should 
be used while fresh, and that only fresh baths should be used. 



COTTON DYEING WITH EOSINE AND AZO DYES. 159 

(3) Dyeing with Eosine Colours. — After the treatment with 
stannate of soda and sulphuric acid the prepared cotton is 
ready for dyeing. This process is carried out by preparing a 
cold bath with the required dye-stuff, entering the cotton 
therein, and then slowly raising to about 180° F., and main- 
taining at that heat until the desired shade is obtained. It 
is not needful to raise to the boil and work at that heat. No 
better results are obtained, while there is even a tendency for 
colours to be produced that rub badly, which is due to the 
too rapid formation of the colour lake ; and it is worthy of 
note that when a colour lake is rapidly formed on the fibre 
in dyeing it is apt to be but loosely fixed, and the colour is 
then loose to both washing and rubbing. 

Dyeing with Acid and Azo Dyes. 

In dyeing with this class of colours stannate of soda, 
acetate of lead or alum may be used as mordants. The 
stannate of soda is employed in the same manner as when 
the cosines are used, and, therefore, does not require to be 
farther dealt with. 

Acetate of lead is used in a similar way. The cotton 
is first steeped in a bath of acetate of lead of about 10° Tw. 
strong, used cold, and from half an hour to an hour is allowed 
for the cotton to be thoroughly impregnated with the lead 
solution, it is then wrung and passed a second time into 
a bath of soda, when lead oxide or lead carbonate is deposited 
on the cotton. After this treatment the cotton is ready for 
dyeing with any kind of acid, azo and even eosine dyes, and 
this is done in the same manner as is used in dyeing the 
eosines on a stannate mordant. The shades obtained on 
a lead mordant cannot be considered as fast ; they bleed on 
washing and rub off badly. 

When alum is used as the mordant it may be employed 
in the same way as acetate of lead, but as a rule it is added to 



160 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABEICS. 

the dye-bath direct, and the dyeing is done at the boil. This 
latter method gives equally good results, and is more simple. 

The eosines and erythrosines, water blues, soluble blues, 
croceine scarlets, cloth scarlets, and a few other dyes of the 
azo and acid series are used according to this method. The 
results are by no means first class, deep shades cannot be ob- 
tained, and they are not fast to washing, soaping and rubbing. 

The methods of employing the much more important 
group of colouring matters known as the mordant dyes, 
which comprise such well-known products as logwood, fustic 
and alizarine, require more attention. With these, alumina, 
iron, and chromium mordants are used as chief mordants, 
either alone or in combination with one another, and with 
other bodies. The principal point is to obtain a good 
deposit of the mordant on the cotton fibre, and this is by 
no means easy. 

There are several methods by the use of which a deposit 
is formed of the mordant, either in the form of metallic 
oxide (or, perhaps, hydroxide) or of a basic salt. In some 
cases the cotton is passed through alternate baths containing, 
on one hand, the mordanting salt, e.g., alum, copperas, etc., 
and, on the other, a fixing agent, such as soda or phosphate 
of soda. Or a mordanting salt may be used, containing 
some volatile acid that on being subjected to a subsequent 
steaming is decomposed. Both these methods will be briefly 
discussed. 

Methods of Mordanting. 

The cotton is first steeped in a bath containing Turkey- 
red oil, and is then dried. By this means there is formed on 
the fibre a deposit of fatty acid, which is of great value in 
the subsequent dyeing operations to produce bright and 
fast shades. After the oiling comes a bath of alum or 
alumina sulphate, either used as bought, or made basic by 



THE PRACTICE OF COTTON DYEING WITH MORDANTS. 161 

the addition of soda. The result is to bring about on the 
fibre a combination of the fatty acid with the alumina. 
Following on the alum bath conies a bath containing soda 
or phosphate of soda, which brings about a better fixation 
of the alumina. 

These operations may be repeated several times, especially 
when a full shade having a good degree of fastness is desired, 
as, for instance, Turkey-reds from Alizarine. This method 
of mordanting is subject to considerable variations as regards 
the order in which the various operations are carried out, 
the strength of the baths, and their composition. A great 
deal depends upon the ultimate result desired to be obtained, 
and the price to be paid for the work. 

Iron is much easier to fix on cotton than is either alumina 
or chrome. It is usually sufficient to pass the cotton through 
a bath of either copperas or iron liquor, hang up to dry or 
age, and then pass into a bath of lime, soda or even phosphate 
of soda. The other mordants require two passages to ensure 
proper deposition of the mordant on the fibre. 

Following on the mordanting operations comes the dyeing, 
which is carried out in the following manner. The bath is 
made cold with the required amount of dye-stuff and not too 
small a quantity of water, the cotton is immersed and worked 
for a short time to ensure impregnation, then the temperature 
is slowly raised to the boil. This operation should be care- 
fully carried out, inasmuch as time is an important element 
in the dyeing wdth mordant colours ; the colouring principle 
contained in the dye-stuff must enter into a chemical com- 
bination with the mordant that has been fixed on the fibre. 
Heat greatly assists this being brought about, but if the 
operation is carried on too quickly, then there is a tendency 
for uneven shades to be formed. This can only be remedied 
by keeping the temperature low until the dye-stuff has been 

fairly well united with the mordant, and then maintaining 

11 



162 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

the heat at the boil to ensure complete formation of the 
colouring lake on the fibre, and therefore the production of 
fast colours. 

It has been noticed in the dyeing of alizarines on both 
cotton and wool that when, owing to a variety of circum- 
stances, local overheating of the bath happens to take place 
dark strains or streaks are sure to be formed. To avoid 
these care should be taken that no such local heating can 
occur. 

It only remains to add that it is possible to dye a great 
range of shades by this method, reds with alizarine and 
alumina ; blacks with logv/ood and iron ; greens from log- 
wood, fustic, or Persian berries, with chrome and iron ; blues 
from alizarine blues ; greens from Coeruleine or Dinitroso- 
resorcine, etc. 

Another method of mordanting cotton for the mordant 
group of dye-stuffs is that in which the cotton is impregnated 
with a salt of the mordant oxide derived from a volatile acid 
such as acetic acid, and then subjected to heat or steaming. 
This method is largely taken advantage of by calico printers 
for grounds, and dyers might make use of it to a much larger 
extent than they do. 

There are used in this process the acetates of iron, 
chromium and aluminium, and bisulphites of the same metals 
and a few other compounds. Baths of these are prepared, 
and the cotton is impregnated by steeping in the usual way ; 
then it is gently wrung out and aged, that is, hung up in 
a warm room overnight. During this time the mordant 
penetrates more thoroughly into the substance of the fabric, 
while the acid, being more or less volatile, passes off — 
probably not entirely, but at any rate some of the metal is 
left in the condition of oxide and the bulk of it as a basic 
salt. Instead of ageing the cotton may be subjected to a 
process of steaming with the same results. After this the 



THE PRACTICE OF COTTON DYEING WITH MORDANTS. 163 

cotton is ready for dyeing, which is done hy the method 
described in the last section. 

There is still another method to be noticed here, that is, 
one in which a bath is prepared containing both the mordant 
and the dye-stuff. In this case the character of the mordant 
must be such that, under the conditions that prevail, it will 
not form a colour lake with the dye-stuff. Such substances 
are the bisulphites, if used with the bisulphite compounds 
of the dyestuffs ; the acetates, if mixed with some acetic 
acid, may also be used. The process consists in preparing 
the dye-bath containing both the mordant and the dye-stuff, 
entering the cotton, steeping for some time, then wringing 
and steaming. During the latter operation the acid combined 
with the mordant, being volatile, passes away, and the colouring 
matter and mordant enter into combination to form the colour 
lake, which is firmly fixed upon the fibre. Very good results 
may be obtained by this method. 

Lastly, in connection with the mordant colours, attention 
may be directed to the process of using some of them, which 
consists in making a solution of the dye-stuff in ammonia, 
impregnating the cotton with this alkaline solution, and 
subjecting it to a steaming operation, during which the 
alkali, being volatile, passes away, leaving the colouring 
matter behind in an insoluble form. The cotton is next 
passed into a weak bath of the mordant (preferably the 
acetates of iron, etc.)., this being used first cold and then 
gradually heated up. The dye on the fibre and the mordant 
combine to form the desired colour, which is fixed on the 
fibre. 

The chrome mordants are those which are most commonly 
applied by the methods here sketched out, and with the 
large and increasing number of mordant dyes available, the 
processes should be worth attention from the cotton dyer. 

The following recipes give fuller details than the outline 



164 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

sketches of the methods given above for the use of the various 
dyes produced with the mordant dyes and metalhc mordants. 
In some cases as will be seen other dyes may be added to 
produce special shades : — 

Dark Olive. — Prepare a bath from 8 lb. cutch, 4 lb. log- 
wood extract, 7 lb. fustic extract, 2 lb. copper sulphate. 
Work in this for one to one and a half hours at the boil. 
This bath may be kept standing, adding new ingredients 
from time to time, and works best when it gets old. Then 
pass into a cold bath of 3 lb. copperas for one hour, then 
wash and enter into a new bath of 10 lb. salt, 6 oz. Titan 
blue 3 B, 6 oz. Titan brown K, 6 oz. Titan yellow Y, work 
for one hour at the boil, then lift, wash and dry. 

Broivn. — Prepare a bath with 20 lb. cutch, 2 lb. copper 
sulphate, 4 lb. quercitron extract. Work for one and a quarter 
hours at the boil, then allow to lie for a day, when the goods 
are passed into a bath containing 3 lb. bichromate of potash and 
1 lb. alum. Work at 150° to 160° F. in this for a few minutes, 
then allow^ to lie for four to five hours, wash well and dry. 

Olive. — Work for twenty minutes at 80° F. in a bath of 
10 lb. fustic extract, 5 lb. quercitron extract, 2 lb. logwood 
extract ; heat to boil, work for half an hour, then enter 
in a cold bath of 2 lb. sodium bichromate and 5 lb. copper 
sulphate ; work for twenty minutes, then heat to boil ; w^ork 
for twenty minutes more, wash and dry. 

Pale Broion. — Treat in a hot bath of 25 lb. cutch. If lb. 
bluestone ; work for half an hour in this bath, then lift, 
wring, and work in a bath of If lb. bichromate of potash for 
twenty to thirty minutes. Dye in a bath of 2J lb. alum, 
7 oz. Chrysoidin, 14 oz. Ponceau B. 

Fast Broiun. — The cotton is heated in a boiling bath con- 
taining 20 lb. cutch, 4 oz. copper sulphate for one hour, it is 
then treated in a bath containing 8 oz. bichromate of potash 
for half an hour, then dyed in a bath containing 2 oz. Benzo 



THE PRACTICE OF COTTON DYEING WITH MORDANTS. 165 

black blue, 6 oz. Benzo brown N B, 2 lb. soap, 8 lb. salt, for 
one hour at the boil, washed and dried. 

Drah. — Dissolve i lb. cutch, 7 lb. bluestone, 8 lb. extract 
of fustic ; enter goods at 120° F., give six turns, lift and 
drain. Prepare a fresh bath containing 2 lb. copperas ; enter 
goods, give three turns, lift, and enter fresh bath at 120°, con- 
taining 2 lb. bichromate of potash, give four turns, drain, 
wash and dry. 

Coffee Brown. — For one piece, wet out in hot water, run 
for half an hour upon a jigger in a bath of 6 lb. good cutch, 
take up and drain in a bath of 3 lb. black iron liquor ; drain, 
run again through each bath and rinse well. Prepare a fresh 
bath with Bismarck brown, enter at 100° F., heat slowly to 
200" F., drain, rinse and dry. 

Dark Broion Olive. — Prepare the dye-bath with 12 lb. cutch, 

2 lb. bluestone, 2^ lb. alum, 10 lb. quercitron extract, 2 lb. 
indigo carmine 4 lb. turmeric, \ lb. Bismarck brown ; boil 
for one and a half hours, then lift and add 1 lb. copperas ; 
re-enter the goods, give another half-hour, boil, then add 
1^ lb. bichromate of potash, work two hours more, then w^ash 
and dry. 

Red Drah. — Boil up 10 lb. cutch and 5 lb. sumac ; enter 
the cotton at 140° F., work fifteen minutes and lift. Prepare 
a fresh bath of 4 lb. black iron liquor ; enter the cotton cold, 
work ten minutes and lift. Prepare another bath with 3 lb. 
bichromate of potash ; enter cotton at 160° F., w^ork fifteen 
minutes, lift and wash. Finish in a fresh bath containing 

3 lb. logwood, 6 lb. red liquor ; enter cotton at 100° F., 
work ten minutes, lift, wash and dry. 

Faivn. — Boil up 5 lb. cutch and 5 oz. bluestone, cool to 
100' F. ; enter, give six turns, lift, and add 2 lb. copperas ; 
re-enter cotton, give four turns, lift and wring. Prepare a 
fresh bath with 1 lb. bichromate of potash ; enter cotton at 
110° F., give five turns, lift, wash and dry. 



166 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

Grey Slate. — Boil up 10 lb. sumac, 8 lb. fustic extract ; 
cool down to 1'20° F., give eight turns, lift and wring. 
Prepare a fresh bath wdth 5 lb. copperas ; enter cotton cold, 
give five turns, lift and wash. 

Dark Plum. — Lay down overnight in 30 lb. sumac. Next 
morning wring and enter in a fresh bath of oxy-muriate of 
tin 20° Tw., give four turns, lift and wash well in two waters. 
Boil out 40 lb. ground logwood, 10 lb. ground fustic, cool 
bath down to 140° F. ; enter cotton, give eight turns, lift 
and add Ih gallons red hquor ; re-enter yarn, give four turns, 
lift, wash and dry. 

Pale Chamois. — Work the cotton seven turns in a cold 
bath of 3 lb. copperas, then wring and pass into a cold bath 
of 3 lb. soda ash ; w^ork well, wash and dry. 

Dark Broum Olive. — Prepare a bath of 28 lb. fustic, | lb. 
logwood, 18 lb. cutch, 4 lb. turmeric, '2 lb. copper sulphate, 
f lb. alum ; work for an hour at the boil, then sadden in a 
new bath of 1 lb. bichromate of potash for half an hour, 
then sadden in a new bath of J lb. nitrate of iron, working 
in the cold for half an hour, lift, wash and dry. 

Hava7ia Broion. — Prepare a bath with 4 lb. cutch and 1 lb. 
bluestone ; work at the boil for one hour, then pass through 
a warm bath of h lb. bichromate of potash, 1 lb. sulphuric 
acid. Wash and dye in a bath of f lb. Bismarck brown and 
4 lb. alum; work for one hour at about ISO"" F., wash and 
dry. 

Black. — Prepare a dye-bath with 20 lb. extract of logwood, 
4 lb. cutch, 5 lb. soda ash, 5 lb. copper sulphate. Heat to 
the boil, enter the cotton, and work well for three hours, 
then lift, and allow to lie overnight in a w^et condition, wash 
and pass into a bath of 1 lb. bichromate of potash for half 
an hour ; lift, wash and dry. The dye-bath is not exhausted, 
and only about one-third of the various drugs need be added 
for further batches of cotton. 



■ THE PEACTICE OF (COTTON DYEING WITH MOEDANTS. 167 

Reseda Green. — Prepare a bath with 15 lb. cutch, 8 lb. 
turmeric ; work in this for lifteen minutes at about 150° 
F., then pass through a hot bath of 2 lb. bichromate of potash 
for one hour, then re-enter into a cutch bath to which has 
been added, 1 lb. sulphate of iron ; work for one hour, then 
add '2 lb. alum and work half an hour longer, rinse, wash 
and dry. 

Faivn Broion. — Prepare a dye-bath with 4 lb. cutch, 2 lb. 
fustic extract ; work for one hour at hand heat, then lift, 
and pass through a bath of 1\ lb. bichromate of potash ; 
work for a quarter of an hour, rinse and pass into a fresh 
bath of 1 oz. Bismarck brown for ten minutes, then lift, wash 
and dry. 

Beige. — Prepare a ])ath with 20 lb. sumac ; enter cotton 
at 120° F., give six turns, lift and add J lb. copperas ; re-enter 
cotton, give four turns and wring. Prepare a fresh bath con- 
taining 2 lb. extract of fustic, 8 oz. extract of indigo ; enter 
cotton at 120° F., give three turns, raise temperature to 140° 
F., and turn to shade, lift, wash and dry. 

Turkey Red. — One of the most important colours dyed 
on cotton is that known as Turkey red, a bright red of a 
bluish tone, characterised by its great fastness to light, 
washing, etc. Strong alkalies turn it more yellowish, but 
weak acids and alkalies have little action. 

Into the history of the dyeing of Turkey red it is not 
intended to enter, those who are interested in the subject 
should refer to old works on dyeing ; nor is it intended to 
speak of old methods of producing it with the aid of madder, 
but rather to give some of the most modern methods for 
dyeing it w^ith alizarine. 

Many processes differing somew^hat in detail have been 
devised for dyeing Turkey red on cotton, and it is probable 
that no two Turkey-red dyers work exactly alike. It is 
difficult to produce the most perfect red. and a very great 



168 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABEICS. 

deal of care in carrying out the various operations is necessary 
to obtain it. This care and the number of operations makes 
Turkey red an expensive colour to dye, and so shorter 
methods are in use which dye a red on cotton that is cheaper, 
but not so brilliant or fast as a true Turkey red. 

Process 1. — This process is perhaps the most elaborate 
of all processes, but it yields a fine red. The process is 
applicable to cloth or yarn, although naturally the machinery 
used will vary to suit the different conditions of the material. 
Bleached yarn or cloth may be treated, although a full bleach 
is not necessary, but the cloth or yarn must be clean or well 
scoured, so that it is free from grease and other impurities. 

Operation 1. Boil the cotton for six to eight hours with 
a carbonate of soda lye at 1" Tw. in a kier at ordinary 
pressure, then wash well, wring, or, better, hj^dro-extract. 

Operation 2. First " greening " : What is called the 
*' first green liquor " is prepared by taking 15 lb. of gallipoli 
oil, 3 lb. phosphate of soda and 15 lb. carbonate of soda, 
the hqnor to stand at 2° Tw\ Originally this " hquor " was 
made with sheep dung, but this is now omitted. The 
cotton is worked in this hquor, which is kept at 100° F., 
until it is thoroughly impregnated, then it is taken out, 
squeezed and dried, or in some cases piled overnight and 
then stoved. 

Operation 3. Second green liquor. As before. 

Operation 4. Third green liquor. As before. 

Operation 5. A carbonate of soda hquor of 2"" Tw. 
strength is prepared, and the cotton steeped in this until 
it is thoroughly impregnated, then it is wrung out and 
stoved. This is called " white liquor treatment ". 

Operation 6. Second white liquor. As before. 

Operation 7. Steeping : Prepare a bath of w^ater at 150° 
F., and steep for twelve hours, then wring and dry. 

Operation 8. Sumacing : A liquor is made from 12 lb. 



THE PRACTICE OF TURKEY-RED DYEING. 169 

sumac with water, and after straining from midissolved 
sumac leaves the hquor is made to stand at 2° Tw., this 
is kept at about a 100^ F., and the cotton is well worked 
in it and allowed to steep for four hours, after which it is 
taken out and wrung. 

Operation 9. Mordanting or aluming: 20 lb. of alum 
are dissolved in hot water, and 5 lb. of soda crystals are 
slowly added in order to prepare a basic alum solution ; this is 
now made by the addition of water to stand at 8° Tw\ 

The sumaced cotton is worked in this bath and allowed 
to steep for twenty-four hours, when it is taken out and 
wrung. Some dyers add a little tin crystals to this bath ; 
others add a small quantity of red liquor. 

Operation 10. The dyeing : A cold bath is prepared with 
10 lb. to 12 lb. alizarine, 3 lb. sumac extract, and 2 oz. lime. 
The cotton is entered into the cold bath, worked from fifteen 
to twenty minutes so as to get it thoroughly impregnated ; 
then the heat is slowly raised to the boil and the dyeing 
carried on at that heat until the full shade is obtained, 
which usually takes about an hour. According to the brand 
of alizarine used so will the shade that is obtained vary, as 
will be mentioned later on. 

Operation 11. First clearing : The dyed cotton is placed 
in a boiler and boiled for four hours with 3 lb. soda crystals 
and 3 lb. palm oil soap, afterwards washing well. 

Operation 12. Second clearing : The dyed cotton is 
again boiled for two hours with 2^ lb. soap and i lb. tin 
crystals, then give a good washing and dry. 

This process is a long one — indeed, some dyers by repeat- 
ing some of the operations lengthen it — and it takes at least 
two weeks, in some cases three weeks, to carry out. 

The first idea is to get the cotton thoroughly impregnated 
with the oil, and this oxidised to some extent on the fibre, 
and to this end the oil treatments are carried out. In this 



170 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

process experience has shown that ohve oil is the best to use^ 
although other oils have been tried from time to time. The 
sumacing enables the alumina to be more firmly fixed on to 
the cotton. The alumina combines with both the oil and 
the sumac, and the resulting mordant produces a better 
and more brilliant red with the alizarine. The clearing 
operations serve to remove impurities, to brighten the colour, 
and to more fully fix it on the cotton. 

Process 2. — Operation 1. The cotton is well bleached or 
scoured with soda in the usual way. 

Operation 2. Oiling or preparing : A liquor is made from 
10 lb. ahzarine oil or Turkey-red oil in 10 gallons water. 
This oil is prepared from castor oil by a process of treatment 
with sulphuric acid, washing with water and neutralising 
with caustic soda. The cotton is thoroughly impregnated 
with this oil by steeping, then it is wrung out and dried. 

Operation 8. Steaming : The cotton is put into a steam- 
ing cottage or continuous steaming chamber and steamed 
for from one to one and a half hours at about 5 lb. 
pressure. 

Operation 4. A bath of red liquor (acetate of alumina) 
at 8° Tw. is prepared. Some dyers use basic alum at the 
same strength. In this bath the cotton is steeped at 100° F. 
for two hours ; then it is wrung out and dried. This alum- 
ing bath can be repeated. Next it is run through a bath of 
chalk and water containing 2 lb. chalk in 10 gallons Avater. 
This helps to fix the alumina on the cotton. Phosphate of 
soda also makes a good fixing agent. 

Operation 5. Dyeing : This is carried out in precisely 
the same way as in the other process. 

Operation 6. Oiling : A second oiling is now given in a 
bath of 5 lb. ahzarine oil, or Turkey-red oil, in 10 gallons 
water, after which the cotton is dried, when it is ready for 
further treatment. In place of giving a second oiUng after 



THE PEACTICE OF TUKKEY-EED DYEING. 171 

the dyeing, it is, perhaps, better to give it after the mordant- 
ing and before dyeing. 

Operation 7. Clearing : The dyed cotton is cleared with 
soap in the same manner as the clearing operations of the 
first process, which see. 

Any of the treatments preparatory to, and following the 
actual dyeing of, any of these processes may be repeated 
if deemed necessary. The text-books on dyeing and the 
technical journals devoted to the subject frequently contain 
accounts of methods of dyeing Turkey red, but when these 
come to be dissected the methods are but little more than 
variants of those which have just been given. 

Seeing that the theory or theories involved in this rather 
complex process of dyeing Turkey red, and that colourists 
are not agreed as to the real part played by the oil, the 
sumac and the clearing operations in the formation of a 
Turkey red on cotton, nothing will be said here as to the 
theory of Turkey-red dyeing. 

Alizarine Red. — It is possible to dye a red with alizarine 
on cotton which, while being a good colour, is not quite so 
fast to washing, etc., as a Turkey red. This is done by using 
fewer treatments, as shown in the following process : — 

Process 1. — Boil the cotton in soda. 

Process '2. — Oil with Turkey-red oil, as in the Turkey-red 
process No. 2 above. 

Process 3. — Mordant with alum or acetate of alumina. 

Process 4. — Dye with alizarine as before. 

Process 5. — Soap. 

There are three distinct colouring matters which are sold 
commercially under the name of "alizarine ". These are : ali- 
zarine itself, which produces a bluish shade of red ; anthra- 
purpurine, which gives a similar but less blue red than ahzarine; 
and flavo-purparine, which produces the yellowest reds. The 
makers send out all these various products under various marks 



172 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

For dyeing- Turkey reds the flavo- and anthra-purpurine 
brands or yellow alizarines are to be preferred ; for pinks and 
rose shades the alizarine or blue shade brands are best. 

Alizarine Pink. — This can be dyed in the same way as 
Turkey red, only using for full pinks 4 per cent, of alizarine 
ill the dye-bath, or for pale pinks 1 to 2 per cent. It is 
advisable to reduce the strength of the oiling and mordanting 
baths down to one-half. 

Alizarine Violet. — Alizarine has the property of combining 
with iron to form a dark violet colour, and advantage is taken 
of this fact to dj-e wiiat are called in the dyeing and calico 
printing trades alizarine purples and lilacs, although these 
do not resemble in hue or brilliance the purples and lilacs 
which can be got from the direct dj-es. They have not the 
importance which they formerly possessed, and but a mere 
outline of two processes for their production will be given. 

Alizarine Purple. — Process 1. (1) Boil with soda, (2) prepare 
with Turkey red oil, (3) mordant by steeping in copperas 
liquor at 4° Tw. for twenty minutes, take out, allow to 
lie on stillages overnight, then wash and dry. For deep 
purples it may be advisable to repeat these treatments ; 
for pale lilacs using them at half strength is advisable. (4) 
Dye with 8 to 10 per cent, of alizarine blue shade, working 
as described under Turkey red. The best results are obtained 
when 1 per cent, of chalk is added to the dye-bath. (5) Soap 
as in red dyeing. 

Process 2. (1) Boil with soda, (2) oil with Turkey-red oil, 
(3) steep in pyrolignite of iron (iron liquor) for one hour, 
then age by hanging in the air. (4) Dye as before. (5) 
Soap. 

Fine blacks are got if after oiling the cotton is treated 
with sumac or tannic acid, then mordanted with iron and 
dj^ed w4th alizarine as usual. 

Chocolate Browns. — Fine fast chocolate browns can be 



THE PEACTICE OF COTTON DYEING WITH ALIZARINES. 173 

got from alizarine by using a mixed mordant of iron and 
almnina, either the acetate or the sulphate. By varying 
the relative proportions various shades can be obtained. 

Alizarine Orange — Prepare the cotton as if for dyeing a 
Turkey red, but use in the dye-bath 8 to 10 per cent, of 
Alizarine orange. 

Alizarine Blue — The cotton is boiled three hours with 3 
per cent, ammonia soda at 30 lb. pressure, and then washed 
thoroughly. The boiled, washed and hydro-extracted yarn 
is oiled with a solution containing from \ lb. to 1 J lb. Turkey- 
red oil, 50 per cent, for every gallon of water. It is then wrung 
out evenly and dried for twelve hours at 150° F. 

Tannin Grounding . 

The oiled and dried cotton is worked three-quarters of 
an hom^ in a vat containing a tannin solution (1 oz. per 
gallon). The cotton remains in this liquid, which is allowed 
to cool off for twelve hours, then it is hydro-extracted. 
Sumac turns the shade somewhat greener, which is noticed 
especially after bleaching, therefore tannin is given the pre- 
ference. 

Chroinium Mordant. 

The cotton treated with tannin and then hydro-extracted 
is worked cold for one hour in a vat containing a solution of 
chromium chloride at 32° Tw., and remains in this solution 
twelve hours. The cotton is then hydro-extracted and washed 
directly ; it is best to employ running water. A special 
fixation does not take place. The cotton is now ready for 
dyeing. The solution of chromium chloride and the tannin 
solution can be used continuously, adding fresh liquor to 
keep the baths up to strength. 

Dyeing — For dyeing, water free from lime must be used. 
Water having not more than 2*5° hardness can be employed 
if it is corrected with acetic acid, thereby converting the 



174 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

carbonate of lime into acetate of lime. Very calcareous 
water must be freed from lime before use. The dye-bath 
contains for 100 lb. cotton 15 lb. Alizarine blue paste (A E 
or F, according to the shade desired), 35 lb. acetic acid (12° 
Tw.), 15| lb. ammonia (25 per cent.), 21 oz. tannin. The 
cotton is worked a quarter of an hour in the cold ; the 
temperature is raised slowly to a boil, taking about one 
hour, and the cotton is worked three-quarters of an hour at 
that heat. Finally the cotton is washed and hydro-extracted. 
The dyed and washed cotton is steamed two hours at 15 lb. 
to 22 lb. pressure. Steaming turns the shade greener and 
darker, and increases the fastness. After steaming the cotton 
it is soaped one or two hours at the boil, with or without 
pressure. According to the quality of water employed, 2 to 
5 parts soap per 1,000 parts water are taken. 

Broion. — A fine brown is got by a similar process to this, 
if instead of AHzarine blue, Alizarine orange is used in the 
dye-bath. A deeper brown still if Anthracene brown, or a 
mixture of Anthracene brown and Alizarine blue, be used. 

Claret Bed. — Clarets to maroon shade of red are got by 
preparing the cotton as for blue given above, then dyeing 
with alizarine. 

Logivoocl Black. — One of the most important colours 
that come under this section is logwood black, the formation 
of which on the fibre depends upon the fact that the colour- 
ing principle of logwood forms a black colour lake vdth iron 
and also one with chromium. 

There are many ways of dyeing logwood blacks on cotton, 
whether that be in form of hanks of yarns, warps or pieces. 
While these blacks may be, and in the case of hanks are, 
dyed by what may be termed an intermittent process, yet 
for warps and piece goods a continuous process is preferred 
by dyers. Examples of both methods will be given. As in 
the dyeing of Turkey reds it is probable that no two dyers 



THE PRACTICE OF LOGWOOD BLACK DYEING. 175 

of logwood blacks quite agree in the details of their process, 
there may be variations in the order of the various baths 
and in their relative strengths. Typical methods will be 
noted here. 

Dyeing Logwood Black on Yarn in Hanks. — Operation 1. 
Sumacing : Prepare a bath with 10 lb. sumac extract in 
hot water. Work the yarn in this for half an hour, then 
allow to steep for six hours or overnight, lift and wring. The 
liquor which is left may be used again for another lot of 
yarn by adding 5 lb. sumac extract for each successive lot 
of yarn. In place of using sumac the cheaper myrabolam 
extract may be used. 

Operation '2. Ironing or Saddening : Prepare a bath 
with 3i gallons nitrate of iron, 80^ Tw. Work the yarn 
in this for fifteen minutes, then wring out. The bath 
may be used again when 1 gallon of nitrate of iron is 
added for each lot of yarn worked in it. In place of the 
nitrate of iron, the pyrolignite of iron or iron liquor may 
be used. 

Operation 3. Liming : Work for ten minutes in a weak 
bath of milk of lime. 

Operation 4. Dyeing : This is done in a bath made from 
10 lb. logwood extract and 1 lb. fustic extract. The yarn is 
entered into the cold or tepid bath, the heat slowly raised 
to about 150° F., then kept at this heat until a good black 
is got, when the yarn is taken out, rinsed and wrung. The 
addition of the fustic extract enables a much deeper and 
jetter shade of black to be dyed. 

Operation 5. Saddening : To obtain a fuller black the 
dyed cotton is sent through a bath of li lb. of copperas, then 
washed well. 

Operation 6. Soaping : Work for twenty minutes in a 
bath of 2 lb. soap at 140° to 150° F. Then wash well. 

Much the same process may be followed for dyeing 



176 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABEICS. 

logwood black on warps and piece goods, jiggers being used 
for each operation. 

Another method is to first work the cotton in pyrolignite 
(iron hquor) at 10° Tw., until it is thoroughly impregnated, 
then to dry and hang in the air for some hours, next to pass 
through lime water to fix the iron, and then to dye as before. 

Continuous Process. — In this case a continuous dyeing 
machine is provided, fitted with five to six compartments. 
The cotton is first of all prepared by steeping in a bath of 
12 lb. myrabolam extract for several hours, then it is taken 
to the continuous machine and run in succession through 
nitrate of iron liquor, lime water, logwood and fustic, iron 
liquor and water. The nitrate of iron bath contains 2 gallons 
of the nitrate to 10 gallons of water, and as the pieces go 
through fresh additions of this liquor are made from time to 
time to keep up the volume and strength of the liquor to the 
original points. 

The logwood bath is made from 10 lb. logwood extract 
and 1 lb. fustic extract, and it is used at about 160° F. The 
quantities here given will serve for 100 lb. of cotton, and 
it is well to add them dissolved up in hot water in small 
quantities from time to time as the cotton goes through the 
bath. 

The iron liquor given after the dyeing contains 2 lb. of 
copperas in 10 gallons of water. 

Between the various compartments of the machine is 
fitted squeezing rollers to press out any surplus liquor, which 
is run back into the compartment. The rate of running the 
warp or pieces through should not be too rapid, and the 
dyer must adapt the rate to the speed with which the cloth 
dyes up in the dye-bath. 

The addition of a little red liquor (alumina acetate) to the 
iron bath is sometimes made, this is advantageous, as it 
results in the production of a finer black. Iron by itself 



THE PEACTICE OF LOGWOOD BLACK DYEING. 177 

tends to give a rusty-looking, or brownish black, but the 
violet, or lilac shade that alumina gives with logwood, tones 
the black and makes it look more pleasant. 

Some dyers add a small quantity, 1 per cent., of the 
weight of the cotton of sulphate of copper to the iron 
bath, others add even more than this. Some use nitrate of 
copper ; the copper giving a greenish shade of black with 
logwood, and this tones down the iron black and makes it 
more bloomy in appearance. 

Single bath methods of dyeing logwood blacks are in use,. 
such methods are not economical as a large quantity, both 
of dye-wood and mordants, remain in the bath unused. 
Although full intense blacks can be dyed with them, the 
black is rather loosely fixed and tends to rub off. This is 
because as both the dye-stuff and the mordant are in the 
same bath together they tend to enter into combination 
and form a colour lake that precipitates out in the dye-bath, 
causing the loss of material alluded to above, while some 
of it gets mechanically fixed on the cotton, in a more or 
less loose form, and this looseness causes the colour to rub 
off. 

For a chrome-logwood black, a dye-bath is made with 3 
lb. bichromate of potash, 100 gallons logwood decoction at 
3° Tw., and 6 J lb. hydrochloric acid. Enter the cotton into 
the cold bath, raise slowly to the boil and work until the 
cotton has acquired a full black blue colour, then take it out 
and rinse in a hot lime water when a blue black will be got. 

A copper-logivood black is got by taking 100 gallons logwood 

decoction at 3° Tw., and 6 lb. copper acetate (verdigris) ; the 

cotton is entered cold and brought up to the boil. Copper 

nitrate may be used in the place of the copper acetate, 

when it is a good plan to add a little soda to the bath. 

Some dyers in working a copper-logwood black make the 

dye-bath from 100 gallons logwood liquor at 2° Tw., 4 lb. 

12 



178 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABEICS. 

copper sulphate (bluestone) and 4 lb. soda. This bath is 
used at about 180° to 190° F., for three-quarters of an hour, 
then the cotton is lifted out, wrung and aged or as it is 
sometimes called "smothered" for five hours. The opera- 
tions are repeated two or three times to develop a full 
black. 

Logwood black dyeing has lost much of its importance of 
late years owing to the introduction of the many direct 
blacks, which are much easier of application and leave the 
cotton with a fuller and softer feel. 

Logivood Greys.— These are much dyed on cotton and 
are nothing more than weak logwood blacks, and may be 
dyed by the same processes only using baths of about one- 
tenth the strength. 

By a one-bath process 5 lb. of logwood are made into 
a decoction and to this 1 lb. of copperas (ferrous sulphate) is 
added and the cotton is dyed at about 150° F. in this bath. 
By adding to the dye-bath small quantities of other dye-woods, 
fustic, peach wood, sumach, etc., greys of various shades are 
obtained. Some recipes bearing on this point are given in 
this section. 

Logwood is not only used for dyeing blacks and grej^s as 
the principal colouring matter, but is also used as a shading 
colour along with cutch, fustic, quercitron, etc., m dyeing 
olives, browns, etc., and among the recipes given in this 
section examples of its use in this direction will be found. 

The dye-woods — fustic, Brazil wood, bar wood, Lima 
wood, cam wood, cutch, peach wood, quercitron bark, Persian 
berries — have since the introduction of the direct dyes lost 
much of their importance and are now little used. Cutch is 
used in the dyeing of browns and several recipes have already 
been given. Their production consists essentially in treating 
the cotton in a bath of cutch, either alone or for the purpose 
of shading with other dj^e-woods when the cotton takes up 



THE PRACTICE OF COTTON DYEING WITH MORDANTS. 179 

the tannin and colouring matter of the cutch, etc. The 
colour is then developed by treatment with bichromate of 
potash, either with or without the addition of an iron salt to 
darken the shade of brown. 

The usual methods of applying all the other dye-woods, to 
obtain scarlets to reds with Brazil wood, Lima wood, peach 
wood ; or yellows with fustic, quercitron or Persian berries, 
is to first prepare the cotton with sumac, then mordant 
with alumina acetate or tin crystals (the latter gives the 
brightest shades), then dye in a decoction of the dye-woods. 
Sometimes the cotton is boiled in a bath of the wood when 
it takes up some of the dye-wood, next there is added alumina 
acetate or tin crystals and the dyeing is continued when the 
colour becomes developed and fixed upon the cotton. 

Iron may be used as a mordant for any of these dye-woods 
but it gives dull sad shades. 

Chrome mordants can also be used and these produce 
darker shades than tin or alumina mordants. 

As practically all these dye-woods are now not used by 
themselves it has not been deemed necessary to give specific 
recipes for their application, on previous pages several are 
given showing their use in combination with other dyes. 

The dye-stuff Dinitroso-resorcine or Solid green O is used 
along with iron mordants for producing fast greens and with 
chrome mordants for producing browns to a limited extent 
in cotton dyeing. The following recipes give the details of 
the process. 

Green. — Steep the cotton yarn or cloth in the following 
liquor until well impregnated, then dry : 3 gallons iron 
liquor (pyrolignite of iron), 22° Tw. gallons of water, f gallon 
acetic acid, 12° Tw., 2 lb. ammonium chloride. Then pass 
the cotton through a warm bath of 3 oz. phosphate of soda 
and 4 oz. chalk per gallon, then enter into a dye-bath con- 
taining 6 lb. Sohd green 0. Work as described for dyeing 



180 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABKICS. 

alizarine red. For darker greens of a Kussian green shade 
use 10 lb. of solid green 0, in the dye-bath. 

Brown. — A fine brown is got by steeping the cotton m 
a bath of 8 lb. Sohd green 0, 6f gallons water, Ih gallons 
ammonia and 2 lb. acetate of chrome ; dry, then pass through 
a soap-bath, wash and dry. 

Deep Olive Brown. — Mix 8 lb. Solid green and 4^- lb. 
borax with 6 gallons water, add h lb. Turkey-red oil, 5 lb. 
ammonia, then 2 gallons water and If lb. copper-soda solu- 
tion and another 2 gallons water. Steep the cotton in this, 
dry, soap well and wash. The copper-soda solution is made 
from 10 lb. chloride of copper (75° Tw.), 5 lb. tartaric acid, 
12 lb. caustic soda (75° Tw.) and 4 lb. glj^cerine. 

Khaki. — Make the dye Hquor from 14 lb. SoHd green O, 
J lb. Ahzarine yellow N, 1 lb. caustic soda (36° Tw.), \ lb. 
Turkey-red oil and 8 gallons water. To this add 2J lb. 
acetate of chrome (32° Tw.), 2J lb. copper-soda solution and 
4 gallons water. 

Sage Green. — Use 1\ lb. SoHd green 0, 3 lb. caustic soda 
(36° Tw.), J lb. Ceruleine, J lb. Turkey-red oil, 1 gallon water 
to which is added 2 J lb. acetate of chrome (32° Tw.) and 2^ 
lb. copper-soda solution dissolved in 4 gallons water. 

Pale Brown. — Use 4 lb. SoHd green 0, 2| lb. borax, 3 lb. 
ammonia, | lb. Turkey-red oil, 6 gallons of water and 1| lb. 
copper-soda solution dissolved in 2 gallons water. 

Pale Faion Broivn. — The dye-bath is made from ^ lb. 
Ahzarine, Ij lb. SoHd green 0, Ih lb. borax, I lb. Turkey-red 
oil and 5 gallons of water to which is added 1| lb. acetate of 
chrome (32° Tw.), Ih lb. copper-soda solution and 4 gallons 
water. In all cases the cotton is steeped in the dye liquors 
until thoroughly impregnated, then the excess liquor is wrung 
out, the cotton dried, then passed through a soap bath, washed 
well and dried. 

Dark Brown. — Place the cotton in a lukewarm bath of 25 



COTTON DYEING WITH THE NAPHTHOL COLOURS. 181 

lb. cutch and 1^ lb. copper sulphate ; work for half an hour, 
then steep for six hours, then lift, wring and enter into a 
bath of SI lb. bichromate of potash at 160° F. for twenty 
minutes. Then wash and dry. 

Yelloiv Broimi. — Make a bath with 14 lb. cutch and \ lb. 
copper sulphate ; work in this bath for four hours at 120° F., 
then pass into a bath of 2 lb. copperas and J lb. chalk, work 
for half an hour in the cold, then pass into a hot bath of 2J 
lb. bichromate of potash at 150° F. for half an hour. 

Dark Brown. — Make a dye-bath with 15 lb. cutch, 2 lb. 
logwood extract and 2 lb. fustic extract ; work the cotton in 
this at 160° F. for three hours, then pass into a cold bath of 
1 lb. copperas and \ lb. chalk for half an hour, then into a 
bath of 3 lb. bichromate of potash for half an hour at 150° 
F., then wash and dry. 

(7) Production of Colour Direct upon Cotton Fibres. 

By the action of nitrous acid upon the salts of the 
primary organic amines the so-called diazo compounds are 
formed. An example of this important process is that of 
nitrous acid on aniline hydrochloride shown in the following 
equation : — 

CgH^NH, + HCl + HNO., "lUfi + C^H^N : NCI 

Hydrochloric acid Nitrous Water, Diazo-benzene 

aniline, acid, chloride. 

These diazo compounds are distinguished by their active 
properties, especially in combining with amines in acid solu- 
tions, or with phenols in alkaline solution to form the azo 
dyes, thus diazobenzene chloride will combine with naphthol 
to form naphthol-azo-benzene, thus : — 

C,H,N:NC1 + Cj.H.OH + NaOH = 

Diazo-benzene chloride, Naphthol, Caustic soda, 

CioHgOHN : NC.H, + NaCl + H,0 

Naphthol-azo-benzene, Salt, Water. 



182 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

These azo compounds are coloured, but are perfectly in- 
soluble in water, alkalies, or acids ; on the other hand the 
sulphonates of these bodies are easily soluble and form the 
numerous azo dyes now so largely made and used in wool 
and silk dyeing, but which on account of their being sulpho- 
nates cannot be used for cotton dyeing. 

Methods have been devised for producing the insoluble 
azo colours direct upon the fibres. They are also called 
naphthol colours from the use of beta- and alpha-naphthol in 
their production. Although these azo dyes, when produced 
on the fibre, do not possess the fastness of the alizarine dyes, 
yet, on account of their cheapness and relative great fastness 
to soap and the action of sunlight, they are better than many 
of the newer cotton dyes. 

By this method (first introduced in England by Holliday) 
colours of exceptional brightness and fastness can be obtained 
which were not obtainable v^ith the dyes then known. Those 
which are obtained from phenols are of the first importance. 

The Diazotisation of the Amido Bases. 

With most bases this must be accomplished as cold as 
possible below 65° F. At a higher temperature, and when 
allowed to stand, most diazo compounds decompose quickly 
with evolution of nitrogen, which decomposition results in 
the mixture losing its power of producing colour, or at the 
most gives unsatisfactory results. For this reason it is there- 
fore always necessary to work as cold and as quickly as 
possible. 

The amido-azo bodies, whose compounds with the phenols 
are also distinguished by their great fastness, are in this 
respect an exception. They can be diazotised at the ordinary 
temperature, and their diazo compounds are much stabler 
than those, for example, of alpha- and beta-naphthylamine or 
of aniline, which must always be used as quickly as possible. 



THE DYEING OF NAPHTHOL COLOURS ON COTTON. 183 

From anisidine, phenetidine and amido-diphenylaiiiine, 
stiil more stable diazo compounds can be obtained, but the 
prices of these bases are rather high, and the colours produced 
with them are not fast to light. 

The cheapest and most convenient method of obtaining 
nitrous acid for diazotising is by the action of a mineral acid, 
preferably hydrochloric acid, upon nitrite of soda. 

For diazotising one molecule of base requires one mole- 
cule of hydrochloric acid to form a salt of the base, a molecule 
of nitrite of soda, and another molecule of hydrochloric acid 
to decompose the nitrite. The diazotisation is better carried 
out and the diazo solution rendered more stable if another 
molecule of hydrochloric acid and an excess of nitrite of soda 
are used. The presence of an excess of nitrite can be deter- 
mined by testing the diazo solution with potassium iodide 
starch paper, which in the presence of excess of nitrite gives 
the blue iodine starch reaction. 

In carrying out the diazotisation, the base is first dissolved 
in the whole amount of hydrochloric acid which has to be 
used, and the solution is filtered. The diazotisation takes 
place in the manner shown in the equation : — 

C,H,NH, + HCl + HCl + NaNOo = 

Aniline hydrochloride, Hydrochloric acid. Sodium nitrite, 

NaCl + C,;H,N:NC1 + H^O 

Salt, Diazo-benzene chloride, Water. 

The bases which form salts soluble with difficulty, such 
as nitroaniline and the amido-azo bodies, offer special diffi- 
culties in diazotising. 

It has been found that the operation with these is best 
carried out if the chemically pure bases in paste form are 
mixed with the requisite amount of nitrite, and the diluted 
paste then poured into the hydrochloric acid. 



184 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

It has been found by experience that the colour is de- 
veloped much brighter upon the fibre when the diazo solution 
contains acetic acid and no free mineral acid. However, the 
diazotisation is better carried out with hydrochloric acid, and 
the presence of the latter is necessary to give stability to the 
solution. If before the diazo solution is used a quantity of 
acetate of soda be added to it, the free hydrochloric acid 
liberates acetic acid from the acetate, and the chloride of the 
diazo body changes into its acetate. It is better to add an 
excess above the two molecules of acetate of soda which are 
required. 

The combination when aniline and beta-naphthol are 
used, as the amine and phenol respectively, is shown in the 
following equations : — 

C,H,N : NCI + Ci,H,OH + 

Diazo-benzene chloride, B. naphthol, 

NaOH = 2NaCl + C,H,N : NCioH.OH + H,0 
Caustic soda, Benzene- azo-naphthol, Water. 

Or, with naphthylamine and naphthol, thus : — 

CioH.N : NCI + C^oH.OH + NaOH = 
NaCl + CioH-N : NCi,H,OH + H,0 
Naphthalene azo-naphthol. 

By the action of nitrous acid upon amido-azo bodies a 
group of bodies called diazo-azo compounds are obtained 
which contain the group N : N twice over, thus : — 

C.H.NiNC.H.NH.HCl + NaNO., + 2HC1 = 
Benzene-azo-aniline-hydrochloride, 

NaCl + C,H,N:NC,H,N:NC1 + '2H>0. 
Diazo-azo-benzene-chloride. 



PEODUCTION OF AZO COMPOUNDS. 185 

When this compound is combined with naphthol diazo-azo 
<iyes are produced. 

C,H,N : NC,H,N : NCi,H,OH. 

Benzene- azo-benzene-azo-naphthol. 

The molecular weights of the bases, phenols and chemicals 
employed are the following : — 

1. Hydrochloric acid, HCl— 36-5. 

2. Caustic soda, NaOH— 40. 

3. Nitrite of soda, NaNO,— 69. 

4. Acetate of soda, NaC2H30.33H,0— 136. 

1. Commercial hydrochloric acid at 32° Tw. contains about 
365 grams of HCl in a litre, or 3^ lb. in a gallon. 

2. The commercial 77 per cent, soda must always be used, 
and for practical purposes it may be taken as pure. It is 
best to make a solution which contains 160 grams NaOH 
in a htre of water. 

3. The nitrite suppHed is almost chemically pure, and is 
easily soluble in water. In order to make a solution 140 
or 290 grams are dissolved per litre. 

4. Crystallised acetate of soda contains 3 molecules of 
water of crystallisation, and is usually somewhat moist. 
Instead of 136 grams 140 are taken to allow for moisture. 
The amount is dissolved in about 500 cubic centimetres of 
water. 

Bases. 

1. Anihne, C,H,NH,— 93. 

2. Toluidine, C,H,NH,— 107. 

3. Alpha- and beta-naphthylamine, Cj^H-NH^ — 143. 

4. Para- or meta-nitroaniline, C^-H^NO.^NH.^ — 138. 

5. Nitro-para-toluidine, C.H.NO.NH^— 152. 

6. Amidoazobenzene (base), C^HsNiNC^H^NH,— 197. 



186 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

7. Orthoamidoazotoluol (base), C,H,N : NC,H,NH2— 225. 

8. Alpha- or beta-naphthol C^.H^OH— 144. 

Example of Quantities Taken. 







Molecular Weight 


1. 


Molecule nitrite . 


69 grams. 


2. 


Molecule aniline . 


93 „ 


3. 


Molecule hydrochloric acid 


365 „ 


4. 


Molecule acetate of soda 


136 „ 


5. 


Molecule of naphthol . 


144 „ 


6. 


Molecule caustic soda 


40 „ 



Applying the principles which have just been described 
to the dyeing of cotton, it is found that the cotton may be 
dyed by taking the base and preparing the diazo body, 
impregnating the cotton with this, and developing the colour 
by passing into a bath of the phenol. On the other hand, 
the cotton can be prepared w^ith the phenol and the colour 
developed by passing into a bath of the diazotised base, and 
practice has shown that this latter proceeding is the best. 
Practically the only phenol that is used is the beta-naphthol ; 
alpha-naphthol is occasionally used, but not often. 

The purer the beta-naphthol the better, especially for 
producing the paranitroaniline red. Various preparations of 
beta-naphthol have been brought out by colour makers. 

The process of dyeing cotton with a naphthol colour 
takes place in two stages, the first being the grounding or 
preparing with the naphthol, the second the developing with 
the diazotised base. Some of the effects w^hich can be 
obtained from the two naphthols and various bases are 
given in the following table : — 

Base. With beta-naphthol, gives With alpha-naphthol, gives 

1. Aniline, Orange yellow ; Cutch brown. 

2. Paratoluidine, Full yellow orange ; Cutch brown. 

3. Metanitroaniline, Fiery yellowish red ; Brownish orange, 
■i. Paranitroaniline, Bright scarlet ; ,, ,, 



THE NAPHTHOL COLOURS. 



187 



Base. With beta-naphthol, gives With alpha-naphthol, gives 

5. Nitroparatoluidine, Orange; Very bright catechu. 

6. Alpha-naphthylamine, Bluish claret red ; Reddish puce. 

7. Beta-naphthylamiue, Turkey red ; ,, 

8. Amidoazobenzene, Red ; „ 

9. Orthoamidoazotoluene, Yellowish claret red ; „ 

By mixing alpha- and beta-naphthols together a variety of 
grenat and claret reds and browns can be obtained. 

"With regard to the fastness of the shades produced the 
following may be considered : — 

Fast to Soajying. 

Combination of A-Naphthol with Toluidine. 

,, A-Naphthylamine. 

,, B-Naphthylamine. 

,, Amidoazobenzene. 

B-Naphthol with Toluidine. 

,, Paranitroaniline. 

„ Nitroparatoluidine. 

,, B-Naphthylamine. 

,, A-Naphthylamine. 

Moderately Fast. 

Combination of A-Naphthol with Aniline. 

,, ,, Paranitroanihne. 

,, ,, Orthoamidoazotoluene. 

,, B-Naphthol with Metanitroaniline. 

,, ,, Amidoazo-benzene. 

Very Loose. 

Combination of A-Naphthol with Paratoluidine. 

,, Metanitroaniline. 

,, Nitroparatoluidine. 

B-Naphthol with Aniline. 

,, Paratoluidine. 

Orthoamidoazotoluene. 



188 



THE DYEING OF COTTON FABEICS. 



The samples were tested for fastness to light by exposing 
them for nine days with the following results : — 

Fast. 

Combination of A-Naphthol with Aniline. 

,, Toluidine. 

„ Metanitroaniline. 

,, Paranitroaniline. 

,, Nitroparatoluidine. 

,, B-Naphthylamine. 

,, Amidoazobenzol. 

,, Orthoamidoazotoluol. 
B-Naphthol with Aniline. 

,, Paratoluidine. . 

,, Metanitroaniline. 

,, Paranitroaniline. 

,, B-Naphthylamine. 

,, A-Naphthylamine. 

Moderately Fast. 
Combination of B- Naphthol with Nitroparatoluidine. 

" Very Loose. 

Combination of A-Naphthol with Toluidine. 

,, ,, A-Naphthylamine 

„ B-Naphthol with Toluidine. 

,, ,, Amidoazobenzene. 

,, ,, Orthoamidoazotoluene. 

The most important of the naphthol colours is undoubtedly 
paranitroaniline red, produced by the combination of para- 
nitroanihne and beta-naphthol. In order to produce the best 
and brightest shades these two bodies must be quite pure. 
The following directions may be followed : — 



THE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF COTTON DYEING. 189 

Dyeing Paranitroaniline Red on Yarn. 

It unfortunately happens that this red does not admit 
of being worked in large quantities at a time, particularly 
in the diazo bath where the colour is developed, as the 
previous operations seem to render the yarn slightly water- 
proof, and hence if large quantities of yarn were dealt with 
at one time some would be found to be dyed all right, others 
would be defective. It has, therefore, been found best to 
work only about 2 lb. of yarn at a time, carefully carrying 
out each operation with this quantity. As, however, the 
process can be quickly worked it follows that in the course of 
a day a fairly large quantity of yarn can be treated. 

1. Grounding. The grounding or preparing bath for 100 
lb. of yarn is best made in the following manner : 4 lb. of 
beta-naphthol are stirred in 2| lb. of caustic soda liquor 70° 
Tw., then Ih quarts of boiling water is added, when dissolved 
IJ quarts of cold water. In a separate vessel dissolve 5 lb. 
Turkey-red oil in 11 quarts of water, then mix the two hquors 
together and add sufficient water to make up the whole to 
12 gallons. 

In working sufiicient of this liquor is taken and put into a 
deep tub in which 2 lb. of yarn can be conveniently worked. 
It is best to work at a tepid heat, say 100° to 110° F.; 2 lb. 
of the yarn are worked in this liquor, so that it becomes 
thoroughly impregnated, then it is gently wrung out and 
hung up. This operation is repeated with each 2 lb. until 
the whole 100 lb. has been treated, adding from time to 
time some of the naphthol liquor to make up for that taken 
up by the cotton. When all the yarn has been through 
the liquor, give it another dip through the same liquor. 
Place the yarn in a hydro-extractor for five to seven 
minutes. Next open out the yarn well, and hang on sticks 
and dry in a stove at 140° to 150° F. The stove should be 



190 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

heated with iron pipes, through which steam at 30 lb. to 
40 lb. pressure passes. This stove should be reserved 
entirely for this work, for if other goods be dried in it 
along with the naphthol-prepared cotton, any steam or acid 
vapours which might be given off from the former might 
damage the latter. 

When thoroughly dry the yarn is ready for the next 
operation. 

2. Develojnng. The developing bath is made in the 
following manner : IJ lb. paranitroaniline is mixed with IJ 
gallons of boihng water, and If quarts of hydrochloric acid 
at 30° to 32° Tw. Stir w^ell until the paranitroanihne is 
completely dissolved, add 3i gallons of cold water, which will 
cause a precipitation of the hydrochlorate of paranitroaniline 
as a yellow powder. Let the mixture thoroughly cool off, 
best by allowing to stand all night ; l-J lb. of nitrite of 
soda is dissolved in 4 quarts of cold water, and this solution 
is added to the paranitroaniline solution slowly and with 
constant stirring ; in about fifteen to twenty minutes the 
diazotisation will be complete. At this and following stages 
the temperature of working should be kept as low as possible. 
Some dyers use ice in preparing their diazo solutions, and 
certainly the best results are attained thereby, but with 
paranitroaniline the ice can be dispensed with. After the 
end of the time sufficient cold water is added to bring the 
volume of the hquor up to 10 gallons. This diazo liquor 
will keep for some days, but it decomposes in time, so that 
it should not be kept too long. 

Another hquor is made by dissolving 4 lb. acetate of soda 
in 11 quarts of water. 

The developing bath is made by taking 4 gallons of the 
diazo liquor and 1 gallon of the acetate liquor and mixing 
together, and in this bath the prepared yarn, 2 lb. at a time, 
is worked. The colour develops immediately. The yarn 



DYEING PARANITROANILINE RED. 



191 



when dyed is lifted out, wrung, and then it is well washed 
with water, soaped in a bath at 120° F., with a liquor 
containing h oz. soap per gallon, then dried. As the cotton 
yarn is being passed through the developing bath, the latter 
is freshened up from time to time by suitable additions of 
the diazo and acetate liquors in the proportions given above. 
Some dyers use a special form of dye vat for dyeing 
paranitroaniline red on yarn, whose construction can be seen 
from Fig. 27. 




Fig. 27. — Dye-tub for Paranitroaniline Red. 

The beta-naphthol bath does not keep well and in time 
tends to grow brown, and when this occurs stains are 
invariably produced on the cotton. When the yarn or cloth 
has been prepared with the beta-naphthol, and dried, the 
developing should be immediately proceeded with, for it 
is found that by allowing the prepared cotton to lie about 
it becomes covered with brown stains, and when such stained 
cotton is passed through the developing bath stains and 
defective dyeing result. 



192 



THE DYEING OF COTTON FABKICS. 



It has been found that by adding a httle tartar emetic 
to the beta-naphthol bath this is largely if not entirely 
prevented, and the prepared cloth may be kept for a reason- 
able length of time before proceeding with the development 
without fear of stains being formed. 

Various additions have been made from time to time to 
the naphthol bath. Some of these take the form of special 
preparations of the colour manufacturers, and are sold as 




Fig. 28.— Padding Machine for Paranitroaniline Red. 

naphthol D, naphthol X, red developer C, etc., sometimes gum 
tragacanth has been added, at others in place of Turkey-red 
oil there is used a soap made from castor oil with soda 
and ammonia, but such complicated baths do not yield any 
better results than the simple preparing liquor given above. 

Dyeing Paranitroaniline Red on Piece Goods. 

The dyeing of this red on to piece goods only differs from 
that on yarn by reason of the difference in the form of 
material that is dealt with. 



THE PRACTICE OF DYEING NAPHTHOL COLOUES. 193 

1. Preparing or Groundmg. — The same liquor may be 
used. This operation is best done on a padding machine, 
a sketch of which is given in Fig. 26, showing the course 
of the cloth through the liquor. This is contained in the 
box of the machine, and this is kept full by a constant 
stream flowing in from a store vat placed beside the machine. 
After going through the liquor, the cloth passes between 
a pair of squeezing rollers which squeeze out the surplus 
liquor. Fig, 28 shows a view of a padding machine adapted 
for grounding paranitroaniline reds. After the padding, the 
cloth is dried by being sent over a set of drying cylinders, or 
through what is known as the hot flue. 

2. The Developing. — After being dried, the pieces are sent 
through a padding machine charged with the developing 
liquor made as described above, after which the cloth is 
rinsed, then soaped, and then washed. Some dyers use 
a continuous machine for these operations, such as shown in 
Fig. 29. 

While the developing bath used for piece goods may be 
the same as that used for yarns, some dyers prefer to use 
one made somewhat differently, tlms (^\ lb. paranitroaniline 
are mixed with 7 gallons boiling-water and IJ gallons 
hydrochloric acid ; when dissolved 16 gallons of cold water 
are added, then, after completely cooling, 3 J lb. sodium nitrite 
dissolved in 3 gallons cold water. After twenty minutes, 
when the diazotisation is complete, water is added to make 
the whole up to 40 gallons. The acetate hquor is made from 
13^ lb. acetate of soda in 13J gallons of water. 

Equal quantities of these two liquors are used in making 
the developing bath. 

Of late years, under the names of Azophor red P N, 

Nitrazol C, Nitrosamine, etc., there has been offered to dyers 

preparations of diazotised paranitroaniline in the form of a 

powder or paste, readily soluble in water, that will keep in a 

13 



194 



THE DYEINCt of COTTON FABRICS. 



cool and dry place for any reasonable length of time. These 
are prepared in various ways, and to any dyer who does not 




THE PRACTICE OF DYEING NAPHTHOL COLOUBS. 195 

want the trouble of diazotising the paranitroanihne they 
offer some advantages. They produce a red equal in every 
respect to that obtained from paranitroaniHne. The follow- 
ing details show the method to be followed with some of 
these products, others are very similar to make the develop- 
ing baths, 

ParanitroaniHne Bed with Nitrazol C. — Dissolve 25 lb. 
Nitrazol C in 12 gallons of cold water with constant stirring, 
then add sufficient cold water to make 37 gallons. In 
another vessel dissolve 11 lb. of acetate of soda in 5^ 
gallons water, then add I2 gallons caustic soda, 36° Tw., 
mixed with 5J gallons water. The developing bath is made 
by mixing both these solutions. It will suffice for both yarn 
and piece goods. 

ParanitroaniHne Red with Azo2:)hor Bed P N. — Dissolve 
5J lb. of Azophor red P N in 4 gallons of water — it dis- 
solves almost completely but usually a few particles of a 
flocculent character remain undissolved, these can be removed ; 
2J gallons of caustic soda lye of 36° Tw. are diluted with 
water to 10 gallons, and this is added with constant stirring 
to the azophor red P N solution. When all is mixed and a 
clear solution obtained, the developing bath is ready for use, 
and is used in the same way as the paranitroaniline bath. 

Metanitroaniline Orange. — This orange is produced in the 
same way as the paranitroaniline red, using metanitroaniline 
or Azophor orange M N in place of the paranitroaniline or 
the Azophor red P N given for the red. The quantities of all 
the materials used are identical. 

Nitrosamine Bed. — Dissolve 5 lb. Nitrosamine red in 5 
gallons of water and 2^ lb. hydrochloric acid, when well 
mixed there is added 2^ lb. acetate of soda, when all is dis- 
solved add sufficient water to make 6 J gallons. This bath 
is used exactly in the same way as the paranitroaniline de- 
veloping bath, and it produces identical results in every way. 



196 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

Paranitroaniline Broion. — By boiling the paranitroaniline red 
dyed cotton in a weak bath of copper sulphate a very fine 
fast brown resembling a cutch brown is produced. A better 
plan, however, is to prepare the cotton with a ground con- 
taining an alkahne solution of copper, 3 lb. beta-naphthol are 
dissolved in 5 pints of caustic soda lye of 36° Tw\, to which 
is added 5 lb. Turkey-red oil and 10 pints alkaline copper 
solution, water being added to make 13 gallons of liquor. 
The cotton is treated in this way as with the ordinary beta- 
naphthol preparation. The alkaline copper solution is made 
by taking 5 pints of copper chloride solution at 76° Tw., add- 
ing 3 J lb. tartaric acid, 6 pints caustic soda lye, 70° Tw., and 
2 pints of glycerine. The developing bath for the brown is 
the same as for the paranitroaniline red, or the Azophor red 
P N bath may be used. 

Toluidine Orange. — For this colour the cotton is prepared 
with the beta-naphthol in the ordinary way. The developing 
bath is made from 2 lb. orthonitrotoluidine mixed with 12 
pints boiling water and 2^ pints hydrochloric acid ; w^hen 
dissolved allow to cool and then add 12^ lb. ice. When 
thoroughly cold stir in 2J pints of sodium nitrite solution 
containing 3 lb. per gallon. Stir well for twenty minutes, 
then filter ; add 4 lb. sodium acetate and sufficient ice-cold 
water to make 13 gallons. Use this bath in the same way 
as the paranitroaniline bath. 

Beta-naplithylamme Red. — This red is a good one, but is 
not so bright or so fast as the paranitroaniline red, hence 
although somewhat older in point of time it is not dyed to 
the same extent. The developing bath is made from 1} lb. 
beta-naphthylamine dissolved with the aid of 10 pints boiling 
water and 1 pint hydrochloric acid. When dissolved allow 
to cool ; add 27 lb. ice and 2 pints hydrochloric acid. When 
cooled to 32° to 36° Tw., add 3 pints sodium nitrite solution 
(3 lb. per gallon) and 4 lb. sodium acetate, making up to 



THE PRACTICE OF DYEING NAPHTHOL COLOURS. 197 

13 gallons with water. This also is used in precisely the 
same wa}' as the paranitroaniline red developing liquor. 

Aljjha-Naphthylamine Claret. — This is a very fine and 
fairly fast red, and next to the paranitroaniline red may be 
considered the most important of the naphthol colours. The 
developing bath is a little more difficult to make, owing to 
the fact that it is more difficult to get the alpha-naphthyl- 
amine into solution. The best way of proceeding is the 
following : Heat If lb. of alpha-naphthylamine in 10 pints 
of boihng water, agitating well until the base is very finely 
divided in the w^ater, then 1\ pints of hydrochloric acid is 
added, and the heat and stirring continued until the base 
is dissolved, then the mass is allowed to cool, 27 lb. of ice 
is added and 1^ pints of hydrochloric acid. AAHien cooled 
down to 32° to 36° F., there is added 3 pints sodium nitrite 
solution (3 lb. per gallon), and after allowing the diazotisa- 
tion to be completed, 4 lb. sodium acetate and sufficient water 
to make 13 gallons of liquor. 

The bath is used in the same manner as the previous 
developing baths. 

Dianisidine Blue. — Dianisidine develops with beta-naphthol, 
a violet blue, which is not very fast, but by the addition 
of some copper to the developing bath a very fine blue 
is got w^hich has a fair degree of fastness. The developing 
bath is made as follows : Mix lOJ oz. dianisidine with 7 
oz. hydrochloric acid and 7i pints of boiling water, when 
complete solution is obtained it is allowed to cool, then 20 
lb. of ice is added. Next IJ pints of nitrite of soda solution, 
containing IJ lb. per gal. and 2i pints of cold water. Stir 
for thirty minutes, then add 1\ pints copper chloride 
solution at 72° Tw., and sufficient water to make up 6-| 
gallons. 

The cotton is prepared with beta-naphthol in the usual 
way, and then passed through this developing bath. 



198 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

Amidoazotoluol Garnet. — Aniidoazotoluol produces with 
beta-naphthol a fine garnet red in the usual way. 

The developing bath is made from 14 oz. amidoazotoluol, 
mixed with 1^ pints of sodium nitrite solution containing IJ 
lb. per gallon, when well mixed add 1 pint of hydrochloric 
acid diluted with 2 pints water, when this is w^ell mixed 
add sufficient water to make up 1 gallon, then add 1 lb. 
acetate of soda. 

The cotton is passed through this dye-bath, then washed 
well, passed through a weak acid bath, then soaped well, 
washed and dried. 

(8) Dyeing Cotton by Impregnation with Dye-stuff 

Solution. 

Indigo is a dye-stuff which requires special processes 
for its application to the cotton or wool fibre. 

Its peculiarity is that in the form in which it comes 
to tEe"3yer it is insoluble in water, and to enable it to 
be dissolved and therefore to be used as a dye, the indigo 
has to go under a special treatment. The colouring principle 
of indigo is a body named indigotm, to which the formula 
CigH^gN^^O^ has been given. When indigo is mixed with 
substances like lime and copperas, lime and zinc, zinc and 
bisulphite of soda, which cause the evolution of nascent 
hydrogen, it takes up this body and passes into another 
substance which is called indigo white that has the formula 
Cn^H^.^N^O^, leuco, or white indigo ; this substance is soluble 
in water, and so when it is formed the indigo passes into 
solution and can then be used for dyeing. But indigo white 
is an unstable substance on exposure to air, the oxygen of 
the latter attacks the hydrogen which it has taken up, and 
indigotin is reformed, the indigo white changing again into 
indieo blue. 

Indigo dye ing_consists of three operations : — 



THE PRACTICE OF INDIGO DYEING ON COTTON. 



199 



(1) Preparation of the indigo solution, or, as it is called, 

■ mil "ir ■ -■ " "•—- 

setting the dye vat. 
''^) Steeping the cotton in this vat.^ 

(3) Exposing to the air. 

There are several methods of preparing, or setting the 
dye vat, and of each of these modifications are in use in 
every indigo dye-house : — 




Fig. .30.— Indigo Dye-vat for Cloth. 



(1) With hme and copperas. 

(2) Zinc and lime vat. 

(3) Zinc and bisulphite of soda. 

In all cases it is necessary for the indigo to be ground 
to the form of a fine paste with water ; this is usually done 
in w^hat is known as the ball-grinding mill. The finer it 
is ground the more easy is it to make the dye-vats. 



200 THE dyetnct of cotton fabeics. 

The dye- vats may be either round tubs or sqaare wooden 
tanks ; when cloths or warps are being dyed these may 
be fitted with winces and guide rollers, so as to draw^ the 
materials through the liquor. In the case of yarns in hanks 
these appliances are not necessary. 

Fig. 30 is a sketch of an indigo dye-vat for cloth or warps. 

(1) Lime and Copperas Vat — To prepare this vat take 75 
gallons of water, 4 lb. of indigo, 8 lb. copperas, and 10 lb. 
of good quicklime. Put these into the vat in the order 
shown. The amount of indigo is added in proportion to the 
shade which is required to be dyed : for pale shades, 2 lb. to 
3 lb. will be sufficient ; while for deep shades, 6 lb. to 7 lb. 
may be used. The amount of copperas should be from one 
and a half to twice that of the indigo. The vat should be 
stirred very w^ell and then left to stand. The changes wdiich 
occur are probably the following : The lime acts upon the 
copperas and produces ferrous hydrate — this is unstable and 
tends to take up oxygen and hydrogen from the water, 
particularly when there is some indigo present, and forms 
ferric hydrate ; hydrogen is at the same time liberated, 
and combines with the indigo to form the soluble indigo 
white. It takes about tw^enty-four hours to make an indigo 
vat. When properly made and in good condition, the liquor 
will be clear and of a brownish-yellow colour, a bluish scum 
may collect on the surface. If the liquor appears at all 
greenish it is an indication that the indigo has not been 
completely reduced, and the vat needs a further addition 
of lime and copperas, which should be of good quality. 
Too much of each should not be used, because w^ith them 
there is formed at the bottom of the vat a sediment of 
calcium sulphate and ferric hydrate, and it is not wise 
to increase this to too great an extent, which would be 
the case if too much lime and copperas were added. 

To Use this Vat. — Any scum on the surface is raked on one 



THE PRACTICE OF INDIGO DYEING. 201 

side, the cotton yarn immersed for a few minutes, then it is 
taken out, wrung, allowing the excess liquor to flow back 
into the vat, and the yarn hung up in the air for the blue to 
develop. The depth of shade which is dyed depends chiefly 
upon the amount of indigo in the vat, and also upon the 
time during which the hanks are dipped in the liquor. Light 
and medium shades can be readily and conveniently got by 
a single dip, but deep shades are best got by repeating the 
dipping once or twice as occasion demands. Deep shades 
got by using a strong bath at a single dip are found to rub 
badly, while by repeated dips the dye gets more into the 
substance of the fibre, and therefore the colour is more firmly 
fixed and it rubs less. 

Some indigo dyers have quite a range of vats, using those 
fresh made for dyeing deep shades, while the old vats being 
nearly exhausted are used only for fight shades and finally 
when completely exhausted are thrown away. After the 
day's w^ork the vat should be stirred up and then allowed to 
stand. If necessary it may be strengthened by the addition 
of fresh quantities of indigo, lime and copperas, the next 
morning it will be ready for use. Generally a lime-copperas 
vat will remain in good working order for about a month, 
when it will be necessary to throw it away. 

(2) Zinc and Lime Vat. — Zinc dust is a bye-product in the 
process of zinc extraction. It is a grey, very heavy powder, 
consisting mostly of finely divided metallic zinc, with traces 
of oxide and sulphide of zinc. Of these only the metallic 
zinc is active in reducing the indigo, the rest of the in- 
gredients are not of any consequence. The valuation of zinc 
dust is a very difficult operation, but it is desirable that this 
be done, as the product is liable to be very variable in the 
proportion of actual zinc it contains, and it will pay large 
buyers always to have it tested. Zinc dust must always be 
kept in a dry place. 



202 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

For the reduction of zinc powder lime is chiefly used. 
The following are two good mixtures. 
Vat with zinc and lime : — 

10 lb. indigo, dry and ground fine ; 

5 J lb. zinc dust : 

22 lb. slaked lime, dry. 

The vat is set as follows, a part of the lime is mixed with 
the indigo, and the two bodies are well mixed together and 
allowed to stand for ten minutes, then the zinc powder is 
added. It is best to make this into a smooth paste with 
water before adding it to the other ingredients, then the rest 
of the lime is added and the whole is thoroughly stirred 
together with the necessary quantity of water. 

Vat with zinc powder, lime and soda : — 

10 lb. indigo, dry and ground fine ; 

10 lb. zinc powder ; 

10 lb. slaked lime, dry ; 

35 lb. caustic soda at 11° Tw. 

Add the lime to the ground indigo, then add the zinc and 
finally the soda lye. 

Soon after the various ingredients of the vats are added 
together the whole mass becomes hot, when it must be well 
stirred. It soon begins to evolve gas and the mixture froths. 
In from two to four hours the evolution of gas ceases. The 
dark blue solution now becomes yellow and the liquor shows 
all the characteristics of the indigo vat. It is necessary to 
keep the vat well stirred up during the time of setting, which 
takes from five to six hours. If there is much evolution of 
gas after this time it indicates that too much zinc powder 
has been added ; this is a common fault with dyers, and such 
excess causes the vat to be too much disturbed and to work 
dirty. A lime-zinc vat, with occasional additions of new 



THE PKACTICE OF INDIGO DYEING. '203 

materials, keeps good for three months, and even then is in 
a better condition than the copperas vat. 

This vat is used in precisely the same way as the copperas 
vat ; as it contains no sediment, or but little, it works 
cleaner than the copperas vat and as a rule the indigo blues 
dyed in it are faster to rubbing. 

After a day's work it can be well stirred up and fresh 
additions of lime, zinc and indigo made to bring it up to its 
original dyeing strength. 

(3) Zinc-Bisulphite Indigo Vat. — When zinc dust and 
bisulphite of soda are mixed together a reaction sets in, the 
zinc dissolves, and there is formed sodium hydrosulphite 
and zinc and sodium sulphites. If now indigo is mixed 
with this solution the sodium hydrosulphite exerts a re- 
ducing action on it, forming white indigo and sodium 
sulphite, a perfectly clear solution being obtained, which 
may be used in dyeing cotton or w^ool. 

With this vat it is customary to prepare a strong stock 
solution of reduced indigo, and to add this to the dyeing vats 
as may be required. 

To Make the Stock Liquor. — Take i20 lb. of indigo, grind 
into a paste wath 20 gallons of boiled water, then add 25 lb. 
lime slaked into a milk. In a separate tub there is mixed 
80 lb. bisulphite of soda, 70° Tw., with 9 lb. zinc dust ; this 
mixture is well stirred and every care taken to prevent it 
getting hot. Wlien the zinc has dissolved and the mixture 
is free from any sulphurous smell it is run into the indigo 
-mixture given above. The whole is well stirred together 
for some time, and then at intervals, until the indigo has 
become dissolved, sufficient water is added to make up 50 
gallons, when the stock liquor will be ready. It should have 
a deep yellow^ colour. The surface may have a scum of a 
bronzy colour collect on it. This stock liquor should be 
kept in casks free from exposure to the air. 



*204 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABEICS. 

To make the working vat from this stock hquor the 
following is the method of proceeding : — 

Water is rmi into the vat, and this is heated from 70° to 
80° C. in order to expel air from it, after which it may 
be allowed to cool, then for each 1,000 gallons contained 
in the vat there is added 30 lb. bisulphite of soda, 3 lb. zinc 
dust and 3 lb. lime, made into a cream. When all these 
ingredients are dissolved a quantity of the stock liquor is 
added in proportion to the shade that it is desired to dye. 
The whole is well stirred, then the vat is allowed to rest 
for half an hour to enable any sediment to settle, and then 
the dyeing is proceeded with. 

Should the vat show^ signs of becoming green in colour 
it is a good plan to add a mixture of 1 lb. zinc dust 
and 10 lb. bisulphite of soda. The vat should be kept 
alkaline, and so a little lime may be added from time to 
time. 

After a day's work it is well to add a little of the zinc 
and bisulphite mixture, to stir well and allow to stand over- 
night ; the next morning strengthen- up the vat by adding 
fresh stock liquor. 

In place of using lime in making up the vat it is possible 
to use a mixture of caustic soda and ammonia. The lime 
will tend to cause some sediment to form in the vat, whereas 
the soda and ammonia will not. When they are used the 
following mode of working may be followed : — 

Stock Liquor. — Soda zinc vat : Put in a tub 26 gallons cold 
water, 15 lb. zinc pow^der ground into a paste with 6 gallons 
water, then stir in 8 gallons bisulphite of soda at 60° Tw., 
stir well, keeping the heat dowm as much as possible, after 
which add 8 pints caustic soda lye at 70° Tw. and 14 pints 
20 per cent, liquor ammonia. When all is thoroughly mixed 
add 30 ]b. indigo, ground into a paste with 7 gallons water, 
allow to stand for half an hour, then add water to make 



THE PEACTICE OF INDIGO DYEING. 205 

100 gallons, stir at intervals for twelve hours or so, when 
the stock liquor will be ready for use. 

This is used to make the vat in the same way as the 
first above described. It is needful before adding the 
stock liquor in making a vat to destroy any oxygen or air 
which is present in the vat. This may most conveniently 
be done by adding thereto a solution of hydrosulphite of 
soda, which may be made by mixing 4^ lb. zinc dust w^ith 
5 gallons of water and 3 gallons bisulphite of soda at 70° 
Tw., stirring well, so that the temperature does not rise too 
high, there is then added 2 pints caustic soda and 3 pints 
liquor ammonia, 20 per cent. ; when all is dissolved, water is 
added to make up 13 gallons. 

Should the vat show signs of becoming charged with 
indigo, indicated by its becoming of a green colour, a little 
of this hydrosulphite added from time to time will correct it. 

The hydrosulphite-indigo vat made by either of the two 
methods indicated above works well, and w^th due care 
may be kept in work for months. It gives good shades of 
indigo, although some dyers consider that these have not the 
rich bronze hue got from the lime and copperas vat. The 
shades are rather faster to rubbing. 

It has been proposed to employ the dye-stuff indophenol 
in conjunction with indigo, in which case the method of 
making the vat is with zinc, bisulphite of soda, caustic soda 
and ammonia as last described, only in place of using all 
indigo a mixture of 22 lb. indigo and 7i lb. indophenol is 
used. Good blue shades of considerable fastness can thus 
be got. 

Aniline Black. — This black is produced direct upon the 
cotton fibre by various processes which entail the oxidation 
of aniline. The chemical composition and constitution of 
aniline black has not yet been worked out. It is not by any 
means an easy colour to dye, but still with careful attention 



206 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

to carrying out the various operations in detail excellent 
results can be attained. 

Aniline black is the fastest black which is known, it re- 
sists when well dyed exposure to air and light, is quite fast 
to washing and soaping. Its disadvantages are that there 
is, with some methods of working, a tendency to tender the 
cotton fibre, making it tear easily ; secondly, on exposure to 
air it tends to turn green, this however only happens when 
the black has not been dyed properly. 

At the present day it is perhaps without doubt the most 
used of all blacks. The methods for producing it are many 
and varied, the following recipes show how some of the finest 
aniline blacks can be dyed : — 

Ungreenable black is formed when the aniline is by the 
action of the oxidising agents converted into a substance 
named nigranihne. This compound when formed will not 
turn green on the fibre under the influence of acids. 

1. The most usual oxidising agent employed for dyeing 
anihne black is bichromate of soda, which salt will be found 
much better for all purposes than bichromate of potash. Two 
separate solutions are prepared : (1) 61 lb. anihne, 9 lb. 
hydrochloric acid and 10 gallons of water ; and (2) 12 lb. 
bichromate of soda and 20 gallons of water. After cooling, 
equal quantities of these solutions are mixed and the cotton 
worked rapidly through the mixture, in a few minutes it 
assumes a bronze black. The material is then wrung out 
and steamed for twenty minutes at 3J lb. pressure, which 
process renders it jet black and also ungreenable. 

2. Another aniline black : For 100 lb. cotton use 11 lb. 
anihne oil, 15 lb. bichromate of soda, 40 lb. hydrochloric acid 
and 160 gallons water or 12 lb. sulphuric acid. The dye-bath 
is filled with the water and the cold solution of aniline oil 
and a part of the hydrochloric acid in water is first added, 
afterwards the bichromate is dissolved in a small quantity 



THE PRACTICE OF ANILINE BLACK DYEING. 207 

of water, working cold at first and gradually rising to the 
boil. 

3. Another method is the following and gives a black 
that is fast and ungreenable and will not rub : 10 lb. chlorate 
of soda, 10 lb. ammonium chloride, 10 lb. copper sulphate, 
35 lb. aniline salt, 101 lb. aniline oil and 20 gallons water. 
The sodium chlorate and ammonium chloride are dissolved 
in 6h gallons and the copper sulphate separately in 5-| gallons 
water. The anihne salt is dissolved in as little hot water as 
possible and neutralised with a small amount of aniline oil 
(10 lb.). The solution of aniline salt is first added to the 
bath, then the sodium chlorate and ammonium chloride, and 
lastly the copper sulphate, dilute the whole to 14° Tw\ and 
then enter the goods. Next steam, then run through a solution 
containing 10 lb. bichromate and 5 lb. soda per 100 gallons 
water at 160"' F., after which the goods are washed and dry 
steamed at 15 lb. pressure. 

4. A very good black is the prussiate or steam aniline 
black whose cheapness should recommend it. Prepare con- 
centrated solutions of If lb. aniline salt in 1 gallon w^ater, 
1^ lb. ferrocyanide of potash in | gallons water and Ih lb. 
potassium chlorate in 1^ gallons water. Mix the solutions 
and work in a jigger, then steam in a Mather & Piatt 
apparatus for two minutes, then work hot in a jigger in a 
solution of 2 lb. bichromate per 50 gallons w^ater, dry and 
finish. 

Either of these methods yields a good full black ; with 
a little experience and care perfectly uniform shades will be 
got. 



CHAPTEK V. 

DYEING UNION (MIXED COTTON AND WOOL) FABRICS. 

Theee is now produced a great variety of textile fabrics 
of every conceivable texture by combining the tv^o fibres, 
cotton and wool, in a number of ways ; the variety of these 
fabrics has of late years considerably increased, which in- 
crease may be largely ascribed to the introduction of the 
direct dyeing colouring matters— the Diamine dyes, the Benzo 
dyes, the Congo and the Zambesi dyes, for in the dyeing 
of wool-cotton fabrics they have made a revolution. The 
dyer of union fabrics, that is, fabrics composed of wool and 
cotton, was formerly put to great straits to obtain uniform 
shades on the fabrics supplied to him, owing to the difference 
in the affinity of the two fibres for the dye-stuffs then 
known. Now the direct dyes afford him a means of easily 
dyeing a piece of cotton-wool cloth in any colour of a 
uniform shade, while the production of two coloured effects 
is much more under his control, and has led to the increased 
production of figured-dress fabrics, with the ground in one 
fibre (wool) and colour, and the design in another fibre 
(cotton) and colour. The number of direct dyes issued by the 
various colour manufacturers is so great that it would take 
a fairly considerable space to discuss them all. 

To obtain good results it is needful that the dyer of 
union fabrics should have a thorough knowledge of the 
dyes he is using, for each dye makes a rule to itself as 
regards its power of dyeing wool and cotton — some go better 



DYEING UNION (MIXED COTTON AND WOOL) FABRICS. 209 

on to the cotton than on to the wool, and vice versa. Some 
dye wool best at the boil, others equally well below that heat ; 
some go on the cotton at a moderate temperature, others 
require the dye-bath to be boiling ; some will go on to the 
cotton only, and appear to ignore the wool. 

The presence or absence in the dye-bath of such bodies 
as carbonate of soda, Glauber's salt, etc., has a material 
influence on the degree of the affinity of the dye-stuff for 
the two fibres, as will perhaps be noted hereafter. Again, 
while some of the dyes produce equal colours on both fibres, 
there are others where the tone is different. With all these 
peculiarities of the Diamine and other direct dyes the union 
dyer must make himself familiar. These dyes are used in 
neutral baths, that is, along with the dye-stuff. It is often 
convenient to use, along with the direct dyes, some azo or 
acid dyes, which have the property of dyeing the wool from 
neutral baths, many examples of such will be found in the 
practical recipes given below. The dyes now under con- 
sideration may be conveniently classed into five groups. 

1. Those dyes which dye the cotton and wool from the 
same bath to the same shade, or nearly so. Among such 
are Thioflavine S, Diamine fast yellow B, Diamine orange B, 
Diamine rose B D, Diamine reds 4 B, 5 B, 6 B and 10 B, 
Diamine fast red F, Diamine Bordeaux B, Diamine brown N, 
Diamine browns 3 G, B and G, Diamine blues R W, B X, 
Diamine blue G, Diamine greens G and B, Diamine black 
H W, Diamine dark l^lue B, Union blacks B and S, Oxy- 
diamine blacks B, M, D and A, Diamine catechine G, Union 
blue B B, Oxyphenine, Chloramine yellow. Alkali yellow R, 
Chromine G, Titan scarlet S, Mimosa, Curcumine, Primuline, 
Aurohne, Congo Corinth B, Thiazole yellow, Columbia yellow, 
Oxydiamine yellow G G, Oxydiamine oranges G and R, 
Diamine orange F, Oxydiamine red S. 

2. Dyes which dye the cotton a deeper shade than the 

14 



210 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

wool. The following belong to this group : Diamine fast 
yellow A, Diamine oranges G and D, Diamine catechine G, 
Diamine catechine B, Diamine sky blue, Diamine blue 2 B, 
Diamine blue 3 B, Diamine blue B G, Diamine briUiant 
blue G, Diamine new blue E, Diamine steel blue L, Diamine 
black B 0, Diamine black B 0, Diamine black B H, and 
Oxydiamine black S O 0, Diamine nitrazol brown G, 
Diamine sky blue F F, Diamine dark blue B, Diamine Bor- 
deaux B, Diamine violet N, Oxydiamine violet B, Columbia 
blacks B and F B, Zambesi black B, Congo brown G, Direct 
yellow G, Direct orange E, Clayton yellow, Cotton yellow, 
orange T A, Benzo purpurine B, Brilliant Congo E, Chicago 
blues B and 4 B and 6 B. 

3. Dyes which dye wool^a deeper shade than the cotton. 
The dyes in this group are not numerous. They are Diamine 
gold, Diamine scarlet B, Diamine scarlet 3 B, Diamine Bor- 
deaux S, Diamine blue E W, and Diamine green G, Diamine 
reds N and B, Chicago blues G and E, Brilliant purpurine 
E, Diamine scarlet B, Delta purpurine 5 B, Chrysamine, 
Titan blue, Titan pink, Congo oranges G and E, Erie blue 
2 G, Congo E, Brilliant Congo E, Erika B N, Benzo pur- 
purines 4 B and 10 B, Chrysophenine, Titan yellow. Titan 
browns Y, E and O, Congo brown G, Sulphon azurine B, 
Zambesi black B. 

4. Dyes which produce different shades on the two fibres. 
Diamine brown G, and Diamine blue 3 E, Diamine brown V, 
Diamine brown S, Diamine nitrazol brown B, Diamine blues 
B X and 3 E, Diamine blue black E, Benzo blue black G, 
Benzo purpurine 10 B, Benzo azurines E, G and 3 G, Columbia 
red S, Brilliant azurine 5 G, Titan marine blue, Congo Corinths 
G and B, Azo blue, Hessian violet, Titan blue, Azo mauve, 
Congo brown, Diamine bronze G, Zambesi browns G and 
2 G, Zambesi black F. 

5. Azo-acid dves, which dye wool from neutral baths. 



DYEING UNION (MIXED COTTON AND WOOL) FABRICS. 211 

and are therefore suitable for shading up the wool to the 
cotton in union fabric dyeing. Among the dyes thus available 
may be enumerated : Naphthol blues G and R, Naphthol blue 
black, Formyl violet 10 B, Lanacyl blue B B, Lanacyl blue E, 
Alkaline blue, Formyl violets S 4 B and 6 B, Rocceleine, Azo 
red A, Croceine A Z, Brilhant scarlet, Orange extra, Orange 
E N Z, Indian yellow G, Indian yellow R, Tropaeoline 0, 
Naphthylamine black 4 B and Naphthol blue black. Brilliant 
scarlet G, Lanacyl violet B, Brilliant milhng green B, Thio- 
carmine R, Formyl blue B, Naphthylamine blacks D, 4 B and 
6 B ; Azo-acid yellow, Curcumine extra, Mandarine G, Ponceau 
3 R B, Acid violet 6 B, Guinea violet 4 B, Guinea green B, 
Wool black 6 B. 

Regarding the best methods of dyeing, that in neutral 
baths yields the most satisfactory results in practical working* 
It is done in a boiling hot or in a slightly boiling bath, with 
the addition of 6 J oz. crystallised Glauber's salt per gallon 
water for the first bath, and when the baths are kept standing 
20 per cent, crystallised Glauber's salt, reckoned upon the 
weight of the goods, for each succeeding lot. 

In dyeing unions, the dye-l)aths must be as concentrated 
as possible, and must not contain more than from 25 to 30 
times as much water as the goods weigh. In this respect 
it may serve as a guide that concentrated baths are best used 
when dyeing dark shades, while light shades can be dyed in 
more diluted baths. The most important factor for producing 
uniform dyeings is the appropriate regulation of the tem- 
perature of the dye-bath. Concerning this, the dyer must 
bear in mind that the direct colours possess a greater affinity 
for the cotton if dyed below the boiling point, and only go 
on the wool when the bath is boiling, especially so the longer 
and more intensely the goods are boiled. 

The following method of dyeing is perhaps the best one : 
Charge the dye-bath with the requisite dye-stuff and Glauber's 



212 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

salt, boil up, shut off the steam, enter the goods and let run 
for half an hour without steam, then sample. If the shade 
of boih cotton and wool is too light add some more of the 
dye-stuffs used for both fibres, boil up once more and boil for 
a quarter to half an hour. If the wool only is too light, or 
its shade different from that of the cotton, add some more 
of the dye-stuff used for shading the wool and bring them 
again to the boil. If, however, the cotton turns out too 
light, or does not correspond in shade to the wool, add some 
more of the dye-stuffs used for dyeing the cotton, without, 
however, raising the temperature. Prolonged boiling is only 
necessary very rarely, and generally only if the goods to be 
dyed are difficult to penetrate, or contain qualities of wool 
which only with difficulty take up the dye-stuff. In such 
cases, in making up the bath dye-stuffs are to be selected 
some of which go only on the w^ool and others which go 
only on the cotton (those belonging to the second group). 

The goods can then be boiled for some time, and perfect 
penetration and level shades will result. If the wool takes 
up the dye-stuff easily (as is frequently the case with goods 
manufactured from shoddy), and are therefore dyed too dark 
a shade, then dye-stuffs have to be used which principally dye 
the cotton, and a too high temperature should be avoided. 
In such cases it is advisable to diminish the affinity of the 
wool by the addition of one-fifth of the original quantity of 
Glauber's salt (about f oz. per gallon water), and from 
three-quarters to four-fifths of the dye-stuff used for the first 
lot. Care has to be taken that not much of the dye liquor 
is lost when taking out the dyed goods, otherwise the 
quantities of Glauber's salt and dye-stuff will have to be 
increased proportionately. Wooden vats, such as are generally 
used for piece dyeing, have proved the most suitable. They 
are heated with direct, or, still better, with indirect steam. 
The method which has proved most advantageous is to let 



DYEING UNION (MIXED COTTON AND WOOL) FABRICS. 213 

the steam run into a space separated from the vat by a 
perforated wall, into which space the required d^^e-stuffs and 
salt are placed. 

The mode of working is rather influenced by the character 
of the goods, and the following notes will be found useful 
by the union dyer : — 

Very little difficulty will be met with in dyeing such light 
fabrics as Itahans, cashmere, serges and similar thin textiles 
lightly woven from cotton warp and woollen weft. When 
deep shades (blacks, dark blues, brow^ns and greens), are 
being dyed it is not advisable to make up the dye-bath 
with the whole of the dyes at once. It is much better to 
add these in quantities of about one-fourth at a time at 
intervals during the dyeing of the piece. It is found that 
the affinity of the wool for the dyes at the boil is so much 
greater than is that of the cotton that it would, if the whole 
of the dye were used, take up too much of the colour, and then 
would come up too deep in shade. Never give a strong boil 
with such fabrics, but keep the bath just under the boil, which 
results in the wool dyeing much more nearly like to cotton. 

Bright Yellow. — Use 2 lb. Thioflavine S in a bath which con- 
tains 4 lb. Glauber's salt per 10 gallons of dye liquor. 

Good Yelloiv. — A very fine deep shade is dyed with 2 J lb. 
Diamine gold and 2^ lb. Diamine fast yellow^ A, in the same 
way as the last. Here advantage is taken of the fact that 
while the Diamine gold dyes the wool better than the cotton, 
the yellow dyes the cotton the deeper shade, and between 
the two a uniform shade of j^ellow is got. 

Pale Gold Yelloio. — Use a dye liquor containing 4 lb. 
Glauber's salt in every 10 gallons, 2^ lb. Diamine fast yellow A, 
2 oz. Indian yellow G and 3| oz. Indian yellow E. In this 
recipe there is used in the two last dyes purely wool yellows, 
w^hich dye the wool the same tint as the fast yellow A dyes 
the cotton. 



214 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

Bright Yellow. — Use in the saiue way as the last, 21- lb. 
Diamine fast yellow B and 3 oz. Indian yellow G. 

Gold Orange. — Use as above 2 lb. Diamine orange G, 5^ oz. 
Indian yellow K and l^ oz. Orange E N Z. 

Deep Orange. — Use 2h lb. Diamine orange D C, 61 oz. Orange 
E N Z, and 3 J oz. Indian yellow R 

Black. — Use 4^ lb. Union black S, 2 oz. Diamine fast yellow 
A, 5 oz. Naphthol blue black and 3] oz. Formyl violet S 4 B, 
with 4 lb. Glauber's salt in each 10 gallons dye liquor. 

Navy Blue. — Use 1\ lb. Union black S, 3 lb. Diamine black 
B H, J oz. Naphthol blue black, h lb. Formyl violet S 4 B and 
2i oz. alkaline blue B. 

Bed Plum. — Use a dye-bath containing 2| lb. Oxydiamine 
violet B and 3^ oz. Formyl violet S 4 B. 

Dark Green. — A fine shade can be dyed in a bs^th containing 
3 lb. Diamine green B and li lb. Diamine black H W. 

Dark Slate. — Use 4 lb. Diamine black H W, 2 oz. Naphthol 
blue black and 3 oz. Azo red K, 

Sage. — Use a dye-bath containing 4 lb. Diamine bronze G 
and 1|- oz. Naphthol blue black. 

Dark Brown. — A fine dark shade is got from 2i lb. Diamine 
brown V and 2 oz. Naphthol blue black. 

Peacock Green. — Use 3f lb. Diamine steel blue L, 13 oz. 
Diamine fast yellow B, 14|- oz. Thiocarmine E and 2^ oz. 
Indian yellow^ G in a bath of 4 lb. Glauber's salt per gallon 
dye liquor. 

Dark Sea Green. — Use 9 oz. Diamine steel blue L, 3| oz. 
Diamine fast yellow B, h oz. Diamine orange G, 1\ oz. 
Naphthol blue black and f oz. Indian yellow G. 

Dark Brown. — Use 1 lb. Diamine orange B, 1 lb. Diamine 
Fast yellow^ S, 13f oz. Union black S, 1 lb. Diamine brown 
M and h lb. Indian yellow G. Fix in an alum bath after 
dyeing. 

Dark Stone. — Use | lb. Diamine orange B, 3| oz. Union 



DYEING UNION (MIXED COTTON AND WOOL) FABEICS. '215 

black, I oz. Diamine Bordeaux B, 1^7 oz. Azo red A and f 
oz. Naphthol blue black. 

Black, — A very fine black can be got from Sh lb. Oxydiamine 
black B M, '2 lb. Union black S, 9^ oz. Naphtbol blue black and 
4 oz. Formyl violet S 4 B. 

Dark Grey. — A fine bluish shade of grey is got from 7 oz. 
Diamine black B H, 2} oz. Diamine orange G, '2h oz. Diamine 
orange G, 2h oz. Naphthol blue black and 1 oz. Orange E N Z. 

Dark Blue. — A fine shade is got by using '1 lb. Diamine 
black B H, ^ lb. Diamine black H W, and 8| oz. Alkahne 
blue () B. 

Drah. — Use 3 J oz. Diamine orange B, | oz. Union black, 
^ oz. Diamine Bordeaux B, i oz. Azo red A and \ oz. 
Naphthol blue black. 

Plum. — Use 'Ih lb. Diamine violet N, 9i oz. Union black 
and 1 lb. Formyl violet S 4 B. 

Bryjht Yclloio. — Use a dye-bath containing 4 lb. Thioflavine 
S, 2 lb. Naphthol yellov^ S, 10 lb. Glauber's salt and 2 lb. 
acetic acid. 

Pink. — Use \ oz. Diamine Rose B D, \ oz. Diamine scarlet 
B, h oz. Ehodamine B and '20 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Scarlet. — A fine shade is got from IJ lb. Diamine scarlet 
B, i oz. Diamine red 5 B and 20 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Oraiuje. — Use a dye-bath containing 3^ lb. Diamine orange 
G, 14 J oz. TropcBoline O, and 2j oz. Orange extra. 

Sky Blue. — Use Ih oz. Diamine sky blue and 1\ oz. Alkaline 
blue B. 

Bright Blue. — A fine shade similar to that formerly known 
as royal blue is got by using IJ lb. Diamine brilliant blue G 
and 9j oz. Alkaline blue 6 B. 

Maroon. — Use 3 lb. Diamine Bordeaux B, 2 lb. Diamine 
violet N and 3^ oz. Formyl violet S 4 B. 

Green. — A fine green similar in shade to that used for 
billiard-table cloth is got from 2 lb. Diamine fast yellow B, 2 



216 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABEICS. 

lb. Diamine steel blue L, 14| oz. Thiocarinine R and 11 oz. 
Indian yellow G. 

Gold Broivn — A fine brown is got from 81b. Diamine 
orange B, \ lb. Union black, 2 J oz. Diamine brown, | oz. 
Naphthol blue black and h lb. Indian yellow G. 

Navy Blue.— JJse 31 lb. Diamine black B H, Ih lb. 
Diamine brilliant blue G and h lb. Alkaline blue. 

Faivn Drab. — A fine shade is got by dj^eing in a bath con- 
taining 6f oz. Diamine orange B, If lb. Union black, } oz. 
Naphthol blue black, i oz. Diamine Bordeaux B and 1 oz. 
Azo red A. 

In all these colours the dye-baths contain Glauber's salt 
at the rate of 4 lb. per 10 gallons. 

Dark Broivn. — 2 J lb. Diamine orange B, 13 oz. Diamine 
Bordeaux B, 1 J lb. Diamine fast yellow B, If lb. Union black 
and 3h oz. Naphthol black. 

Drab. — If lb. Diamine fast yellow E, 3| oz. Diamine 
Bordeaux B, 2J oz. Union black, h oz. Naphthol blue black 
and IJ oz. Indian j^ellow G. 

Dark Blue. — Use in the dye-bath 4] lb. Diamine dark blue 
B, U lb. Diamine brilhant blue G, | lb. Formyl violet S 4 B 
and 5 oz. Naphthol blue black. 

Blue Black. — Use 3i lb. Union black B, 1^ lb. Oxydiamine 
black B M, 6h oz. Naphthol blue black and I lb. Formyl violet 
S4B. 

Dark Walnut. — 2| lb. Diamine brown M, 1^ lb. Union black 
S, and Hi oz. Indian yellow G. 

Peacock Green. — Use in the dye-bath 3 lb. Diamine black 
H W, SJoz. Diamine fast yellow B, 1\ lb. Thiocarmine E and 
IJ oz. Indian yellow G. 

Slate Blue. — Use in the dye-bath 6^ oz. Diamine carechine 
B, 4| oz. Diamine orange B, '2\oz. Union black, 2| oz. Orange 
E N Z, and IJ oz. Naphthol blue black. 

Dark Saqe. — A good shade is dyed with 1 lb. Diamine 



dteinct union (mixed cotton and wool) fabeics. 217 

orange B, 61 oz. Union black, If oz. Diamine brown M, 3| oz. 
azo red A and 2J oz. Naphthol blue black. 

Navy Blue. — Use 2 lb. Diamine dark blue B, 1| lb. Lanacyl 
violet B, and 7 oz. Naphthol blue black. 

Bronze Green. — A good shade is dyed with 2 lb. Diamine 
orange B, 5 oz. Diamine brown N, J lb. Union black S, 1 lb. 
Indian yellow^ G and 2w oz. Xaphthol blue black. 

Black.— JJse 2| lb. Oxydiamine black B M and 1^ lb. Naph- 
thylamine black 6 B. Another recipe, 2^ lb. Oxydiamine 
black B M, 1 lb. Diamine brown M, 1 lb. Orange E N Z and 
2 oz. Naphthol blue black. 

Dark Broivn. — Use 1^ lb. Oxydiamine black B M, 15^ oz. 
Diamine In'own M, If lb. Indian yellow G and 2 J oz. Naph- 
thol l)lue black. Another combination, 1| lb. Oxydiamine 
black B M, H lb. Orange E N Z, 1 lb. Indian yellow G and 
5 oz. Naphthol blue black. 

Scarlet. — 8 lb. Benzo purpurine 4 B, | oz. Ponceau 8 R B 
and I 11). Curcumine 8. 

Crimson. — \ lb. Congo Corinth G, 2 lb. Benzo purpurine 
10 B and h lb. Curcumine S. 

Bri(iht Blue.— '2 lb. Chicago blue 6 B, 3 oz. Alkali blue 6 B, 
1| oz. Zambesi blue E X. After dyeing rinse and develop in 
a bath of 8 oz. sulphuric acid in 10 gallons of water, then rinse 
well. 

Dark Blue. — 2^ lb. Columbia fast blue 2 G, 8 oz. Sulphon 
azurine D, 8 oz. Alkali blue 6 B. After dyeing rinse and de- 
velop in a bath of 8 oz. sulphuric acid in 20 gallons of water. 

Orange. — 9 oz. Congo brown G, 1^ lb. Mikado orange 
4 R and 1^ oz. Mandarine G. 

Dark Green. — 2 lb. Columbia green, |lb. Sulphon azurine 
D, 1 lb. Zambesi blue B X, 1| oz. Curcumine S. 

Black.— 4: lb. Columbia black F B and 2 lb. Wool black 6 B. 

Pale Sage Green. — 5 oz. Zambesi black D, f lb. Chryso- 
phenine G and 1^ lb. Curcumine S. 



•218 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

Slate. — i- lb. Zambesi black D, | oz. Zambesi blue E X, 
i oz. Mikado orange 4 R O and 1^ oz. Acid violet 6 B. 

Dark Grey. — 1 lb. Colmnbia black ¥ B, 3 oz. Zambesi 
black B and J oz. Sulphon azurine D. 

Drab. — 1^ oz. Zambesi black IJ), J oz. Mandarine G extra, 
I oz. Curcmnine extra and 3 oz. Mikado orange 4 R 0. 

Broion. — 5 oz. Zambesi black D, | oz. Mandarine G extra, 
li oz. Orange T A and '2 oz. Mikado orange 4 R 0. 

Nut Broivn. — J lb. Congo brown G, j lb. Chicago blue 
R W and J lb. Mikado orange 4 R O. 

Dark Broivn. — 1 lb. Congo brown G, 1^ lb. Benzo purpurine 
4 B, 1:^ lb. Zambesi black F and ^ lb. Wool black (i B. 

Stone. — 1 oz. Zambesi black ]), | oz. Mandarine G, I oz. 
Curcmnine extra and IJ oz. Mikado orange 4 11 O. 

Slate Green. — 3 oz. Zambesi black D, Ihoz. Guinea green B. 

Sa(je Broum. — }y lb. Zambesi black I), 1^ oz. Mandarine G 
extra, 3 oz. Curcmnine extra, 3 oz. Acid violet (3 B, 6 oz. 
Mikado orange 4 R and 4^ oz. Curcmnine S. 

Cornflower Blue. — 3 oz. Chicago blue 4 R, | 11). Zambesi 
blue R X, ] lb. Acid violet 6 B and l oz. Zambesi brown G. 

Dark Brown. — 1^ lb. Brilliant orange G, ^ lb. Orange T A, 
1 lb. Columbia black F B and 1 lb. Wool l)lack B. 

Dark Blue. — '2 lb. Chicago blue W^, 1 lb. Zambesi blue R X, 
h lb. Columbia black F B, 10 oz. Guinea green B and h lb. 
Guinea violet 4 B. 

The Janus dyes may be used for the dyeing of half wool 
(union) fabrics. The best plan of working is t(") prepare a 
bath with 5 lb. of sulphate of zinc ; in this the goods are 
worked at the boil for five minutes, then there is added 
the dyes previously dissolved in water, and the working 
continued for a quarter of an hour ; there is then added '20 
lb. Glauber's salt, and the working at the boil continued for 
one hour, at the end of which time the dye-bath will be fairly 
well exhausted of colour. The ^^oods are now taken out 



DYEING UNION (MIXED COTTON AND WOOL) FABRICS. 219 

and put into a fixing-bath of sumac or tannin, in which 
they are treated for fifteen minutes ; to this same bath 
there is next added tartar emetic and 1 lb. sulphuric acid, 
and the working continued for a quarter of an hour, then 
the bath is heated to 160° F., when the goods are hfted, 
rinsed and dried. In the recipes the quantities of the dyes, 
sumac or tannin and tartar emetic are given only, the other 
ingredients and processes are the same in all. 

Dark Blue. — 2] lb. Janus dark blue B and | lb. Janus 
green B in the dye-bath, and 1() lb. sumac extract and "2 lb. 
tartar emetic in the fixing-bath. 

Blue Black, — Sh lb. Janus black I and I lb. Janus black 1 1 
in the dye-bath, and 16 lb. sumac extract and i2 lb. tartar 
emetic in the fixing-bath. 

Dark Brown. — '11 lb. Janus brown B, 1 lb. Janus black I, 
82 oz. Janus yellow (t and 5 oz. Janus red B in the dye- bath, 
with 16 lb. sumac extract and '1 lb. tartar emetic in the 
fixing-bath. 

Drah. — li oz. Janus yellow K, % oz. Janus red B, 1 oz. 
Janus blue K and ] oz. Janus grey B B in the dye-bath, and 
4 lb. sumac extract and 1 lb. tartar emetic in the fixing-bath. 

Grey. — 5 oz. Janus blue B, 3] oz. Janus grey B, Ih oz. 
Janus yellow K and \ oz. Janus red B in the dye-bath, with 
41b. sumach extract and 1 lb. tartar emetic in the fixing-bath. 

Nut Broivn. — 1 lb. Janus brown B, 8 oz. Janus yellow B 
and Ih oz. Janus blue B in the dye-bath, and S lb. sumac 
extract and 1 lb. tartar emetic in the fixing-bath. 

Walnut Broiun. — 3 lb. Janus brown B, 1 lb. Janus red B, 
1 lb. Janus yellow R, 1], oz. Janus green B in the dye-bath, 
with 8 lb. sumac extract and 1 lb. tartar einetic in the 
fixing-bath. 

Crimson. — 2i 11). Janus red B and 8 oz. Janus claret red 
B in the dye-bath, with 8 lb. sumac extract and 1 lb. tartar 
emetic in the fixing-bath. 



220 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

Dark Green. — li lb. Janus green B, IJ lb. Janus yellow E 
and 8 oz. Janus grey B B in the dye-bath, with V2 lb. sumac 
extract and IJ lb. tartar emetic in the fixing-bath. 

Chestnut Broiun. — 1 lb. Janus brown E and 1 lb. Janus 
yellow E in the dye-bath, and 8 lb. sumac extract and 1 lb. 
tartar emetic in the fixing-bath. 

Before the introduction of the direct dyes the method 
usually followed, and, indeed still used to a great extent, is 
that known as cross dyeing. The goods were woven with 
dyed cotton threads of the required shade, and undj^ed 
woollen threads. After w^eaving and cleansing the woollen 
part of the fabric was dyed with acid dyes, such as Acid 
magenta. Scarlet E, Acid yellow, etc. In such methods care 
has to be taken that the dj^es used for dyeing the cotton are 
such as stand acids, a by no means easy condition to fulfil 
at one time. Many of the direct dyes are fast to acids and, 
therefore, lend themselves more or less readily to cross dyeing. 
For details of the dyes for cotton reference may be made to 
the sections on dyeing with the direct colours, page 85, etc., 
while information as to methods of dyeing the wool will be 
found in the companion volume to this on Dyeinri of Woollen 
Fabrics. 

Shot Effects. — A pleasing kind of textile fabric which is 
now made, and is a great favourite for ladies' dress goods, 
is where the cotton of a mixed fabric is thrown up to form a 
figured design. It is possible to dye the two fibres in different 
colours, and so produce a variety of shot effects. These- 
latter are so endless that it is impossible here to enumerate 
all that may be produced. It will have to suffice to lay 
down the Knes which ma\ be followed to the best advantage, 
and then give some recipes to illustrate the remarks that 
have been made. The best plan for the production of shot 
effects upon union fabrics is to take advantage of the 
property of certain acid dyes which dye only the wool in 



DYEING UNION (MIXED C0TT(3N AND WOOL) FABRICS. 221 

an acid bath, and of many of the direct colours which will 
only dye the cotton in an alkaline bath. The process, working 
on these lines, becomes as follows : The wool is first dyed in 
an acid bath with the addition of Glauber's salt and bisulphate 
of soda, or sulphuric acid, the goods are then washed with 
water containing a little annnonia to free them from the acid, 
and afterwards dyed with the direct colour in an alkaline bath. 

Fancy or the mode shades are obtained by combining 
suitable dye-stuffs. 

If the cotton is to be dyed in light shades it is ad- 
vantageous to dye on the liquor at 65° to 80° F., with 
the addition of S\ oz. Glauber's salt, and from 20 to 40 
grains borax per gallon water. The addition of an alkali is 
advisable in order to neutrahse any slight quantities of acid 
which may have remained in the wool, and to prevent the 
dye-stuff from dyeing the cotton too deep a shade. 

Very light shades can also be done on the padding 
machme. The dye-stuffs of Group II., which have been 
previously enumerated, do not stain the wool at all, or 
only very slightly, and are, therefore, the most suitable. 
Less bright effects can be produced by simply dyeing the 
goods in one bath. The wool is first dyed at the boil with 
the respective wool dye-stuff in a neutral bath, the steam 
is then shut off and the cotton dyed by adding the cotton 
■dye-stuff to the bath, and dyeing without again heating. 
By passing the goods through cold water to which some 
sulphuric or acetic acid is added, the brightness of most 
eff'ects is greatly increased. 

Gold and Green. — First bath, 1 lb. Cyanole extra, 1\ oz. 
Acid green, Ih oz. Orange G G, and 10 lb. bisulphate of soda ; 
work at the boil for one hour, then lift and rinse well. 
Second bath, 4 lb. Diamine orange G and 15 lb. Glauber's 
salt ; work in the cold or at a lukewarm heat. Third bath, 
at 120° F., 4 oz. Chrysoidine and \ oz. Safranine. 



222 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

Black and Blue. — First bath, 3| lb. Naphthol black 3 B and 
10 lb. bisulphate of soda. Second bath, 2 lb. Diamine sky 
blue and 13 lb. Glauber's salt. Third bath, 6i oz. New 
Methylene blue N. Work as in the last recipe. 

Green and Claret. — First bath, 3i lb. Naphthol red C and 
10 lb. bisulphate of soda. Second bath, 2 lb. Diamine sky blue 
F F, 1\ lb. Thioflavine S, and 15 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Gold Brown and Blue. — First bath, 2^ oz. orange E N Z, 
li oz. Orange G G, j oz. Cyanole extra and 10 lb. bisulphate 
of soda. Second bath, 14 oz. Diamine sky blue F F and 
15 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Dark Broiun and Blue. — First bath, \ lb. Orange G G, 1^ oz. 
Orange E N Z, IJ oz. Cyanole extra and 10 lb. bisulphate of 
soda. Second bath, 12 oz. Diamine sky blue F F and 15 lb. 
Glauber's salt. 

Black and Green Blue. — First bath, 3 lb. Orange G G, 1 lb. 
Brilhant cochineal 4 E, 1 lb. Fast acid green B N and 10 lb. 
Glauber's salt. Second bath. If lb. Diamine sky blue F F, 
3i lb. Thioflavine S and 15 lb. Glauber's salt. 

We may here note that in all the above recipes the second 
bath (for dying the cotton) should be used cold or at lukewarm 
heat and as strong as possible. It is not completely exhausted 
of colour, only about one-half going on the fibre. If kept as 
a standing bath this feature should be borne in mind, and less 
dye-stuff used in the dyeing of the second and following lots 
of goods. 

Blue and Gold Yellow. — 3'4b. Diamine orange G, 13 oz. 
Naphthol blue G, 14J oz. Formyl violet S 4 B and 15 lb. 
Glauber's salt. Work at just under the boil. 

Brown and Blue. — 1 lb. Diamine steel blue L, 9^ oz. Diamine 
sky blue, 1 lb. Orange E N Z, 1 lb. Indian yellow G, If oz. 
Naphthol blue black and 15 lb. Glauber's salt. Work at 170° 
to 180° F. 

In these two last recipes only one bath is used, all the 



DYEING UNION (MIXED COTTON AND WOOL) FABRICS. 22^ 

dyes being added at once. This is possible if care be taken 
that d3'e-stuffs of two kinds are used, one or more which will 
dye wool and not cotton from neutral baths, and those direct 
dyes w^hich dye cotton better than wool. The temperature 
should also be kept below the boil and carefully regulated 
as the operation proceeds and the results begin to show 
themselves. 

Gy-ey and Orange. — First bath, 3 oz. Orange extra, IJ lb. 
Cyanole extra, 1 lb. Azo red A and 10 lb. bisulphate of soda. 
Second bath, 5 oz. Diamine orange D C and 3 oz. Diamine 
fast yellow B. 

Green and Bed. — First bath, 2 lb. Croceine A Z, and 10 lb. 
Glauber's salt. Second bath, 1 lb. Diamine sky blue F F,. 
J lb. Thioflavine S, and 15 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Broivn and Violet. — First bath, | lb. Orange extra, | lb. 
Cyanole extra, and 10 lb. bisulphate of soda. Second bath, 
5 oz. Diamine brilliant blue G, and 15 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Black and Yelloio. — First bath, 7 lb. Naphthol black B, 

1 lb. Fast yellow S, and 10 lb. bisulphate of soda. Second 
bath 3 lb. Diamine fast yellow A, and 15 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Black and Pink. — Black as above. Pink with Diamine rose 
B D (see above). 

Green and Buff. — First bath, \ lb. Orange extra, f oz. Fast 
yellow S, and 10 lb. bisulphate of soda. Second bath, | lb. 
Diamine sky blue F F, | lb. Thioflavine S, and 15 lb. Glau- 
ber's salt. 

Orange and Violet. — First bath, 9 oz. Orange extra, and 10 
lb. bisalphate of soda. Second bath, f lb. Diamine violet N, 
and 10 lb. Glauber's salt. 

Black and Blue. — First bath, Naphthol black as given 
above. Second bath. Diamine sky blue as given above. 

Black and Yellow. — Add first 1 lb. Wool black 6 B, and 10 
lb. Glauber's salt, then, when the wool has been dyed, add 

2 lb. Curcumine S to dye the cotton in the same bath. 



224 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABEICS. 

Green and Bed. — Dye the wool by using 3 lb. Guinea green 
B, \ lb. Curcumeine extra, and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, then 
add to the bath | lb. Erika B N, and | lb. Congo Corinth G. 

Orange and Blue. — Dye the wool first with 1\ lb. Man- 
darine G, 2 oz. Wool black 6 B, and 10 lb. Glauber's salt ; 
^en the cotton with 2 lb. Columbia blue G. 

Blue and Orange. — Dye the wool first with | lb. Guinea 
violet B, I lb. Guinea green B, and 10 lb. Glauber's salt ; then 
dye the cotton with 2 lb. Mikado orange 4 E O 

Green and Orange. — Dye the wool with 3 lb. Guinea green 
B, \ lb. Curcumeine extra, and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, then 
dye the cotton in the same bath with 1| lb. Mikado orange 
4!K0. 



CHAPTEK VI. 

DYEING HALF SILK (COTTON-SILK, SATIN) FABRICS. 

The direct dyes of the Diamine, Beiizo and Congo types have 
been of late years increasingly used for dyeing satin (silk and 
cotton), and they have quite displaced the old methods of 
dyeing this class of fabrics, v^hich consisted in first dyeing 
the silk with an acid dye and then dyeing the cotton with a 
basic dye. For details of the method of applying acid d3^es 
to silk reference may be made to Mr. G. H. Hurst's book on 
Silk Dyeing. 

Most of the direct colours are exceedingly well adapted 
for this purpose, some under certain conditions possess the 
property of dyeing the cotton a deeper shade than the silk, 
which is an advantage rather than otherwise. 

The dyeing of goods composed of silk and cotton is 
generally done in winch dye-vats, m some cases also on the 
jigger. 

Method of Dyeing. 

The direct colours are as a rule dyed in a soap-bath with 
addition of phosphate of soda, Glauber's salt or common salt 
and a little soda. 

The addition of these salts effects a better exhaustion of 

the baths ; they are therefore principally used for dark and 

full shades, whilst pale shades are dyed with the addition of 

soap only or in combination with phosphate of soda. Dark 

or pale shades may thus be produced at will by selecting the 

1.5 



226 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

proper additions, but the fact should not l)e overlooked that 
the greater exhaustion of the baths not only increases the 
depth of shade of the cotton but also causes the silk to absorb 
more dye-stuff. Too large a proportion of salt would cause 
the dye-stuffs to go on the fibre too quickly and thus make 
the dyeing liable to turn out uneven. 

A large proportion of soap counteracts the effects of the 
salts, causing the dye-stuff to go on less quickly and tending 
to leave the silk lighter than the cotton, in some cases even 
almost white, a property which is valuable in many cases, 
especially as enabling the silk and cotton to be dyed in 
different colours to obtain shot effects. 

It is thus obvious that a general method applicable in all 
cases cannot be given ; it will vary according to the effect 
desired, and partly also depend on the material to be dyed. 

The following particulars may serve as a guide for the 
first bath : — ■ 

For pale shades each 10 gallons dye-liquor should contain 
3^ to 6h oz. soap and 4 to 7 drs. soda or 3^ to 6^ oz. soap, 
4 to 5J drs. soda and 3^ to 6J oz. phosphate of soda. 

For medium and dark shades each 10 gallons dye-liquor 
may contain 3^ to Gf oz. soap, 4 to 7 drs. soda, 3^ to Gi oz. 
phosphate of soda and Gi to 13 oz. cryst. Glauber's salt. 

For two coloured effects or dyeings, in which the silk is 
intended to remain as pale as possible or even white, each 10 
gallons dye-liquor may contain 4| to 8 oz. soap, 4 to 6 drs. 
soda, 3i to 8 oz. phosphate of soda and 4| to 9| oz. cryst. 
Glauber's salt. 

The temperature of the dye-baths is generally 175 ° to 
195 ^ F. ; in practical dyeing it is usual to boil up the fully 
charged dye-bath, shut off the steam, enter the goods and 
dye for about three-quarters of an hour. 

For obtaining level dyeings in pale shades it is advisable 
not to enter the goods too hot, but to raise the temperature 



DYEING HALF SILK (COTTON-SILK, SATIN) FABEICS. 227 

gradually. Eaising the temperature, or dyeing for some time- 
at the boil will deepen the shade of the cotton, but at the 
same tmie will have the same effect on the silk which may 
sometimes be an advantage when dyeing dark shades. 

As a complete exhaustion of the baths does not take 
place, especially when dyeing dark shades, it is advantageous, 
nay, even imperative, to preserve the baths for further use, 
they are then replenished with only about three-fourths of 
the quantities of dye-stuffs used for the first bath, of the soap 
only about one-fourth, of Glauber's salt, soda and phosphate 
of soda only about one-fifth, of the first quantities are 
necessary. 

The first bath should be prepared with condensed water. 
If none is at hand ordinary water should be boiled up with 
soda and soap and the scum removed. Clear soap baths are 
absolutely necessary for the production of pure shades and 
clean pieces. 

After dyeing, the pieces must be very well rinsed, and the 
colour raised or brightened with 1 pint of acetic acid in 10 
gallons of water. 

Many of the Diamine and Titan colours being very fast 
to acids, but few of them will be affected by this treatment. 

In the following tables are given those Diamine, etc., 
colours especially adapted for the dyeing of goods composed 
of silk and cotton, divided into three groups according to their 
relation to silk and cotton : — 

1. Dye-stuffs possessing a great affinity to cotton and 
tinting the silk not at all or only very little. To this class 
belong Chicago blues, Benzo blues, Diamine fast yellow A, 
Diamine orange G G, Diamine orange D C, Diamine blue B B, 
Diamine blue 3 B, Diamine sky blue F F, Diamine briUiant 
blue G, Diamineral blue K, Diamine black B, Mikado browns, 
Mikado oranges, Mikado yellows. 

2. Dye-stuffs producing on cotton and silk the same or 



228 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

nearly the same shade but covering the cotton better than 
the silk. These are Thioflavine S, Diamine yellow N, Diamine 
gold, Diamine fast yellow B, Diamine orange B, Diamine grey 
G, Diamine rose B D, Diamine scarlet S, Diamine scarlet B, 
Diamine scarlet 3 B, Diamine red 5 B, Diamine fast red F, 
Diamine Bordeaux B, Diamine Bordeaux S, Diamine violet N, 
Oxydiamine violet B, Diamine blue K W, Diamine black H W, 
Diamine steel blue L, Diamine dark blue B, Union black S, 
Oxydiamine black D, Diaminogene extra, Diaminogene B, 
Diamine brown M, Diamine brown 3 G, Diamine green B, 
Diamine green G. 

3. Dye-stuffs producing on cotton more or less different 
shades than on silk. This group comprises Diamine blue C B, 
Diamine blue B G, Diamine blue B X, Diamine azo blue 2 E, 
Diamine blue 3 K, Diamine blue black E, Diamine black K 0, 
Oxydiamine black S 0, Diamme brown V, Diamine brown 
B, Diamine bronze G. Cotton brown N produces on silk 
darker shades than on cotton. 

Of course this classification cannot be taken as absolutely 
correct, as by raising or lowering the temperature during the 
dyeing process or by a larger or smaller addition of soap or 
Glauber's salt (common salt, phosphate of soda), the dye- 
stuffs are more or less influenced in one or the other 
direction. Diamine violet N, for instance, when dyed with 
an increased addition of soap would dye the cotton some- 
what lighter, but at the same time leave the silk perfectly 
white. 

Topping with Basic and Acid Dye-stuffs. — -As in very few 
cases only the desired shade can be obtained in the first 
instance by bottoming with direct colours, topping generally 
has to be resorted to. This is best done with basic dyes, in 
some cases also with acid dye-stuffs in cold or tepid bath 
with addition of sulphuric acid, hydrochloric or acetic acid. 
The use of acid dye-stuffs is restricted to cases where the silk 



DYEING HALF SILK (COTTON-SILK, SATIN) FABRICS. 229 

alone is to be shaded. In most cases basic dye-stuffs are 
made use of, which dye silk and cotton the same shade and 
deepen the shade of the cotton if the latter has a suthciently 
good bottom, thus giving the goods a better and fuller appear- 
ance. 

It is not advisable to employ basic and acid dye-stuffs in 
the same bath except when the quantities of either class are 
very small. Should it be necessary to dye with large quantities 
of both classes, the acid dye-stuffs are first dyed in a tepid acid 
bath and then the goods are topped with the basic dye-stuffs 
in a fresh cold bath with the addition of a little hydrochloric 
or acetic acid. 

Of the basic dye-stuffs which are available, the following 
are the most suitable for topping : New methylene blue N, 
and other brands ; New blue D and other brands ; Cresyl blue, 
Methylindone B and K, Metaphenylene blue, Indazine ; the 
various brands of Brilliant green. Solid green and Mala- 
chite green, Capri green, Cresyl violet, Thioflavine T, New 
phosphine G, Tannin orange E, and the various brands of 
Bismarck brown ; Safranine, Magenta all brands, Tannin 
heliotrope, all brands of Neutral violet, Methyl violet. 

Of the acid dye-stuff's, the following are good for topping 
or shading the silk : Cyanole extra. Indigo blue N, Indigo 
blue S G N, and the various brands of Water blue. Soluble 
blue, Solid blue, and Induline ; the various brands of Acid 
green and Fast acid green ; Indian yellow G and K, Naphthol 
yellow S, Tropseoline and O 0, and the various brands of 
Milling yellow and Orange ; Azo red A, Azo rubine A, Archil 
substitute N, Azo orseille B B, Brilliant orseille C, and the 
various brands of Eosine, Erythrosine, Eose bengale, Ehoda- 
mine, Brilliant croceine and Brilliant scarlet ; the various 
brands of Formyl violet and Acid violet ; Aniline grey B and 
Nigrosine, soluble in water. 

Bright Yellotv. — Use 2 lb. Thioflavine S. 



230 THE DYEING OF COTTON FA33KICS. 

Deep Orange Yelloiv. — This can be dyed by using 2 lb. 
Diamine yellow N. 

Gold Yelloiv. — Dye with 2 lb. Diamine gold. Some care 
must be taken with this, especially not to dye too hot or the 
silk will be dyed deeper than the cotton. 

Deep Orange. — Use 2 lb. Diamine orange B. 

Bright Bose. — Use 2 lb. Diamine Kose B D. Do not work 
too high, especially when dyeing light rose shades, as then 
the silk is apt to take up too much colour. 

Scarlet. — Use in the dye-bath 2 lb. Diamine scarlet H S. 
The heat of the dye-bath should not be allowed to exceed 
160° to 170° F., or there is a risk of the shades becoming 
somewhat duller. 

Crimson. — Dye with 2 lb. Diamine fast red F. 

Violet. — Use 2 lb. Oxydiainine violet B. 

Bright Blue. — A fine shade is dyed with 2 lb. Diamine blue 
K W. 

Dark Creeji. — Use 2 lb. Diamine black H W. This gives a 
fine shade of bluish green. 

Gold Broiv7i. — Dye with 2 lb. Diamine brown 8 G at a low 
heat, from 150° to 160° F., otherwise the silk takes up too 
much colour. 

Dark Green. — Dye with 2 lb. Diamine green B. 

Deej) Bose. — Dye with 2 lb. Diamine red 10 B. 

Brilliant Yelloiv. — Dye with Ih lb. Mikado golden yellow 
8 G ; then enter into a cold bath which contains IJ per cent. 
Auramine 1 1. This gives a very bright shade of yellow. 

Dark Broio7i. — Dye a bottom with 2 lb. Mikado brown 
3 G 0, and then top with 3 lb. Bismarck brown and h lb. 
Capri blue G N. 

Crimson. — Dye with 2 lb. Mikado orange 5 K and 2 lb. 
Hessian purple N. 

Sage Green. — Dye a bottom with 2 lb. Mikado yellow G, 
14 oz. Eboli green T and 3 oz. Mikado brown M, then top in 



DYEING HALF SILK (COTTON-SILK, SATIN) FABEICS. 231 

a fresh cold bath with h lb. Aiiramiiie I I and i oz. Acridine 
Orange N 0. 

Leaf Gree7i. — Dye a bottom with 3 lb. Mikado golden 
yellow 8 G and 1 lb. Eboli blue B ; then top with 1^ lb. 
Capri green '2 G in a cold bath. 

Deep Brown. — Dye with 2 lb. Mikado orange 3 K O, 3 lb. 
Hessian grey S and 1 lb. Hessian brown '2 B N ; then top 
with 7 oz. Azine green T and '2\ lb. Acridine orange N 0. 

Dark Cream, — Bottom with 1 oz. Diamine orange G ; then 
top in a fresh warm bath with 1 oz. Orange G G, h oz. Indian 
yellow E, 5 lb. Glauber's salt and 1 lb. acetic acid. 

Brilliant Violet. — Give a bottom with 1 lb. Diamine violet 
N ; then top in a fresh warm bath with 4 oz. Methyl violet B 
and 2 oz. Khodamine. 

Slate. — Bottom in a hot bath with () oz. Diamine dark 
blue B and IJ oz. Diamine brown M ; then top in a fresh 
bath at 170° F. with 4 oz. Aniline grey B, 1 oz. Cyanole extra, 
5 lb. Glauber's salt and 1 lb. acetic acid. 

Black Brotvn. — Give a bottom with 2 lb. Cotton brown A, 
1 lb. Diamine gold and 3 J lb. Oxydiamine black S O O ; then 
top in a fresh bath at 120° F. with 4 oz. New methylene blue 
N, 1 oz. Safranine and ^ oz. Indian yellow^ G. 

Bright Violet. — Use J lb. Oxydiamine violet B and f oz. 
Diamine dark blue B ; top after dyeing with | oz. Safranine, \ 
oz. Methylindone B and \ oz. Cyanole extra. 

Drab. — Dye with () oz. Diamine orange G, 1 lb. Diamine 
bronze G and J lb. Diamine brown M, topping afterwards in 
a bath of i oz. Aniline grey B and J oz. Bismarck brown F F. 

Leaf Green. — Dye with ^ lb. Diamine black H W, and 1 lb. 
Diamine fast yellow B ; top with \ oz. BriUiant green, J oz. 
Indian yellow R, | oz. Thiofiavine T and ^ oz. Cyanole extra. 

Dark Crimson. — Use in the dye-bath 3 lb. Diamine Bordeaux 
S, I lb. Diamine orange D C and 1^ lb. Diamine brown V, 
topping with ] oz. Magenta and ^ oz. Formyl violet S 4 B. 



23^2 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABEICS. 

Turquoise Blue. — Use to dye the ground, 6 oz. Diamine sky 
blue F F and h oz. Diamine fast yellow A ; top with Ih oz. 
Cyanole extra and \ oz. Brilliant green. 

Dark Grey. — Dye with ^ oz. Diamine grey G, and 1^ oz. 
Diamine brown M ; top with \ oz. Orange extra and 1 oz. 
Cyanole extra. 

Brilliant Orange. — Dye with 1 lb. Mikado orange K O, and 
top with 6 oz. Acridine orange N and 12 oz. Auramine I I. 

Broivn. — Dye a bottom colour with 3 lb. Mikado brown M, 
and top with 2 lb. Bismarck brown and 6 oz. Cresyl fast 
violet 2 E N. 

Deep Crimson. — Dye with 1 lb. Columbia black K and top 
with 6 oz. Magenta. 

Pale Sea Green. — Use in the dye-bath h oz. Chrysophenine 
G, 1| oz. Chicago blue 6 B and 1^ oz. Alkali blue 6 B. 

Bright Grimso7i. — Dye with 3 lb. Congo Corinth and top 
with 1 lb. Magenta. 

Dark Russian Green. — Dye with 3 lb. Columbia black B ; 
then top with 1 lb. Malachite green. 

Gold Drab. — Dye with 5 oz. Columbia black, and top with 
5 oz. Chrysoidine E. 

Bright Olive Yelloiv. — Dye with 1-h lb. Diamine gold, IJ lb. 
Diamine fast yellow A and f lb. Diamine bronze G ; top with 
J lb. Thiofiavine T and l lb. Chrysoidine. 

Moss Broivn. — Dye with 1 oz. Diamine brown M, 6 oz. 
Diamine fast yellow A, 6 oz. Diamine bronze G, topping with 
1 oz. new Methylene blue N and 4 oz. Orange G G. 

Dark Sea Green — Dye a bottom with 9 oz. Diamine black B 
and 4| oz. Diamine fast yellow B, then top with 2 oz. New 
methylene blue M and 2 oz. New phosphine G. 

Old Gold. — Dye a ground with I lb. Diamine gold, 1} lb. 
Diamine fast yellow A, and 6 oz. Diamine bronze G, topping 
with 8 oz. Thiofiavine T, 1 oz. Indian yellow E and 1 oz. 
Brilliant green. 



DYEING HALF SILK (COTTON-SILK, SATIN) FABKICS. 233 

Cornfloioer Blue. — Dye the ground with 2J lb. Diamine azo 
blue 2 B, 1^ oz. AlkaH blue 3 B, ^ lb. Oxydiamine black 
S 0, and top with 1 oz. Metaphenylene blue B, 2 oz. 
New methylene blue K and 1 oz. Indigo blue N. 

Slate. — Dye with 7 oz. Diamine dark blue B and 1 oz. 
Diamine brown M ; top with 1 oz. Aniline grey B and 1 oz. 
Cyanole extra. 

Pale Drab. — Dye the ground with 1 oz. Diamine orange G 
C, f oz. Diamine bronze G and i oz. Diamine brown M ; top 
with f oz. Xew methylene blue N, 1 oz. Bismarck brown and 
1 oz. Cyanole extra. 

Deep Leaf Green. — Dye a ground colour with Ij lb. Diamine 
bronze G, Ih lb. Diamine fast yellow A and 1^ lb. Diamine 
l:)lack H W ; the toppmg bath is made with ^ lb. Brilliant 
green, h lb. Chrysoidine and J lb. New methylene blue N. 

Maroon. — Dye with 3 lb. Diamine Bordeaux S, ^ lb. Diamine 
orange D C and ^ lb. Diamine brown V ; top with | lb. 
Magenta and I lb. Formyl violet S 4 B. 

Heliotrojje. — Dye with 1 lb. Heliotrope 2 B. 

Lilac Rose. — Dye with 8 lb. Columbia black R and 1 lb. 
Alkali blue B ; after dyeing pass through a weak acetic acid 
bath, then wash well. 

Pea Green. — Dye with 2 lb. Chrysophenine, 1 lb. Chicago 
blue 6 B and 1 lb. Alkali blue 6 B ; pass, after dyeing, 
through a weak acetic acid bath, then wash well. 

Dark Drab. — Dye with | lb. Diamine brown M, 1 lb. 
Diamine fast yellow A and | lb. Diamine bronze G ; top with 
^ lb. Orange G G and ^ lb. Cyanole extra. 

Deep Rose. — Dye the bottom colour w^ith i lb. Diamine rose 
B D and top with | lb. Ehodamine B and 1 oz. Safranine. 

Walnut Broivn. — Dye the bottom colour with 1 lb. Oxy- 
diamine black D, 1 lb. Diamine brown M and 1 lb. Oxydiamine 
violet B ; the topping is done with 4 oz. Safranine, 2 oz. 
New methylene blue N and 2 oz. Chrysoidine. 



234 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABKICS. 

Dyeing of Plain Black. — Diamine blacks find a very ex- 
tensive application for dyeing blacks on satin, either dyed 
direct in one bath, or dyed, diazotised and developed. 

Union black S and Oxydiamine black D are particularly 
suitable for direct blacks, and are used either alone or in a 
combination with Diamine jet black S S, which produces a 
better covering of the silk, or with Oxydiamine black S O, 
which deepens the shade of the cotton. According to the 
shade required Diamine fast yellow A and B, Diamine green 
B or G, or Alkaline blue may be used for shading. 

Dye for about One hour at about 175° to 195° F. in as 
concentrated a bath as possible, w^ith about 7 to 8 lb. dye per 
100 lb. of satin, 8 to 16 oz. Glauber's salt and 5 to 8 oz. soap 
per 10 gallons dye liquor ; keep cool in the l)ath for some time 
and rinse. 

The raising is either done in a tepid soap bath with the 
addition of some new methylene blue, or in an acid bath 
to which Naphthol. blue black, Acid green, etc., is added for 
shading the silk. 

Direct dyed blacks are especially suitable for cheap goods 
(ribbons, light linings, etc.), for which special fastness to 
water is not required ; also for tram and tussar silk plushes, 
which are afterwards topped with logwood. 

If greater fastness is required, and more especially if it is 
a case of replacing aniline black, Diaminogene diazotised and 
developed is a good dye-stuff. It is extensively used for 
dyeing umbrella cloths and linings. Against aniline black it 
has the great advantage of not tendering the fibre in the 
least, and not turning green during storage. Diaminogene B 
and Diaminogene extra are mostly used for this purpose, the 
former for jet blacks, the latter for blue-black shades. 

Proceed as follows : Enter the boiled off and acidulated 
goods in a boiling bath as concentrated as possible, charged 
with 16 oz. Glauber's salt per 10 gallons Hquor, and 1 lb. 



DYEING HALF SILK (COTTON-SILK, SATIN) FABRICS. 235 

acetic acid per 100 lb. dry goods. For jet black add for 100 
lb. satin, 6 to 8 lb. Diaminogene, 1 to '2 lb. Naphthylamine 
black D, I to 1 lb. Diamine fast yellow A or Diamine green B ; 
for very deep shades about i of the quantity of Diaminogene 
B may be replaced with Diamine jet black S S. For blue 
black, 6 to 8 lb. Diaminogene B, or 3 to 4 lb. Diaminogene B, 
and 3 to 4 lb. Diaminogene extra. Dye for three-quarters 
to one hour at the boil, allow to cool in the bath for about 
thirty minutes, then rinse, diazotise and develop. 

Phenylene diamine (93 per cent.) serves for developing 
jet blacks mixed with resorcine for greenish shades. Beta- 
naphthol is used for blue blacks (1 lb. 5 oz. per 100 lb. of 
dry material, dissolved in its own weight of soda lye, 75° Tw.). 
The three developers may also be mixed with each other 
in any proportions. 

After developmg soap hot with addition of new methylene 
blue, by choosing a reddish or a bluish brand of new 
methylene, blue and black may be shaded at will in the 
soap bath ; finally rinse and raise with acetic acid. 

If properly carried out this process will give a black 
almost equal to aniline black ; but having, as already men- 
tioned, the advantage of not impairing the strength of the 
fibre, and not turning green during storage. 

As the dye-baths for blacks are charged with a pro- 
portionately high percentage of dye-stuff for the first bath, 
and will not exhaust completely, it is advisable to preserve 
them for further use. 

For subsequent lots only two-thirds to three-fourths of 
the quantities of dye-stnffs used for the first baths are re- 
quired, which fact has to be taken into consideration when 
calculating the cost of dyeing. 

Dyeing Shot Effects on Satin. — Not all direct colours 
are equally well adapted for the production of shot effects ; 
those enumerated in Group I. are most suitable for the 



236 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABEICS. 

purpose, and should be dyed with a larger quantity of soap 
than is usual for solid shades, in order to leave the silk 
as httle tinted as possible. Dye-stuffs of the other groups 
may be used if the dyeing is conducted with proper care, 
i.e., keeping the baths more alkaline and lowering the tem- 
perature. The goods are dyed with the addition for the two 
coloured effects previously mentioned, then they are well 
rinsed, and afterwards the silk is dyed with the suitable 
acid dye-stuffs, with addition of sulphuric acid at a tempera- 
ture of about 150° F. Care should be taken not to use 
too much acid, and to keep the temperature of the bath 
sufficiently low, as otherwise the acid may cause some of the 
dye-stuff to go off the cotton and tint the silk. It is best to 
work at a temperature of about 150" F., with addition of 
about 8 oz. concentrated sulphuric acid per 10 gallons dye- 
liquor. 

For shading the silk all acid dye-stuffs can be used which 
have been mentioned in the foregoing tables. 

If in shot effects the cotton is to be dyed bright and 
full shades, this is best achieved by dyeing w^ith direct 
colours first, and then topping with basic colours as 
follows : — 

Bottom the cotton first with the suitable direct colours, 
then dye the silk and then treat the pieces for about two 
hours in a cold tannin bath (about 8 oz. tannin per 10 gallons 
of water), then rinse once and pass through a tartar emetic 
bath (about 3 oz. per 10 gallons), rinse thoroughly and dye 
the cotton to shade with basic colours in a cold bath to 
which some acetic acid has been added. 

Should the silk become a little dull after this process, this 
may be remedied by a slight soaping. After dyeing rinse 
well and raise with acetic acid. 

Shot Effects with Black Cotton Warp. — Effects much in 
favour are designs composed of black cotton and light or 



DYEING HALF SILK (COTTON-SILK, SATIN) FABEICS. 237 

coloured silk. The most suitable black dye for this purpose 
is Diamine black B H, diazotised and developed. 

Dye in as concentrated a bath as possible at about 160° F. 
with about 6 lb. Diamine black B H, 1 lb. Diamine sky' blue, 
pat., per 100 lb. of dry goods, f lb. Diamine orange D C, pat., 
with an addition of 6^ oz. soap, 4 to 5 dr. soda per 10 gallons 
liquor, 16 oz. Glauber's salt. After dyeing rinse well in 
a bath containing 6 dr. soda and 3 oz. soap per 10 gallons 
water, diazotised in a fresh bath with 4 lb. nitrite of soda 
and 12 lb. hydrochloric acid (per 100 lb. of dry goods), rinse 
thoroughly and develop with 3 to 16 oz. phenylene diamine 
(93 per cent.), with addition of 1 to 2 lb. soda. These two 
operations should follow each other as quickly as possible, 
also care has to be taken that the diazotised goods are not ex- 
posed to direct sunlight or heat, which causes unlevel dyeings. 
The silk is then cleaned as far as possible by hot soaping, 
and dyed at about 120° to 140° F., with acid dye-stuffs and 
the addition of sulphuric acid. After dyeing rinse as usual 
and brighten. 

Yelloiv and Violet, — Dye the cotton with 2 lb. Diamine fast 
yellow A, the silk with 1 lb. Cyanole extra, and 1 lb. Formyl 
violet S 4 B. 

Black and Blue. — -Dye the cotton with 5 lb. Diamine black 
B H, 1 lb. Diamine sky blue, and I lb. Diamine orange D C. 
After dyeing, diazotise and develop with phenylene diamine 
as described above. Then dye the silk with ^ lb. Pure soluble 
blue and 1 lb. Cyanole extra. 

Black and Crimson. — Dye the black as in the previous 
recipe, then dye the silk with 2 lb. Brilliant croceine 3 B and 
^ lb. Bhodamine S. 

Blue and Gold. — Dye the cotton with 2 lb. Diamine sky 
blue and the silk with 1 lb. Fast yellow S. 

Dark Blue and Green. — Dye the cotton with 1^ lb. Diamine 
black B H, 1^ lb. Diamme sky blue and J lb. Diamine azo 



238 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABEICS. 

blue 2 K ; the silk with 2 lb. Naphthol yellow S and 1 lb. 
New methylene blue G G. 

Violet and Yelloiu. — Dye the cotton with 2 oz. Diamine 
violet N and the silk with 1 lb. Fast yellow S. 

Orange and Violet. — Dye the cotton with 2 lb. Diamine 
orange D C and the silk with 1 lb. Formyl violet S 4 B. 

Dark Bhte and Olive. — Dye the cotton with li lb. Diamineral 
blue R and f lb. Diamine azo blue 2 R, and the silk with 1 lb. 
Naphthol yellow S and 1 lb. Orange G G. 

Green and Pink. — Dye the cotton with 1^- lb. Diamine fast 
yellow A and \ lb. Diamine sky blue, and the silk w^ith 1 lb. 
Erythrosine B. 

Broion and Blue. — Dye the cotton w^ith 8 lb. Mikado brown 
2 B, and the silk with i lb. Pure blue. 

It is quite possible to produce tw^o coloured effects con- 
taining blue in one bath by using Alkali blue as a constituent 
with a direct dye which works only on to the cotton, the 
alkali blue going on to the silk, as, for example, in the follow- 
ing recipes : — 

Orange and Blue. — The dye-bath is made with 3 lb. Mikado 
orange 5 R and 1\ lb. Alkali blue 6 B. After the dyeing 
the goods are rinsed, then passed through a bath of 1^ lb. 
sulphuric acid in 10 gallons w^ater, washed well and dried. 

Olive and Blue. — The dye-bath is made with 1\ lb. Diamine 
fast yellow^ A, 2^ lb. Diamine orange D C, i lb. Diamine sky 
blue, and 1 lb. Alkah blue 6 B. After dyeing rinse, then 
acidulate as above and wash well. 



CHAPTEE VII. 

operations following dyeing. 

Washing, Soaping, Drying. 

After loose cotton or wool, or cotton and woollen yarns, 
or piece goods of every description have been dyed, before 
they can be sent out for sale they have to pass through 
various operations of a purifying character. There are 
some operations through which cloths pass that have as 
their object the imparting of a certain appearance and 
texture to them, generally known as finishing processes ; 
of these it is not intended here to speak, but only of those 
which precede these, but follow on the dyeing operations. 

These processes are usually of a very simple character, 
and common to most colours which are dyed, and here will 
be noticed the appliances and manipulation necessary in 
the carrying out of these operations. 

Squeezing or Wringing — It is advisable when the goods 
are taken out of the dye-bath to squeeze or wring them 
according to circumstances, in order to press out all surplus 
dye-hquor, which can be returned to the dye-bath if needful 
to be used again. This is an economical proceeding in many 
cases, especially in working with many of the old tannin 
materials like sumac, divi-divi, myrobolams, and the modern 
direct dyes which in the dyeing operations are not completely 
extracted out of the bath, or in other words, the dye-bath 
is not exhausted of colouring matter, and, therefore, it can 



240 



THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 



be used again for another lot of goods, simply by adding 
fresh material to make up for that absorbed by the first 
lot of goods. 

Loose wool and loose cotton are somewhat difficult to 
deal with by squeezing or wrmging, but the material may 
be passed through a pair of squeezing rollers, such as are 




Fig. 81. — Squeezing Rollers. 



shown in Fig. 81, which will be more fully dealt with 
later on. The machine shown is made by Messrs Read 
Holliday & Sons. 

Yarns in Hanks. — In the hank-dyeing process the hanks 
are wrung by placing one end of the hank on a wringing 
horse placed over the dye-tub, a dye stick on the other 



OPEEATIONS FOLLOWING DYEING. 241 

end of the hank giving two or three sharp pulls to straighten 
out the yarn, and then twisting the stick round, the twisting 
of the yarns puts some pressure on the fibres, thoroughly 
and uniformly squeezing out the surplus liquor from the 
yarn. 

Hank-iuringing Machines. — Several forms of hank-wringing 
machines have been devised. One machine consists of a pair 
of discs fitted on an axle ; these discs carry strong hooks 
on which the hanks are placed. The operator places a hank 
on a pair of the hooks. The discs revolve and carry round 
the hank, during the revolution the hank is twisted and the 
surplus liquor wrung out, when the revolution of the discs 
carries the hank to the spot where it entered the machine 
the hooks fly back to their original position, the hank 
unwinds, it is then removed and a new hank put in its 
place, and so the machine works on, hanks being put on 
and off as required. The capacity of such a machine is 
great, and the efficiency of its working good. 

Mr. S. Spencer of Whitefield makes a hank-wringing 
machine which consists of a pair of hooks placed over a 
vat. One of the hooks is fixed, the other is made to rotate. 
A hank hung between the hooks is naturally twisted, and 
all the surplus liquor wrung out. The liquor falling into 
the vat. 

Boiler Squeezing Machines for Yarn. — Hanks may be passed 
through a pair of indiarubber squeezing rollers, which may 
be so arranged that they can be fixed as required on the 
dye-bath. Such a pair of rollers is a familiar article, and 
quite common and in general use in dye houses. 

Piece Goods. — These are generally passed open through 
a pair of squeezing rollers which are often attached to the 
dye-vat in which the pieces are dyed. 

Read Holliday's Squeezing Machine. — In Fig. 31 is shown 

a squeezing machine very largely employed for squeezing 

16 



242 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

all kinds of piece goods and cotton warps after dyeing or 
washing. It consists of a pair of heavy rollers on which, 
by means of the screws shown at the top, a very consider- 
able pressure can be brought to bear. The piece is run 
through the eye shown on the left, by which it is made into 
a rope form, then over the guiding rollers and between the 
squeezing rollers, and into waggons for conveyance to other 
machines. This machine is effective. 

Another plan on which roller, or rather in this case 
disc, squeezing machines is made, is to make the bottom 
roller with a square groove in the centre, into this fits a 
disc, the cloth passing between them. The top disc can 
by suitable screws be made to press upon the cloth in the 
groove, and thus squeeze the water out of it. 

Washing. — One of the most importan t operations follow- 
ing that of dyeing is the_ washing ^ith water to Jree_ the 
goods^" whether cotton or woollen, from all traces of loose 
Sje, acids, mordanting materials, etc., which it is not 
desirable should be left in, as they might ""interfere with 
the subsequent finishing operations. Fo r this pu rpose a 
plentiful supply of ,l:;0()(1 clean water is required; this should 
be as soft as possible, free from any suspended matter which 
might settle upon the dyed goods, and stain or speck them. 

Washing may be done by hand, as it frequently was in 
olden days, by simply immersing the dyed fabrics in a tub of 
water, shaking, then wringing out, again placing in fresh 
water to finish off. Or if the dye-works were on the banks 
of a running stream of clean water the dyed goods were 
simply hung in the stream to be washed in a very effectual 
manner. 

In these days it is best to resort to washing machines 
adapted to deal with the various kinds of fibrous materials 
and fabrics in which they can be subjected to a current of 
water. 



OPEKATIONS FOLLOWING DYEIKG. 



243 




244 



THE DYEING OF COTTON FABKICS. 



Loose Wool and Cotton. — If this has been dyed by hand 
then the washing may also be done in the same way by hand 
in a plain vat. If the dyeing has been done on a machine, 
then the washing can be done on the same machine. 

Yarns. — Yarn in the cop form is best washed in the 
machine in which it is dyed. 

Yarns in Hanks. — A very common form of w^ashing machine 
is shown in Fig. 32. As will be seen it consists of a wooden 
vat, over which are arranged a series of revolving reels on 
which the hanks are hung. The hanks are kept in motion 




Fig. 33. — Dye-house Washing Machine. 

through the water, and so every part of the yarn is thoroughly 
washed. Guides keep the hanks of yarn separate and pre- 
vent any entanglement one with another. A pipe delivers 
constantly a current of clean water, while another pipe 
carries away the used water. Motion is given to the reels in 
this case by a donkey engine attached to the machine, but it 
may also be driven by a belt from the main driving shaft of 
the works. This machine is very effective. 

Piece Goods. — Piece goods are mostly washed in machines, 
of which two broad types may be recognised ; first, those 



OPERATIONS FOLLOWING DYEING. 245 

where the pieces are dealt with in the form of ropes in a 
twisted form, and, second, those where the pieces are w^ashed 



Fig. 34.— Cloth-washing Machine. 

open.J There are some machines in which the cloths may be 
treated either in the open or rope form as may be thought 
most desirable. 



246 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

Fig. 33 represents a fairly well-known machine, made by 
Messrs. Mather & Piatt, in which the pieces are treated in a 
rope-like form. It consists of a trouoh in which a constant 
cmTent of water is maintained. At one end of this trough 
is a square beating roller, at the other a wooden lattice roller. 
Above the square beater, and out of the trough, are a pair of 
rollers whose purpose is to draw the cloth through the machine 
and also partly to act as squeezing rollers. As will be seen 
the cloth is threaded in rope form spirally round the rollers, 
passing in at one end and out at the other, pegs in a guide 
rail serving to keep the various portions separate. The 
square beater in its revolutions has a beating action on the 
cloth tending to more effectual washing. The lattice roller 
is simply a guide roller. 

Fig. 34 shows a washing machine very largely used in 
the wool-dyeing trade. The principal portion of this machine 
is of wood. 

The internal parts consist of a large wooden bowl, or 
oftener, as in the machine under notice, of a pair of wooden 
bowls which are pressed together by springs with some small 
degree of force. Between these bowls the cloth is placed, 
more or less loosely twisted up in a rope form, and the 
m.achines are made to take four, six or eight pieces, or 
lengths of pieces, at one time, the ends of the pieces being 
stitched together. A pipe running along the front of the 
machine conveys a constant current of clean water which is 
caused to impinge in the form of jets on the pieces of cloth 
as they run through the machine, while an overflow carries 
away the used w^ater. The goods are run in this machine 
until they are considered to be sufficiently washed, which 
may take half to one and a half hours. 

In Fig. 35 is shown a machine designed to wash pieces 
in the broad or open state. The machine contains a large 
number of guide rollers, built more or less open, round which 



OPERATIONS FOLLOWING DYEING. 



247 



the pieces are guided — the ends of the pieces being stitched 
together. Pipes carrying water are so arranged that jets of 
clean water impinge on and thoroughly wash the cloth as it 
passes through — the construction of the guide rollers facilita- 
ting the efficient washing of the goods. 

Soaping. — Sometimes yarns or cloths have to be passed 
through a soap bath after being dyed in order to brighten up 




Fig. 35. — Cloth-washing Machine. 

the colours or develop them in some way. In the case of 
yarns this can be done on the reel washing machine such 
as is show^n in Fig. 32. In the case of piece goods, a 
continuous machine, in which the washing, soaping, etc., 
can be carried on simultaneously, is often employed. Such 
a machine is shown in Fig. 86. It consists of a number of 
compartments fitted with guide rollers so that the cloth 
passes up and down several times through the liquors in the 



248 



THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 



compartments. Between one compartment and another is 
placed a pair of squeezing rollers. The cloth is threaded in 
a continuous manner, well shown in the drawing, through 
the machine. In one compartment it is treated w^ith water, 
in another soap liquor, in another water, and so on ; and 
these machines may be made with two, three or more com- 
partments as may be, necessary for the particular work in 
hand. As seen in the drawing, the cloth passes in at one 
end and out at the other finished. It is usually arranged 
that a continuous current of the various liquors used flow^s 




Fig. 36. — Washing and Soaping Vats. 

through the various compartments, thus ensuring the most 
perfect treatment of the cloths. 

Steaming. — Sometimes it becomes necessary to subject 
dyed goods to a process of steaming, as, for mstance, with 
steam aniline blacks, khaki shades, ahzarine reds, etc., for 
the purpose of more fully developing and fixing the dye 
upon the fibre. In the case of yarns, this operation is carried 
out in the steaming cottage, one form of which is shown in 
Fig. 37. It consists of a horizontal cylindrical n^on vessel 
like a steam boiler, one end is entirely closed, while the 
other is made to open and be closed tightly and hermeti- 



OPEKATIONS FOLLOWING DYEING. 



249 



cally. The cottage is fitted with the necessary steam inlet 
and outlet pipes, drain pipes for condensed water, pressure 
gauges. The yarn to be steamed is hung on rods placed on 
a skeleton frame waggon on wheels which can be run in 
and out of the steaming cottage as is required. The drawing 
shows well the various important parts of the machine. In 
the case of piece goods these also can be hung from rods 
in folds on such a waggon, but it is much more customary 
to employ a continuous steaming chamber, very similar to 




Fig. 37. — Steaming Cottage. 



the ageing and oxidising machine shown in Fig. 38, and also 
used in the dyeing of aniline black. 

Drying. — Following on the washing comes the final 
operation of the dyeing process, that of drying the dyed 
and washed goods. Textile fabrics of all kinds after they 
have passed through dye-baths, washing machines, etc., con- 
tain a large amount of water, often exceeding in weight 
that of the fibre itself, and to take the goods direct from 
the preceding operations to the drying plant means that 
a considerable amount of fuel must be expended to drive 



250 



THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 




5 






OPEKATIONS FOLLOWING DYEING 



251 



off this large amount of water. It is therefore very desirable 
that the goods be freed from as much of this water as 
possible before they are sent into any drying chambers, and 
this may be done in three ways, by wringing, squeezing and 
hydro-extracting. The first two methods have already been 
described (p. 239, etc.) and need not again be alluded to ; 
the last needs some account. 

Hydro-extractors are a most efficient means for extract- 



|ipigiri|ii 




Fig. 39. — Hvdro-extractor. 

ing water out of textile fabrics. They are made in a variety 
of forms by several makers. Essentially they consist of a 
cyhndrical vessel, or basket, as it is called, with perforated 
sides so constructed that it can be revolved at a high speed. 
This vessel is enclosed in an outer cage. The goods are 
placed in the basket, as it is termed, and then this is caused 
to revolve at high speed, when centrifugal action comes 
into play, and the water contained in the goods finds its 
way to the outside of the basket through the perforations^ 



252 



THE DYEING OF COTTON FABKICS. 



and so away from the goods. Hydro-extractors are made in 
a variety of sizes and forms — in some the driving gear is 
above, in others below the basket ; in some the driving is 
done by belt-gearing, in others a steam engine is directly 
connected with the basket. Figs. 39 and 40 show tw^o forms 
which are much in use in the textile industr3\ They are 
very efficient, and extract water from textile goods more 
completely than an}^ other means, as will be obvious from 
a study of the table below. 

The relative efficiency of the three systems of extracting 
the moisture out of textile fabrics has been investigated 




Fig. 40. — Hydro-extractor. 

by Grothe, who gives in his Aj^jyvetur der Geicehe, published 
in 1882, the following table showing the percentage amount 
of water removed in fifteen minutes : — 



Yarns. 


Wool. 


Silk. 


Cotton. 


Linen 


Wringing 


44-5 


45-4 


45-3 


50-3 


Squeezing 


60-0 


71-4 


60-0 


73-6 


Hydro-extracting 


83-5 


77 


81-2 


82-8 


Pieces. 










Wringing 


33-4 


44-5 


44-5 


54-6 


Squeezing 


64-0 


69-7 


72-2 


830 


Hydro -extracting 


77-8 


75-5 


82-3 


86-0 



OPEKATIONS FOLLOWING DYEING. 



253 



In the practical working of hydro-extractors it is of 
the utmost importance that the goods be carefully and 
regularly laid in the basket — not too much in one part and 
too little in another. Any unevenness in this respect at the 
speed at which they are driven lays such a strain on the 
bearings as to seriously endanger the safety of the machine. 

After being wrung, squeezed or hydro-extracted the 
goods are ready to be dried. In the case of yarns, this may 
be done in rooms heated by steam pipes placed on the 
floor, the hanks being hung on rods suspended from racks 
arranged for the purpose. 




Fig. 41. — Automatic Yarn-dryer. 

Where large quantities of yarn have to be dried, it is 
most economical to employ a yarn-drying machine, and 
one form of such is shown in Fig. 41. The appearance of 
the machine is that of one long room from the outside ; 
internally it is divided into compartments, each of which 
is heated up by suitably arranged steam pipes, but the degree 
of heating in each compartment varies — at the entrance 
end it is high, at the exit end lower. The yarn is fed in 
at one end, being hung on rods, and by suitable gearing it 
is carried directly through the various chambers or sections, 
and in its passage the heat to which it is subjected drives 
off the water it contains. The yarn requires no attention 



^54 



THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 



from the time it passes in wet at the one end of the machine 
and comes out dry at the other end. The amomit of labour 
required is shght, only that represented by hlhng the sticks 
with wet yarn and emptying them of the dried yarn. The 
machine works regularly and well. 

The drying is accomplished by circulating heated air 




Fig. 42. — Truck Yarn-dryer. 



through the yarns, this heating being effected by steam 
coils, fresh air continually enters the chambers, while water- 
saturated air is as continually being taken out at the top 
•of the chamber. One of the great secrets in all drying 
operations is to have a constant current of fresh hot air 
playing on the goods to be dried ; this absorbs the moisture 



OPEEATIONS FOLLOWING DYEING. 



255 



they contain, and the water-charged air thus produced must 
be taken away as quickly as possible. 

Fig. 42 shows what is called a truck yarn-dryer, which 




Q 



consists of a chamber heated with steam pipes and fitted 
with an exhausting fan to draw out the air and water 
vapour which is produced. The yarns are hung on trucks 



256 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

which can be run in and out of the chamber for filling and 
emptying. 

Fiece Goods. — The most convenient manner of drying 
piece goods is to employ the steam cylinder drying machine, 
such as is shown in Fig. 43. This consists of a number 
of hollow tin or copper cylinders which can be heated by 
steam passing in through the axles of the cylinders, which 
are made hollow on purpose. The cloth to be dried passes 
round these cylinders, which revolve while the cloth passes. 
They work very effectually. The cylinders are arranged 
sometimes, as in the drawing, vertically ; at other times 
horizontally. 



CHAPTER VIIL 

TESTING OF THE COLOUR OF DYED FABRICS. 

It is frequently desirable that dyers should be able to 
ascertain with some degree of accuracy what dyes have 
been used to dye any particular samples of dyed cloth 
that has been offered to them to match. In these days of 
the thousand and one different dyes that are known it is by 
no means an easy thing to do ; and when, as is most often 
the case, two or three dye-stuffs have been used in the 
production of a shade, the difficulty is materially increased. 

The only available method is to try the effect of various 
acid and alkaline reagents on the sample, noting whether any 
change of colour occurs, and judging accordingly. It would 
be a good thing for dyers to accustom themselves to test 
the dyeings they do, and so accumulate a fund of practical 
experience which will stand them in good stead whenever 
they have occasion to examine a dyed pattern of unknown 
origin. 

The limits of this book does not permit of there being 
given a series of elaborate tables showing the action of 
various chemical reagents on fabrics dyed with various 
colours ; and such, indeed, serve very little purpose, for it 
is most difficult to describe the minor differences which often 
serve to distinguish one colour from another. Instead of 
doing so, we will point out in some detail the methods of 
carrying out the various tests, and advise all dyers to carry 
these out for themselves on samples dyed with known 

17 



258 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

colours, and when they have an unknown colour to test 
to make tests comparatively with known colours that they 
think are likely to have been used in the production of the 
dyed fabric they are testing. 

One very common method is to spot the fabric, that is, 
to put a drop of the reagent on it, usually with the end 
of the stopper of the reagent bottle, and to observe the 
colour changes, if any, which ensue. This is a very useful 
test and should not be omitted, and it is often employed 
in the testing of indigo dyed goods with nitric acid, those 
of logwood with hydrochloric acid, alizarine with caustic 
soda, and many others. It is simple and easy to carry out, 
and only takes a few minutes. 

To make a complete series of tests of dyed fabrics there 
should be provided the following reagents : — 

1. Strong sulphuric acid, as bought. 

2. Dilute sulphuric acid, being the strong acid diluted 
with twenty times its volume of water. 

3. Concentrated hydrochloric acid. 

4. Dilute hydrochloric acid, 1 acid to 20 water. 

5. Concentrated nitric acid. 

6. Dilute nitric acid, 1 acid to 20 water. 

7. Acetic acid. 

8. Caustic soda solution, 5 grams in 100 c.c. water. 

9. Ammonia (strong). 

10. Dilute ammonia, 1 strong ammonia to 10 water. 

11. Carbonate of soda solution, 6 grams in 100 c.c. water. 

12. Bleaching powder solution, 2° Tw. 

13. Bisulphite of soda, 72° Tw. 

14. Stannous chloride, 10 grams crystals in 100 c.c. water, 
with a little hydrochloric acid. 

15. Methylated spirit. 

Small swatches of the dyed goods are put in clean porcelain 
basins, and some of these solutions poured over them. Any 



TESTING OF THE COLOUR OF DYE FABRICS. 259 

change of colour of the cloth is noted, as well as whether any 
colour is imparted to the solutions. After making observa- 
tions of the effects in the cold the liquids may be warmed 
and the results again noted. After being treated w^ith the 
acids the swatches should be well washed with water, when 
the original colour may be wholly or partially restored. 

To give tables showing the effects of these reagents on the 
numerous dyes now known would take up too much room 
and not serve a very useful purpose, as such tables, if too 
much relied on, leave the operator somewhat uncertain as to 
what he has before him. The reader will find in Hurst's 
Dictionary of Goal-tar Colours some useful notes as to the 
action of acids and alkalies on the various colours that may 
be of service to him. 

Alizarine and the series of dye-stuffs to which it has 
given its name, fustic, cochineal, logwood and other dyes of 
a similar class require the fabric to be mordanted, and the 
presence of such mordant is occasionally an indirect proof of 
the presence of these dyes. 

To detect these mordants, a piece of the swatch should 
be burnt in a porcelain or platinum crucible over a Bunsen 
burner, care being taken that ail carbonaceous matter be 
burnt off. xA. white ash will indicate the presence of alumina 
mordants, red ash that of iron mordants, and a greenish ash 
chrome mordants. 

To confirm these the following chemical tests may be 
applied : Boil the ash left in the crucible with a little strong 
hydrochloric acid and dilute with water. Pass a current of 
sulphuretted hydrogen gas through the solution ; if there be 
any tin present a brown precipitate of tin sulphide will be 
obtained. This can be filtered off. The filtrate is boiled for 
a short time with nitric acid, and ammonia is added to the 
solution when alumina is thrown down as a white gelatinous 
precipitate ; iron is thrown down as a brown red bulky pre- 



260 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

cipitate ; while chrome is thrown down as a greyish-looking 
gelatinous precipitate. The precipitate obtained with the 
ammonia is filtered off, and a drop of ammonium sulphide 
added, when any zinc present will be thrown down as white 
precipitate of zinc sulphide ; to the filtrate from this ammo- 
nium oxalate may be added, when if lime is present a white 
precipitate of calcium oxalate is obtained. 

A test for iron is to dissolve some of the ash in a little 
hydrochloric acid, and add a few drops of potassium ferro- 
cyanide solution, when if any iron be present a Hue pre- 
cipitate will be obtained. 

To make more certain of the presence of chrome, heat a 
little of the ash of the cloth with caustic soda and chlorate 
of soda in a porcelain crucible until well fused, then dissolve 
in water, acidify with acetic acid and add lead acetate ; a 
yellow precipitate indicates the presence of chrome. 

A book on qualitative chemical analysis should be referred 
to for further details and tests for metallic mordants. 

The fastness of colours to light, air, rubbing, washing, 
soaping, acids and alkalies is a feature of some considerable 
importance. There are indeed few colours that will resist 
all these influences, and such are fully entitled to be called 
fast. The degree of fastness varies very considerably. Some 
colours will resist acids and alkalies well, but are not fast to 
light and air ; some will resist washing and soaping, but are 
not fast to acids ; some may be fast to hght, but are not so to 
washing. The following notes will show how to test these 
features : — 

Fastness to Light and Air,— This is simply tested by hang- 
ing a piece of the dyed cloth in the air, keeping a piece in a 
drawer to refer to, so that the influence on the original colour 
can be noted from time to time. If the piece is left out in 
the open one gets not only the effect of light but also that of 
climate on the colour, and there is no doubt wind, rain, hail 
and snow have some influence on the fading of the colour. 



TESTING OF THE COLOUR OF DYE FABRICS. 261 

If the piece is exposed under glass, the climatic influences do 
not come into play, and one gets the effect of light alone. 

In making tests of fastness, the dyer will and does pay 
due regard to the character of the influences that the mate- 
rial will be subjected to in actual use, and these vary very 
considerably ; thus the colour of underclothing need not 
be fast to light, for it is rarely subjected to that agent of 
destruction. On the other hand it must be fast to washing, 
for that is an operation to which underclothing is subjected 
week by week. 

Window curtains are much exposed to light and air, and, 
therefore, colours in which they are dyed should be fast to 
light and air. On the other hand these curtains are rarely 
washed, and so the colour need not be quite fast to w^ashing. 
And so with other kinds of fabrics, there are scarcely two 
kinds which are subjected to the same influences, and require 
the colours to have the same degree of fastness. 

The fastness to rubbing is generally tested by rubbing 
the dyed cloth on a piece of white paper. 

Fastness to Washing — This is generally tested by boil- 
ing a swatch of the cloth in a solution of soap containing 
4 grams of a good neutral curd soap per litre for ten 
minutes and noting the effect — whether the soap solution 
becomes coloured and to what degree, or whether it remains 
colourless, and also whether the colour of the swatch has 
changed at all. 

One very important point in connection with the soaping 
test is whether a colour will run into a white fabric that may 
be soaped along with it. This is tested by twisting strands 
of the dyed yarn or cloth with w^hite yarn or cloth and boiling 
them in the soap liquor for ten minutes and then noting the 
effect, particularly observing whether the white pieces have 
taken up any colour. 

Fastness to acids and fastness to alkalies is observed while 
carrying out the various acid and alkali tests given above. 



CHAPTER IX. 

EXPERIMENTAL DYEING AND COMPARATIVE DYE TESTING. 

Every dyer ought to be able to make experiments in the 
mordanting and dyeing of textile fibres for the purpose of 
ascertaining the best methods of applying mordants or 
dye-stuffs, the best methods of obtaining any desired shade, 
and for the purpose of making comparative tests of dyes 
or mordanting materials with the object of determining 
their strength and value. This is not by any means difficult, 
nor does it involve the use of any expensive apparatus, so 
that a dyer need not hesitate to set up a small dyeing 
laboratory for fear of the expense which it might entail. 

In order to carry out the work indicated above there 
will be required several pieces of apparatus. First, a small 
chemical balance, one that will carry 100 grams in each pan 
is quite large enough ; and such a one, quite accurate enough 
for this work, can be bought for 25s. to 30s., while if the 
dyer be too poor even for this, a cheap pair of apothecaries' 
scales might be used. It is advisable to procure a set of 
gram weights, and to get accustomed to them, which is not 
a very difficult task. 

In using the balance always put the substance to be 
weighed on the left-hand pan, and the weights on the right- 
hand pan. Never put chemicals of anj^ kind direct on the 
pan, but weigh them in a watch glass, small porcelain 
basin, or glass beaker, which has first been weighed, 
according to the nature of the material which is being 



EXPERIMENTAL DYEING AND COMPARATIVE DYE TESTING. 263 

weighed. The sets of weights are always fitted into a 
block or box, and every time they are used they should 
be put back into their proper place. 

The experimenter will find it convenient to provide him- 
self with a few small porcelain basins, glass beakers, cubic 
centimetre measures, two or three 200 c.c. flasks with a 
mark on the neck, a few pipettes of various sizes, 10 c.c, 
20 c.c, 25 c.c. 

The most nnportant feature is the dyeing apparatus. 
Where only a single dye test is to be made, a small copper 
or enamelled iron saucepan, such as can be bought at any 
ironmonger's, may be used ; this may conveniently be heated 




Fig. 44. — Experimental Dye-batli. 

by a gas boiling burner, such as can also be bought at an 
ironmonger's or plumber's for 2s. 

It is, however, advisable to have means whereby several 
dyeing experiments can be made at one time and under 
precisely the same conditions, and this cannot be done by 
using the simple means noted above. 

To be able to make perfectly comparative dyeing experi- 
ments it is best to use porcelain dye-pots — these may be 
bought from most dealers in chemical apparatus — and to heat 
them in a water-bath arrangement. 

The simplest arrangement is sketched in Fig. 44 ; it 
consists of a copper bath measuring 15 inches long by lOi 



264 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABEICS. 

inches broad and 6^ inches deep — this is covered by a hd 
in which are six apertures to take the porcelain dye-baths. 
The bath is heated by two round gas boiHng burners of the 
type already referred to. 

The copper bath is filled with water, which, on being 
heated to the boil by the gas burners, heats up the dye 
liquids in the dye-pots. The temperature in the dye-pots 
under such conditions can never reach the boiling point; 
where it is desirable, as in some cases of w^ool mordanting 
and dyeing, that it should boil, there should be added 
to the water in the copper bath a quantity of calcium 
chloride, which forms a solution that has a much higher 
boiling point than that of water, and so the dye liquors 
in the dye-pots may be heated up to the boil. 

An objection might be raised that with such an apparatus 
the temperature in every part of the bath may not be 
uniform, and so the temperature of the dye-liquors in the 
pots may vary also, and differences of temperature often 
have a considerable influence on the shade of the colour 
which is being dyed. This is a minor objection, which is 
more academic in its origin than of practical importance. To 
obviate this Mr. William Marshall of the Eochdale Technical 
School has devised a circular form of dye-bath, in which the 
temperature in every part can be kept quite uniform. 

The dyeing laboratories of technical schools and colleges 
are generally provided with a more elaborate set of dyeing 
appliances. These, in the latest constructed, consist of a 
copper bath supported on a hollow pair of trunnions, that 
the bath can be turned over if needed. Into the bath are 
firmly fixed three earthenware or porcelain dye-pots; steam 
for heating can be sent through the trunnions. After the 
dyeing tests have been made the apparatus can be turned 
over, and the contents of the dye-pots emptied into a sink 
which is provided for the purpose. 



EXPEEIMENTAL DYEING AND COMPARATIVE DYE TESTING. 265 

Many other pieces of apparatus have been devised and 
made for the purpose of carrying on dyeing experiments 
on the small scale, but it will not be needful to describe 
these in detail, xlfter all no more efficient apparatus can 
be desired than that described above. 

Dyeing experiments can be made with either yarns or 
pieces of cloth — swatches, as they are commonly called — a 
very convenient size is a small skein of yarn or a piece 
of cloth having a weight of 5 grams. These test skeins 
or pieces ought to be well washed in hot water before 
use, so that they are clean and free from any size or 
grease. A little soda or soap will facilitate the cleansing 
process. 

In carrying out a dyeing test the dye-pot should be filled 
with the water required, using as little as can be consistent 
with the dye swatch being handled comfortably therein, 
then there is added the required mordants, chemicals, dyes, 
etc., according to the character of the work which is being 
done. 

Of such chemicals as soda, caustic soda, sodium sul- 
phate (Glauber's salt), tartar, bichromate of potash, it will 
be found convenient to prepare stock solutions of known 
strength, say 50 grams per litre, and then by means of 
a pipette any required quantity can be conveniently added. 
The same plan might be followed in the case of dyes which 
are constantly in use, in this case, 5 grams per litre will 
be found strong enough. 

Supposing it is desired to make a test of a sample of 
direct red, using the following proportions : 2 per cent, dye- 
stuff, 3 per cent, soda, 15 per cent. Glauber's salt, and the 
weight of the swatch which is being used is 5 grams. The 
following calculations are to be made to give the quantities 
of the ingredients required. 



266 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS. 

For the dye-stuff : — 

5 (weight of swatch) multiphed by 2 (per cent, of dye) 
and divided by 100 equals — 

''^QQ = 0-1 gram dye. 

For the soda we have similarly : — 

= 0-15 gram soda. 

For the Glauber's salt : — 

-— — — ^ = 0*75 gram Glauber's salt. 

These quantities may be weighed out and added to the 
dye-bath, or if solutions are kept, a calculation can be made 
as to the number of cubic centimetres which contain the 
above quantities, and these measured out and added to the 
dye-bath. 

When all is ready, the bath is heated [up, the swatch 
entered, and the work of the test entered upon. 

Students are recommended to make experiments on such 
points as : — 

The shades obtained by using various proportions of dye- 
stuffs. 

The influence of various assistants — common salt, soda, 
Glauber's salt, borax, phosphate of soda — in the bath. 

The influence of varying proportions of mordants on the 
shade of dyeing. 

The value of various assistants, tartar, oxalic acid, lactic 
acid, sulphuric acid, on the fixation of mordants. 

The relative value of different tannin matters, etc. 

Each dyer should make himself a pattern-book into which 
he should enter his tests, with full particulars as to how they 
have been produced at the side. 

It is important that a dyer should be able to make 



EXPERIMENTAL DYEING AND COMPARATIVE DYE TESTING. 267 

comparative dye tests to ascertain the relative strength of 
any two, or more samples of dyes which may be sent to 
him. This is not difficult, but requires considerable care in 
carrjdng out the various operations involved. 

Of each of the samples of dyes 0*5 gram should be 
weighed out and dissolved in 100 c.c. of water, care being 
taken that every portion of the dye is dissolved before any 
of the solution is used in making up the dye-vats. Care 
should also be taken that the skeins of yarn or swatches of 
cloth are exactly equal in weight ; that the same volume of 
water is placed in each of the dye-pots ; that the same amount 
of sulphate of soda or other dye assistants are added ; that the 
quantities of dye-stuff and solutions used are equal; in fact,, 
that in all respects the conditions of dyeing are exactly the 
same, such, in fact, being the vital conditions in making 
comparative dye tests of the actual dyeing strength of 
several samples of dyes. 

After the swatches have been dyed they are rinsed and 
then dried, when the depth of shade dyed on them may be 
compared one with another. To prevent any mistakes, it is 
well to mark the swatches with one, two, three or more cuts 
as may be required. 

It is easier to ascertain if two dyes are different in 
strength of colour than to ascertain the relative difference 
between them. There are two plans available for this pur- 
pose — one is a dyeing test, the other is a colorimetric test 
made with the solutions of the dyes. 

Dyeing Test. — This method of ascertaining the relative 
value of two dyes as regards strength of colour is carried out 
as follows : A preliminary test will show which is stronger 
than the other. Then there is prepared a series of dye-vats 
— one contains a swatch with the deepest of the two dyes, 
which is taken as the standard; the others, swatches with 
the other dye, but containing 2, 5 and 10 per cent, more dye- 



'268 THE DYEING OF COTTON FABEICS. 

stuff, and all these swatches are dyed together, and after drying 
a comparison can be made between them and the standard 
swatch and a judgment formed as to the relative strength of 
the two dyes. A little experience will soon enable the dyer to 
form a correct judgment of the difference in strength between 
two samples of dye-stuff, 

Colorimetric Test.— -This is based on the principle that the 
colour of a solution of dye-stuff will be proportionate to its 
strength. Two white glass tubes equal in diameter are 
taken. Solutions of the dye-stuff, 0'5 gram in 100 c.c. of 
water, are prepared, care being taken that the solution is 
complete. Of one of these solutions 5 c.c, is taken and 
placed in one of the glass tubes, and 5 c.c. of the other 
solution is placed in the other glass tube. Of water '25 c.c. 
is now added to each tube, and then the colour of the diluted 
liquids is compared by looking through them in a good light. 
That sample which gives the deeper solution is the stronger 
in colouring power. By diluting the stronger solution with 
water until it is of the same depth of colour as the weaker, 
it may be assumed that the depth of the columns of liquid in 
the two tubes is in proportion to the relative strength of the 
two samples. Thus, if in one tube there are 30 c. of liquid 
and in the other 25 c, then the relative strength is as 30 
to 25 ; and if the first is taken as the standard at 100, 
a proportion sum gives 

30 : 25 :: 100 : 83'3, 

that is, the w^eaker sample has only 83 '3 per cent, of the 
strength of the stronger sample. 



INDEX. 



Compiled by Miss Grace Greenwood, B.A. (Lond.). 



A. 



Acetate liquor, 190, 193. 

— of alumina, 170. 

— of chrome, 180. 
Qf i9,a(j 159, 

Acetic acid, 174, 180, 184, 227, 231. 
Acid dyes, 83, 159. 

— dye-stuffs, topping with, 228. 

— green, 84, 221, 229, 234. 

— magenta, 84, 220. 

— violet, 229. 
G B, 211. 218. 

— yellow, 220. 

Acids, action of, on cellulose, 9. 
Acridine orange N O, 231, 232. 
Affinity of dye-stuff for fibre, 109. 
Albumens, 4. 
Algarobilla, 147, 148. 
Alizarine, 18, 156, 157, 169, 180, 
259. 

— blue, 173, 174. 
paste, 174. 

— dyed goods, test of, 258. 

— dyes, 84. 

— oil, 170. 

— orange, 173, 174. 

— pink, 172. 

— purple, 172. 

— red, 171, 248. 

— yiolet, 172. 

— yellow N, 180. 
Alkali blue B, 233. 
3 B, 233. 

6 B, 217, 232, 233, 238. 

— yellow K, 209. 

Alkalies, action of, on cotton, 6. 
Alkaline blue, 211, 214, 215, 216. 

— copper solution, 196. 



Alpha-naphthol, 130, 132, 133, 186, 

187, 188. 
Alpha-naphthvlamine, 182, 185, 

187, 188. ■ 

— claret, 197. 

Alum, 159, 164, 165, 166, 167. 
Alumina, 157. 

— acetate, 179. 

— mordants, 259. 
Amidazol blacks, 79, 121, 179. 

— black G, 124, 126. 

— brown, 121. 

— cachou, 127. 

— cutch, 126. 

— drab, 127. 

— green B, 127. 
Y, 127. 

— olive, 121. 

Amidoazobenzene, 185, 187, 188. 
Amido-azo bodies, 183. 

— compounds, 182. 
Amidoazotoluol, 198. 

— garnet, 198. 

Amido bases, diazotisation of, 182. 

— groups, 130. 
Amido-diphenylamine, 183. 
Amido-phenylamine, 133. 
Amines, 181. 
Ammonia, 174, 180. 

— soda, 173. 
Ammoniacal copper, 21. 
Ammoniunn chloride, 180, 207. 
Amyloid, 12. 

Aniline, 13, 182, 184, 185, 186, 188.. 

— black, 79, 205, 234. 

— grey B, 229, 231, 333. 

— hydrochloride, 181. 

— oil, 206, 207. 

— salt, 207. 



270 



INDEX. 



Anisidine, 183. 
Anthracene brown, 174. 
Anthrapurpurine, 171. 
Antimon\ fluoride, 147. 

— oxalate, 147. 
Appretur der Gewebe, 252. 
Archil substitute N, 229. 
Artificial silk, 15. 

Atlas red R, 102. 
Auramine, 18, 147, 153. 

— G, 154. 

— I I, 151, 152, 153, 230, 231, 232. 
Auroline, 209. 

Automatic yarn-dryer, 253. 
Azine green, T O, 231. 
Azo-acid dyes, 210. 

— yellow, 211. 
Azo blue, 85, 211. 
2 R, 228. 

— compounds, 182. 

— dves, 18, 129, 159, 181. 

— niauve, 100, 210. 
AM, 99, 106. 

— orseille B B, 229. 

— red A, 211, 214, 215, 216, 217, 

223, 229. 

— rubine A, 229. 

— scarlet, 84. 

— violet, 100. 
Azophor orange M N, 195. 

— red P N, 139, 141, 193, 195. 



B. 



Barlow kiers, 30, 32. 
Barwood, 18, 156, 178. 
Basic dyes, 83. 

— — topping with, 145. 

— dye-stuffs, topping with, 228. 
Bast fibre, 2. 

Bayer developer, 133. 
Beaumont's cop-dyeing machine, 

67. 
Beige, 167. 
Benzo azurine, 101, 107, 112. 

G, 93, 101, 146, 201. 

3 G, 211 

R, 210. 

3 R, 95. 

— black blue, 164. 

— blue, 227. 

3 B, 94. 

black G, 210. 

R W, 115. 



Benzo brown, 92. 

G, 100, 103. 

N B, 100, 103. 

N B X, 101. 

— chrome black blue B, 96, 118. 
brown G, 118. 

5 G, 113. 

R, 118. 

2 R, 117. 

— dyes, 18, 85, 208, 225. 

— fast grey, 102. 
scarlet 4 B S, 107. 

— green, B B, 93. 

G, 92, 145. 

Benzo-nitrol black B, 142. 

— brown G, 144. 

— dark brown N, 144. 

— developer, 141. 

— dyes, 139. 
Benzo olive, 92. 

— orange R, 87, 92. 

— purpurine, 85, 101, 107. 
B. 100, 210. 

4 B, 87, 89, 210, 217. 

6 B. 146. 

10 B, 210, 217. 

Beta-naphthol, 130, 131, 132, 184, 

186, 187, 188, 189, 191, 196, 235. 
Beta-naphthylamine, 182, 185, 187, 

188. 

— red, 196. 

Bichromate of potash, 164, 165, 
166, 167, 177, 179, 181. 

— of soda, 206. 
Biebrich orange, 128. 

— scarlet, 128. 

Birch's sewing machine, 25. 

— washing machine, 36. 
Bismarck brown, 146, 147, 153, 

165, 166, 167, 229, 230, 232. 

F F, 231. 

Bisulphate of soda, 221, 222, 223. 
Black, 104, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 

137, 138, 139, 142, 144, 166, 214, 

215. 217. 

— and blue shot, 222, 223. 

— and crimson shot dyes, 237. 

— and green blue shot, 222. 

— and pink shot, 223. 

— and yellow shot, 223. 

— blue, 116. 

— brown, 102, 103, 118, 136, 138. 

— dyeing of, 234. 

— iron liquor, 165. 



INDEX. 



271 



Bleaching of cotton, 24. 

— of fine fabrics, 42. 

— of yarn, 43. 

Blue, '96, 97, 98, 115, 125, 126, 130, 
136, 145, 146, 155. 

— and gold shot dyes, 237. 

— and gold yellow shot, 222. 

— and orange shot, 224. 

— black, 136, 137, 138, 139, 154, 

216, 219. 

— developer A, 130. 
AN, 134. 

— green, 114. 

— grev, 105. 

Bluestone, 164, 165, 166, 178. 
Bluish claret red, 187. 

— rose, 153. 
Borax, 86, 180, 221. 

Brazil wood, 84, 156, 178, 179. 
Bridson's washing machine, 36. 
Bright blue, 95, 97, 98, 145, 151, 
215, 217, 230. 

— crimson, 232. 

— grass green, 93. 

— green, 146, 151. 

— grey, 106. 

— navy, 115, 116. 

— olive yellow, 232. 

— orange, 92. 

— pea green, 94. 

— pink, 90. 

— red, 87, 145. 
lilac, 99. 

— rose, 230. 

— scarlet, 89, 130, 186. 

— sea green, 151. 

— straw, 90. 

— violet, 231. 

— walnut, 143. 

— yellow, 90, 143, 154, 213, 214, 

215, 229. 
Brilliant azurine B, 146. 
5 G, 97, 211. 

— cochineal 4 R, 222. 

— Congo R, 210. 

— croceine, 229. 
3 B, 237. 

— green, 145, 146, 147, 151, 154, 

229, 231, 232, 233. 

— milling green B, 211. 

— orange, 92. 

G, 103, 218, 232. 

— orseille C, 229. 

— purpurine. 87. 



Brilliant purpurine R, 210. 

— red, 88. 

— rhoduline red B, 151. 

— scarlet, 211, 229. 
G, 211. 

— violet, 231. 

— yellow, 230. 
Bronze green, 114, 217. 

— grey, 106. 

Brown, 101, 103, 117, 126, 127, 128, 
130, 144, 164, 174, 180,-218, 232. 

— and blue shot dyes, 222, 238. 

— and violet shot, 223. 

— drab, 100. 
Brownish orange, 186. 

Buff brown, 102, 118, 126, 135. 

— yellow, 91. 



Cachou de laval, 100, 121. 
Camwood, 156, 178. 
Capri blue, 230. 

— green, 229. 

2 G, 231. 

Carbonate of soda, 168, 209, 

— of soda lye, 168. 
Carbonising of woollen goods, 12. 
Catechu, 187. 

— brown, 112. 

F K, 117. 

G K, 117. 

Caustic soda, 180. 

liquor, 189. 

lye, 196. 

Cellulose, 5, 6. 

— di-nitrate, 14, 15. 

— hexa-nitrate, 14. 

— penta-nitrate, 14. 

— tetra-nitrate, 14, 
Ceruleine, 180. 
Chalk, 180, 181. 
Chardonnet's process for making 

silk, 15. 
Chemical reagents, action of, 257. 
Chemicing of cotton, 36. 
Chemistry of cotton fibre, 1. 
Chestnut,' 100, 104, 118, 142, 219. 
Chicago blue, 112, 227. 

B, 115, 210. 

4 B, 116, 210. 

6 B, 95, 97, 114, 116, 146, 

210, 217, 232, 233. 
R. 210. 



272 



INDEX. 



Chicago blue G, 210. 

4 R. 99, 100. 

R W, 114, 115, 119. 

— dyes, 85. 

Chloramine yellow, 209. 
Chloride of copper, 180. 

— of lime, 37. 

— of soda, 207. 
Chlorophenine orange R, 91. 
Chocolate brown, 102, 143, 155, 

172. 
Chromanil black R F, 120. 
4 R F, 119. 

— brown 2 G, 119. 
Chrome, 157. 

Chrome-logwood black, 177. 
Chrome mordants, 259. 
Chromic acid, 17. 
Chromine G, 209. 
Chromium chloride, 173. 

— fluoride, 112. 

— mordant, 173. 
Chrysamine, 85, 92, 101, 210. 

— G, 91, 93, 113, 114, 146. 

— R, 92. 

Chrysoidine, 147, 151, 164, 221, 
232. 233. 

— R, 232. 

Chrysophenine, 90, 100, 210, 217, 
233. 

— G, 114, 119, 232. 
Ciliary fibres, 1. 
Claret, 89, 146. 

— red, 174. 
Clayton yellow, 210. 
Cloth-dveing machine, 76. 
Cloth scarlet, 160. 

washing machine, illustration 

of, 245, 246, 247. 
Cochineal, 156, 259. 
Coffee brown, 165. 
Collodion, 15. 
Colorimetric test for relative 

value of dyes, 268. 
Colouring matter, 3. 

— principle of dye-stuff, 156. 
Colour lake, 18. 

— lakes, 156. 
Columbia black B, 210, 232. 

F B. 103, 104, 210, 218. 

F B B, 105. 

R, 232, 233. 

— blue G, 224. 

— green, 101, 146. 



Columbia orange R, 91, 103, 104. 

— red 8, 211. 

— yellow, 91, 115, 209. 
Comparative dye testing, 262. 
Condensed water, 227. 
Congo blue 2 B, 95. 

— brown, 210. 
G, 210, 217, 218. 

— Corinth, 232. 

B, 99, 209, 211. 

G, 89, 211, 217, 224. 

— dyes, 18, 85, 208, 225. 

— orange G. 210. 
R, 92, 210. 

— R, 210. 

— red, So, 107, 128. 

— rubine, 89. 

Continuous dyeing machine, 79. 
Cop dyeing, 64. 

Cop-dveing machine, Beaumont's, 
07. 

Graemiger, 65, 66. 

Mommer's, 69. 

Young & Crippin, 68. 

Copper acetate, 177. 

— logwood black, 177. 

— nitrate, 177. 

— soda solution, 180. 

— sulphate, 112, 164, 166, 177, 181. 
Copperas, 147. 164, 165, 166, 167, 

172, 175, 178. 181, 200. 
Cornflower blue, 218, 233. 
Corron's hank - dveing machine, 

63. 
Cotton bleaching, 23. 

— brown A, 231. 

91, 100, 101, 103, 106, 132, 

137, 138, 144, 228. 

— dyeing, 18. 

— fibre, 2. 

— — illustration of, 5. 
impurities of, 3. 

— — structure of, 4. 

— — structure and chemistry of, 

1. 

— fibres, composition of, 5. 
production of colour direct 

on 181. 

— scouring, 23. 

Cotton-silk fabrics, dyeing of, 225. 
Cotton wax, "3. 

— yellow, 100, 210, 
Coupling process, 139. 
Cream, 91. 



INDEX. 



278 



Cresvl blue, 229. 

— fast violet 2 R N, 232. 

— violet, 229. 

Crimson, 130, 135, 151, 155, 217, 
219. 230. 

— red, 88, 130. 
Croeeine A Z, 223. 

— orange, 128, 211. 

— scarlet, 128, 160. 
Cross-dve black, 79, 107, 121. 
B, 123. 

2 B, 120. 

— drab, 93, 121, 126. 
Cross dyeino-. 220. 
Curcuiiieine, extra, 211, 218, 224. 
Curcumine, 209, 217. 

— S, 103, 104, 223. 
Curcuphenine, 90. 

Cutch. 147, 156. 164. 165, 166, 167, 

178, 181. 186. 
Cuticle fibres, 1. 
Cvanole extra, 221, 222, 223, 229, 

231, 232, 233, 237. 



D. 



Damages in bleached goods, 50. 

Dark blue, 95. 96, 97, 98, 115, 116, 
136, 139. 142, 153, 154, 
155, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219. 

and green shot dyes, 237. 

— — and olive shot dyes, 238. 

— bronze, 115. 

— l)rown, 180, 214, 216, 217, 218, 

219, 230, 231. 

and blue shot, 222. 

olive, 165, 166. 

— chestnut. 104. 

brown, 101, 103, 117, 119. 

— cream, 231. 

— crimson. 136. 231.) 

— drab, 102, 126, 233. 

— green. 93, 94, 113, 115, 127, 142, 

144, 146, 151, 153, 214, 217, 219, 
230. 

— grey, 119. 120. 154, 215, 218, 

232. 

— lilac, 146. 

— maroon, 89. 135. 

— navy, 95, 97, 98, 115. 126, 137. 

— olive, 92, 127, 164. 
brown, 118. 

— orange, 91. 

— plum, 87, 99, 116, 138, 166. 



Dark red, 88, 113. 

— Russian green, 232. 

— sage, 127, 216. 

— scarlet, 153, 155. 

— sea green, 94, 214, 232. 

— slate, 106, 214. 

— stone, 214. 

— turquoise blue, 116. 

— violet, 156. 

— walnut, 216. 
brown, 103. 

— yellow, 90. 

" Dead " cotton fibres, 4. 
Deep black, 104. 

— blue, 97, 126. 

— brown, 104, 118, 231. 

— chestnut brown, 102, 136. 

— crimson, 89, 232. 

— green, 94. 

— leaf green, 233. 

— olive brown, 180. 

— orange. 92, 135, 214, 230. 
vellow, 230. 

— pink, 88. 

— rose, 230, 233. 
Delahuntv's dveing machine, 57, 

58. ' ' 
Delta purpurine, 107. 

5 B, 210. 

Developing, 131. 

— machine for paranitroaniline 

red, 194. 
Diamine azo blue, 2 B, 233. 

R, 145. 

2 R, 237, 238. 

UR, 136, 137. 

— black B, 227, 232. 

B H, 104, 106, 118, 136, 137, 

138, 210, 215, 216, 237. 

BO, 92, 100, 139, 210. 

H W, 92. 93, 94, 95, 97, 102, 

103, 104. 130, 132, 209, 
214, 215, 228, 230, 231, 233. 

R O. 87, 92, 93, 95, 100, 101, 

104. 106, 138, 139, 146, 210, 

— blue, 112, 132. 
2 B, 210. 

3 B, 92, 98, 210, 227. 

B B, 227. 

B G, 96, 210, 228. 

B X, 102, 209, 210, 228. 

C B, 228. 

G, 209. 



18 



274 



INDEX. 



Diamine blue 3 R, 95, 100, 115, 
116, 117, 119, 210, 228. 

R W, 95, 98, 113, 114, 117, 

120, 209, 210, 228, 230. 

black E, 97, 210, 228. 

R, 102. 

— Bordeaux, 87. 

B, 89, 210, 215, 216, 228. 

S, 210, 228, 231. 233. 

— brilliant blue G, 96, 99, 115, 

145, 210, 215, 216, 223, 227. 

— bronze G, 91, 93, 100, 106, 114, 

115, 118, 139, 144, 210, 214, 228, 
231, 232, 233. 

— brown, 112, 132. 
B, 209, 228. 

G, 104, 119, 209, 210. 

3 G, 209, 228, 230. 

M, 90, 95, 102, 104, 118, 119, 

138, 216, 217, 228, 231, 232. 

N, 209, 217, 231, 233. 

S, 210. 

V, 92, 98, 138, 143, 144, 210, 

228, 233. 
Y, 92. 

— eatechine B, 101, 102, 103, 114, 

117, 210, 216. 

G, 89, 94, 101, 102, 103. 113, 

117, 209, 210. 

— colours, 227. 

— cutch, 130, 132, 136, 137, 138. 

— dark blue B, 114, 116, 118, 120, 

209, 210, 216, 217, 228, 231, 
233. 
green N, 93. 

— deep black Or, 96. 
R B, 104. 

— dyes, 18, 85, 208, 225. 

— fast red, F, 87, 89, 90, 113, 118, 

209, 228, 230. 

yellow A, 90, 92, 114, 115, 

116, 136, 137, 143, 144, 210, 

213, 223. 227, 232, 233, 235, 
237, 238. 

B, 89, 91, 92, 94. 97, 98, 

113, 114, 117, 118, 119, 120, 
138, 209, 214. 215, 216, 223, 
228, 231, 232. 

R, 95. 

— gold, 100, 210, 213, 228, 230, 231, 

232 

— green B, 93, 97, 115, 146, 209, 

214, 228, 230, 235. 
G, 94, 209. 210, 228. 



Diamine grey G, 106, 143, 228, 232. 

— jet blaek,'l39. 

Cr, 105, 118, 120, 121. 

0, 144. 

R B, 105, 120. 

— new blue R, 98, 116, 120, 210. 

— nitrazol black B, 143, 144. 

brown B, 143, 210. 

G, 143, 210. 

R D, 143. 

dye, 139. 

— orange, 132. 

B, 89, 92, 114, 117, 118, 119, 

120, 209, 215. 216. 217, 228, 

230. 

D, 210. 

DC, 223, 227, 231, 233, 237, 

238. 

F, 209. 

G, 91. 102, 210, 214, 215, 221, 

222, 231. 

G D, 104. 

G G, 227, 233. 

— red, 107. 

B, 210. 

4 B, 209. 

5 B, 88, 89, 103, 209, 215, 

228. 

6 B, 209. 

10 B, 88, 89, 146, 209, 230. 

N, 87. 

N O, 210. 

— rose, 223. 

B D, 88, 209, 215, 228, 230, 

233. 
G D, 99. 

— scarlet, 107. 

B, 91, 106, 210, 215, 228. 

3 B, 88. 210, 228. 

H 8, 230. 

S, 228. 

— skv blue, 94, 97, 98, 145, 210, 

215, 222, 237, 238. 

F F, 94, 96, 98, 114, 115, 

210, 222, 223, 227, 232. 

— steel blue L, 96, 210, 214, 222, 

228. 

— violet N, 87, 99, 100, 145, 146, 

210, 223, 228, 231, 238. 

— yellow, 92. 

— yellow N, 90, 92, 93, 100, 113, 
' 228, 230. 

Diamineral blue R, 95, 116, 227, 
238. 



INDEX. 



'275 



Diaminogene, 234, 235. 

— B, 138, 228, 234, 235. 

— blue B B. 136, 138. 

— extra, 143, 228, 234, 235. 
Dianil black C R, 97, 119, 142. 
N, 118. 120, 121. 

— blue B, 94, 97, 98, 116, 142. 
G, 98. 113. 

2 R, 94. 

4 R, 99, 116. 

— brown B D, 119, 142. 
GO, 142. 

3 G O. 103, 118, 119, 142, 

143. 

R, 102. 103, 118, 119, 142. 

T, 102. 

— claret B, 89, 99, 145. 
G, 89. 

— dark blue R. 94, 95, 97, 116, 

142, 143. 

3 R, 97, 142. 

brown, 103. 

— olive, 93. 

— orange G, 89, 92. 
2 R, 92. 

— red 4 B, 89, 145. 

— scarlet G, 145. 

— yellow, 94. 

— — G, 91, 98. 

3 G, 91. 94, 113. 

R, 94, 113. 

2 R, 91. 

Dianisidine blue, 197. 
Diazo-benzene chloride, 181. 
Diazo black. 132, 139. 

— blue, 132. 

— brown, 130, 139. 

— compounds. 181. 

— liquor, 190. 
Diazotisation, 129. 

— of amido bases, 182. 
Diazotised paranitroaniline, 140. 
Dictionary of Coal-tar Colours, 259. 
Dinitroso-resorcine, 179. 
Diphenyl brown B N, 103. 
Direct deep black E extra, 104. 
Direct dyeing, 85. 

— dyes, '83. 

fastness of, 106. 

— fast brown B, 144. 

— indigo blue, 98. 

— orange R, 210. 

— red, test of, 265. 

— triamine black G X, 104. 



Direct yellow G, 90, 106, 210. 
Divi-divi, 147, 148, 239. 
Drab, 93, 165, 216, 218, 219, 231. 
Drying cylinders, 255. 

— of dyed goods, 249. 
Dull lilac, 99. 

— yiolet, 100. 
Dye-beck, 77. 

Dye-house washing machine, 244, 

246. 
Dyeing apparatus, 263. 

— of basic dyes, 149. 

— machinery, 53, 57. 

— on metallic mordants, 156. 

— test for relative value of dyes, 

267. 
Dye-jigger, 72, 73. 
Dyers' bleach, 24. 
Dye-tank, illustration of, 54. 
Dye-tub, illustration of, 54. 
Dye- vat, section of, 56. 



Eboli blue B, 231. 

— green T, 230. 
Emerald tint, 154. 
Eosine, 84, 229. 

Eosines, dyeing with, 158, 159. 
Erie blue B X, 97. 

2 G, 210. 

Erika B, 87. 

— B N, 99, 100, 210, 224. 
Erythrosine, 229. 

— B, 238. 
Erythrosines, 160. 
Experimental dye-bath, 263. 

— dyeing, 262. 



Farmer's washing machine, 36. 
Fast acid green, 229. 
B N, 222. 

— blue developer A D, 133. 

— brown, 164. 

— neutral violet B, 154, 

— yellow S, 223, 237, 238. 
Fastness of colours, 260. 

— of colours to light and air, 260 

— of colours to rubbing, 261. 

— of colours to washing, 261. 

— of direct dyes, 106. 
Fatty acids, 3. 



276 



INDEX. 



Fawn, 105. 

— brown, 167. 

— drab, 100, 21G. 
Fiery yellowish red, 180. 
First green liquor, 108. 
Fixation, 149. 

— with couplers, 139. 

developers, 128. 

metallic salts, 112. 

Flavo-purpurine, 171. 
Formyl blue B, 211. 

— violet, 84, 229, 233. 

B, 211, 

10 B, 211. 

S 4 B, 211, 214, 215, 210, 222, 

231, 237, 238. 
Full blue, 43, 97. 

— yellow orange, 180. 
Furnival's Square beater, 30. 
Fustic, 150, 157, 100, 178, 259. 

— extract, 104, 105, 100, 107, 175, 

176, 181. 



G. 



Gallipoli oil, 108. 

Galls, 147, 148. 

Gambler, 147. 

Glauber's salt, 83, 108, 111, 209, 

214, 215, 221, 222, 223, 225, 231, 

234, 237. 
Glycerine, 180. 
Gold and green shot dves, 221. 

— brown," 100, 101, 102, 103, 138, 

142, 143, 153, 210, 230. 
and blue shot, 222. 

— drab, 232. 

— orange, 214. 

-^ yellow, 91, 113, 130, 142, 230. 

Good yellow, 213. 

Graemiger cop-dyeing machine, 

05, 06. 
Grass green, 93. 
Green, 92, 93, 94, 114, 130, 143, 

145, 151, 180, 215. 

— and buff shot, 223. 

— and claret shot, 222. 

— and pink shot dyes, 238. 

— and orange shot, 224. 

— and red shot, 223, 224. 

— blue, 98. 

— grev, 106, 120. 

— olive, 92. 

— yellow, 91. 



Greening operation, 168. 
Grey, 100, 120, 153, 219. 

— and orange shot, 223. 

— blue, 90. 

— lilac, 99, 153. 

— slate, 100. 

- sour operation, 32. 
Grothe, 252. 
Ground fustic, 100. 
Guinea green B, 211, 218, 224. 

— violet B, 224. 

4 B, 211, 218. 

Gum tragacanth, 192. 
Gun cotton, 13. 



Half-silk fabrics, dyeing of, 225. 
Hand dyeing, 53. 
Hank bleaching, 45. 
Hank-dveing machine. Corron's, 
03. 

Klauder-Weldon's, 01, 62. 

Hank-wringing machines, 241. 
Havanna brown, 166. 
Hawking machine, Holliday's, 78. 
Hawthorne's washing machine, 

36. 
Heliotrope, 99, 233. 

— B B, 90, 146. 

— 2 B, 99, 233. 

! Hessian brown 2 M, 98. 
2 B N, 100, 231. 

— grev S, 231. 

— purple N, 230. 

— violet, 211. 
Hoffman violet, 152. 
HoUiday, 182. 

Holliday's hawking machine, 78. 

— yarn-dyeing machine, 60. 
Hurst's Silk Dyeing, 225. 
Hydrocellulose, 12. 
Hvdrochloric acid, 177, 183, 184^ 

190. 

action of, 11. 

Hydro-extractors, 251, 252. 
Hydrosulphite indigo vat, 204. 



Immedial black 

— blacks, 79. 

— blue, 121. 
C, 125. 



107, 121. 



INDEX. 



277 



Immedial bronze A, 128. 
B, 128. 

— brown, 121. 

Impregnation with dye-stuff solu- 
tion, 198. 

Indamine blue N, 154. 
Indazine, 229. 

Indian vellow G, 211, 213, 214, 
216, 217, 222, 229, 231. 

E, 211, 213, 214, 229, 231, 232. 

Indigo, 18, 20, 198. 

— blue, 152, 154. 

N, 229, 233. 

S G N, 229. 

— carmine, 165. 

— dyed goods, test of, 258. 

— dyeing, 199. 

— dye-vat for cloth, 199. 

— extract, 84, 167. 

— white, 200. 
Indigotin, 198. 
Indophenol, 205. 
Induline, 229. 
Irisamine G, 152, 153. 
Iron, 157. 

— liquor, 172, 175, 176, 180. 

— mordants, 259. 

— stains, 50. 

— sulphate, 112. 

J. 

Janus black I, 219. 
II, 219. 

— blue G, 155. 
R, 155, 219. 

— brown B, 156, 219. 
R, 219, 220. 

— claret red B, 156, 219. 

— dark blue B, 219. 

— dyes, 155, 218. 

— green B, 155, 219, 220. 

— grev B, 156. 
B B, 219, 220. 

— red B, 155, 219. 

— vellow G, 219. 

— — R, 155, 156, 219, 220. 
Jet black, 121. 

Jigger, 72. 
Jig-wince, 74,{|75. 



Katigen black, 121. 
— brown, 107, 121. 



Katigen dark brown, 128. 

— green, 121. 

— olive G, 127. 
Khaki, 180. 

— shades, 248. 
Kiers, 30. 

Klauder - Weldon hank - dyeing 
machine, 61, 62. 

L. 

Lanacyl blue B B, 211. 

— violet B, 211, 217. 

Leaf green, 94, 113, 114, 231. 
Lehner's process for making silk, 

15. 
Lemon yellow, 91. 
Leuco, 198. 
Light blue, 115, 138. 

— brown, 101, 103, 117. 

— chestnut brown, 137. 

— green, 114, 143. 

— grey, 106. 

— indigo blue, 96. 

— plum, 99. 

— sage brown, 118. 

— seal brown, 102. 

— slate, 106. 
Lilac, 98, 99. 

— red, 87. 

— rose, 233. 

Lima wood, 178, 179. 
Lime, 169, 202. 

— and copperas vat for indigo 

dyeing, 200. 

— boil for cotton, 28. 

— sour operation, 32. 
Logwood, 18, 84, 156, 157, 165, 167, 

234, 259. 

— black, 79, 174. 

dveing on varn in hanks, 

175."^ 

— decoction, 177. 

— dj^ed goods, test of, 258. 

— extract, 164, 175, 176, 181. 

— greys, 178. 

Loose wool and cotton, washing 

of, 244. 
Lye boil operation, 34. 

M. 

Machinery for dyeing, 53, 57. 
Madder, 157. 

— bleach, 24. 



278 



INDEX. 



Magenta, 18, 147, 153, 229, 231, 
232, 233. 

Malachite green, 146, 152, 153, 
229 232. 

Mandarine G, 211, 217, 218, 224. 

Market bleach, 24, 38, 39. 

Maroon, 89, 138, 153, 215, 233. 

Mather & Piatt's apparatus, 207. 

bleaching kier, 30, 31. 

machine, 246. 

washing machine, 36. 

yarn-bleaching kier, 49. 

Mercerisation of cotton, 8. 

Mercerised cotton fibres, illus- 
trations of, 7, 9. 

Mercer, John, 8, 21. 

Metallic mordants, 156. 

Metanitroaniline, 185, 186, 187, 
188. 

— orange, 195. 
Metaphenylene blue, 229. 

B, 154, 233. 

Methylene blue, 17. 

— — B B. 153. 

2 B, 153. 

N, 232. 

— grey B F, 153. 
Methylindone B. 229, 231. 

— R. 229. 

Methyl violet. 18, 229. 

■ B, 146, 151, 231. 

2 B. 146. 

R, i46. 

3 R. 146. 

4 E. 152. 

Mikado brown, 227. 

2 B, 238. 

3 G O, 230. 

M, 103, 230, 232. 

— dyes, 18. 

— golden yellow 8 G, 230, 231. 

— orange, 227. 

G, 91. 

4 R, 91, 102. 

R O, 232. 

3 R O, 231. 

4 R 0, 218, 224. 

5 R O, 230, 238. 

— yellow, 227. 

— — G, 230. 

Milk of lime, 28, 175. 
Milling orange, 229. 

— yellow, 229. 
Mimosa, 209. 



Mixed cotton and wool fabrics,. 

d\^eing of, 208. 
Mommer's cop-dyeing machine, 

69. 
Mordant dyes, 84. 
Mordants, 156. 

— detection of, 259. 
Moss brown, 143, 232. 
Muslin bleaching, 41. 
Myrabolam, 147, 148, 239. 

— extract, 175, 176. 



N. 



Naphthol, 184. 

azo-benzene, 181. 

— black, 128. 

B, 223. 

3 B. 222. 

— blue black, 211, 214, 215, 216,, 

217, 222, 234. 

G, 211, 222. 

R, 211. 

— colours, 182. 

— D, 192. 

— X, 192. 

— yellow S, 229, 238, 278. 
Naphthylamine. 13, 132, 133, 184. 

— black, 235. 
_._ 4B. 211. 

6 B, 211, 217. 

D, 211. 

— ether, 130. 
Naphtindone B B, 153. 
Nayy, 97, 98, 154. 

— blue, 96, 214, 216, 217. 
Neutral grey, 132. 
G, 99,' 106. 

— yiolet, 229. 
New blue D, 229. 

— methylene blue, 234, 235. 
• G G, 238. 

]yj[ 232 

— N,' 126. 145, 154, 229, 231, 

233. 

NX, 154. 

R, 153, 154, 233. 

3 R^ 145, 153. 

grey B, 153. 

— G, 154. 

— phosphine G, 153, 154, 229, 232.. 

— Victoria blue B, 146, 151, 152. 
Nigraniline, 206. 

Nigrosine, 229. 



INDEX. 



279 



Nitrate of copper, 177. 

— of iron, 166, 175. 
Nitrazol C, 139, 141, 193. 

Nitric acid, action of, on cotton, 

12. 
Nitrite of soda, 183. 
Nitro-aniline, 183. 
Nitro-benzene, 13. 
Nitro-naphthalene, 13. 
Nitro-para-tolnidine, 185, 187, 188. 
Nitrosamine, 193. 

— red, 195. 
Nitroso-resorcine, 18. 
Nitrous acid, 184. 

Nut brown, 103, 118, 119, 218, 219. 



0. 



Oak bark, 147. 

Obermaier macliine, 57, 59. 

Oil stains, 50. 

Old gold, 90, 232. 

Olive, 92, 93, 127, 143, 164. 

— and blue shot dyes, 238. 

— brown, 143, 154. 

— green, 114, 142, 144, 153. 

— oil, 170. 

— yellow, 91. 

Orange, 84, 91, 113, 130, 137, 151, 
153, 154, 155, 215, 217. 

— and blue shot, 224, 238. 

— and violet shot, 223, 238. 

— brown, 102. 

— E N Z, 211, 214, 217, 222. 

— extra, 211, 223, 232. 

— G G, 221, 222, 231, 232, 233, 238. 

— T A, 218. 

— yellow, 143, 186. 
Orthoamidoazotoluol, 186, 187, 

188. 
Orthonitrotoluidine, 196. 
Oxidising agents, action of, on 

cotton, 16. 
Oxvcellulose, 16. 
Oxydiamine black A, 97, 105, 209. 

B M, 209, 215, 216, 217. 

D, 209, 228, 233, 234. 

M, 209. 

N, 91, 97. 

— — N R, 105. 

S O O O, 210, 228, 231, 233. 

— orange G, 104, 209. 

R, 92, 104, 143, 144, 209. 

— i-(Mi S, 209. 



Oxydiamine violet B, 99, 100, 210, 
214,228,230, 231, 233. 

G, 99, 100. 

— yellow G G, 94, 146, 209. 
Oxydianil yellow, 143. 
Oxymuriate of tin, 166. 
Oxyphenine, 91, 102, 209. 



P. 



Padding machine, 80, 81, 193, 221. 
Pale blue, 95, 97. 

— brown, 102, 119, 122, 128, 164, 

180. 

— chamois, 166. 

— chestnut, 143. 

— drab, 233. 

— fawn brown, 119, 130. 
red, 89. 

— gold yellow, 213. 

— green, 94, 151. 

— greenish grey, 120. 

— leaf green, li3. 

— lilac, 99. 

— nut brown, 102. 

— olive brown, 100. 
green, 113. 

— orange, 91, 92, 135. 

— sage, 144. 

— — green, 217. 

— salmon, 87. 

— sea green, 127, 232. 

— sky blue, 95. 

— walnut brown, 104. 
Palm oil soap, 169. 
Paramine blue B, 96. 
black S, 96. 

— brown C, 117. 
G, 101. 

— indigo blue, 96. 

— navy blue R, 96. 
Paranitroaniline, 185, 186, 187, 

188, 190. 

— brown, 196. 

— red, 186, 188, 189. 

• dyed cotton, 196. 

dye-tub, 191. 

on piece goods, 192. 

— — on yarn, 189. 

with azophor red P N, 195. 

— — with nitrazol C, 195. 
Paratoluidine, 186. 187, 188. 
Parchment paper, 11. 
Paris violet, 152. 



280 



INDEX. 



Patent blue, 84. 

Peach wood, 178. 

Peacock green, 214, 21G. 

Pea green, 114, 233. 

Pectic acid, 3. 

Permanganate of potash, 17. 

Persian berries, 156, 178, 179. 

Phenetidine, 183. 

Phenol, 130. 132, 133, 181. 

Phenylene diamine, 130, 132, 134, 

235, 237. 
Phosphate of soda, 86, 90, 91, 168, 

170, 180, 225. 
Piece-dyeing machines, 71. 
Piece goods, drying of, 256. 

— — washing of, 244. 

wringing of, 241. 

Pink, 87, 88, 89, 152, 215. 
Plate singeing, 27. 
Plum, 99, 145, 146, 215. 
Pluto black B, 108, 144. 
Ponceau B, 164. 

— 3KB, 211, 217. 
Potash, 86. 
Primrose, 91, 154. 

Primuline, 130, 131, 132, 135, 136, 
138, 142, 143, 144, 209. 

Production of colour direct on 
cotton fibres, 181. 

Prussiate black. 207. 

Pure blue, 238. 

— soluble blue, 237. 
Purple brown, 100. 
Purpuramine, D H, 107. 
Pyrolignite of iron, 172. 
Pyroxyline, 13. 



Q. 



Quercitron, 156, 178, 179. 

— bark, 178. 

— extract, 164, 165. 
Quicklime, 200. 



Rayer & Lincoln machine, 26. 
Read Holliday's squeezing ma- 
chine, 241. 
lied, 136, 187. 

— brown, 100, 135. 

— chocolate, 119.' 

— developer C, 192. 

— drab, 165. 



Red lilac, 100. 

— liquor, 165, 166, 169, 170, 176. 

— orange, 91. 

— plum, 117, 214. 

— violet, 99, 116, 152, 155, 156. 
Reddish brown, 102. 

— puce, 187. 
Reseda, 93. 

— green, 167. 
Resin boil, 35. 

— soap liquor, 35. 
Resorcine, 130, 132, 133, 235. 

— green, 156. 
Rhodamine, 229, 231. 

— B, 153, 233. 

— G, 152. 

— 6 G, 152. 

— S, 237. 

Rhoduline violet, 151. 
Rocceleine, 211. 

Roller squeezing machines for 

yarn, 241. 
Rose azurine B, 87. 
G, 87, 90. 

— bengale, 229. 

— lilac, 145, 151. 

— pink, 87. 

— red, 88, 89. 
Rosophenine, 5 B, 88. 
Russia green, 92, 113, 143, 153. 



S. 



Safranine, 18, 146, 153, 221, 229, 
231, 233. 

— G, 146. 

— prima, 153. 

— S, 155. 
Sage, 214. 

— brown, 104, 119, 135, 144, 218. 

— green, 93, 180, 230. 
St. Dennis black, 121. 

Saline salts, quantity used, 108. 
Salmon, 89. 
Salt, 165. 

Satin fabrics, dveing of, 225. 
Scarlet, 88, 89, 'l35, 145, 146, 152, 
153, 155, 215, 217, 230. 

— R, 220. 

Schaeffer's acid, 134. 
Scouring cotton, 23. 
Sea green, 94, 151. 
Seal brown, 146. 
Seed hairs, 1. 



INDEX. 



281 



Shot effects, 220. 

on satin, dyeing of, 235. 

with black cotton warp, 236, 

Silver grey, 106. 
Singeing of cotton, 27. 

— wash of cotton, 28. 
Skv blue, 95, 98, 151, 215. 
Slate, 106, 218, 231, 233. 

— blue, 97, 120, 152, 216. 

— green, 218. 
Sliver dyeing, 58. 
Slubbing dyeing, 58. 
Soap, 165. 

— effect on dye-stuffs, 226. 
Soaping of dyed goods, 247. 
Soda, 86, 132, 178. 

— ash, 34, 166. 

— crystals, 169. 

— lye, 202, 235. 

— zinc vat for indigo dyeing, 204. 
Sodium acetate, 196. 

— bichromate, 164. 

— nitrite solution, 196, 198. 

— stannate, preparing with, 158. 
Solid blue, 229. 

— green, 229. 

— — O, 179, 180. 
Solidogen A, 145. 
Soluble blue, 150, 160, 229. 
Spencer's hank-wringing machine, 

241. 
Squeezing rollers, 240. 
Stains in bleached goods, 50. 
Steam aniline black, 207. 

blacks, 248. 

Steaming and ageing chamber, 250. 

— cottage, illustration of, 249. 

— of dyed goods, 248. 
Stearic acid, 3. 
Stitching of cotton, 25. 
Stone, 218. 

Structure of cotton fibre, 1. 
Sulfaniline black, 121. 
G, 124. 

— brown, 121. 
4 B, 127. 

Sulphate of copper, 177. \ 

— of iron, 167. ' 
Sulphonates, 182. 

Sulphon azurine B, 210, 217, 218. 

D, 93. 

Sulphur colours, 121. [ 

Sulphuric acid, 166. I 

action of, on cotton, 10. 

18 



Sulphyl colours, 121. 

Sumac, 83, 147, 148, 165, 166, 167, 

172, 173, 178, 239. 
— extract, 169, 175, 219, 220. 
Sun yellow, 90. 



T. 



Tannic acid, 18, 20, 83, 147, 172. 

— mordant, dyeing on, 147. 
Tannin, 173, 174, 236. 

— grounding, 173. 

— heliotrope, 145, 153, 229. 

— orange R, 154, 155, 229. 
Tanning, 148. 

Tartar emetic, 147, 192, 219, 220. 
Tartaric acid, 180. 
Temperature of dye-baths, 226. 
Terra-cotta brown, 143. 

— red, 90, 143. 

Testing of the colour of dyed 

fabrics, 257. 
Thiazole yellow, 93, 94. 209. 
Thiocarm^ine R, 84, 211, 214. 
Thioflavine S, 94, 104, 106, 209, 

213, 215, 222, 223, 228, 229. 

— T, 153, 154, 229, 231, 232. 
Tin crystals, 147, 169, 179. 

— oxide, fixing, 158. 
Titan blue, 210, 211. 

— — 3 B, 93, 102, 164. 
R, 102. 

— brown O, 210. 

P, 164. 

R, 102, 210. 

Y, 161, 210. 

~ colours, 227. 

— como G, 95. 
S N, 98. 

— dyes, 18, 85. 

— gold, 101, 102. 

— ingrain blue, 135, 136, 142. 

— marine blue, 211. 

— navy R, 98. 

— orange, 88. 
N, 95. 

— pink, 210. 

— red, 107. 

— scarlet C, 88. 

D, 88. 

S, 209. 

— yellow, 210. 

G, 145. 

G G, 90. 



282 



INDEX. 



Titan yellow Y, 90, 92, 93, 164. 
Toluidine, 185, 187, 188. 

— orange, 196. 
Toluylene brown, 139. 

— diamine, 134. 

— orange, 139. 

G, 90, 91, 100. 

K, 100. 

Topping, 140. 

— with acid and basic dye-stuffs, 

228. 

— with basic dyes, 145. 
Triamine black, 132. 

B, 96, 137. 

B T, 98. 

Tropseoline 0, 229. 

— 0, 211, 229. 

Truck yarn-dyer, 254, 255. 
Turkey red, 87, 167, 181. 

bleach, 38, 39. 

oil, 88, 90, 95, 96, 160, 170, 

171, 172, 173, 180, 189, 192, 

196. 
Turmeric, 165, 166, 167. 
Turquoise blue, 98, 116, 151, 155, 

232. 
G, 146, 151, 152. 



U. 



Union black B, 209, 214. 

S, 209, 214, 215, 216, 217, 

228, 234. 

— blue B B, 209. 

V. 

V^alonia, 147. 
Verdigris, 177. 
Victoria blue, 150. 

B, 151, 152. 

Vidal black, 107, 121, 123. 

— blacks, 79. 

Violet, 99, 100, 146, 154, 230. 

— and yellow shot dyes, 238. 

— blue, 97. 

W. 

Walnut brown, 102, 119, 138, 142, 

219, 233. 
Warp bleaching, 43. 
Warp-dyeing machines, 69, 70, 71. 
Washing after dyeing, 239. 



Washing and soaping vats, illus- 
tration of, 248. 

— of cotton in bleaching, 36. 

— operations after dyeing, 242. 
Water blue, 229. 

— of condition, 6. 

— volume used in dyeing, 107. 
White indigo, 198. 

— liquor treatment, 168. 

— sour operation, 38. 
Whizzing, 45. 

Willesden waterproof cloths, 22. 
Wince dye beck, 74. 
Witz, George, 17. 

Wool black 6 B, 211, 217, 218, 223, 
224. 

— green, 84. 

Worral's singeing machine, 27. 
Wringing of dyed goods, 239. 



Yarn bleaching, 43. 

— -washing machine, illustration 

of, 243. 
Yarns in cop form, washing of, 
244. 

— in hanks, washing of, 244. 

— in hanks, wringing of, 240. 
Yellow, 90, 91, 113, 151. 

— and violet shot dyes, 237. 

— olive, 91. 

Yellowish claret red, 187. 
Young & Crippin's cop-dyeing 

machine, 68. 



Zambesi black, 132. 

B, 210, 218. 

BR, 97. 

D, 103, 104, 218. 

F, 115, 119, 210. 

— blue, 130. 

B X, 136. 

R X, 217, 218. 

— brown, 130. 

G, 210. 

2 G, 136, 210. 

— dyes, 85, 208. 

Zinc and lime vat for indigo dye- 
ing, 201. 

— bisulphite indigo vat, 203. 

— chloride, 20. 

— sulphate, 112. 



THE ABERDEEN UNIVERSITY PRESS LIMITED. 



SEPTEMBER, 1901. 
This Catalogue cancels all former editions. 



The Publishers seek to issue thoroughly helpful 
works. These books in every instance will, they be- 
lieve, be found of good value. Employers will do well 
to place copies of these books in the hands of the 
bright and promising young men in their employ, in 
order the better to equip them to become increasingly 
useful as employees. A workman who uses his brains 
must be preferable to one who does not tJilnh about 
his work. Brains require stimulus. These books 
provide that stimulus. 



H Catalooue 

OF 

hpedal 0eednieal \X/orks 

FOR 

Manufacturers, Professional Men, Students, 
Colleges and Technical Schools 

BY EXPERT WRITERS 

FOR THE 

OIL, PAINT, COLOUR VARNISH, SOAP, CHEMICAL, 

TEXTILE, LEATHER, PAPER, COLLIERY, POTTERY, 

GLASS, PLUMBING AND DECORATING TRADES 

AND SCIENTIFIC PROFESSIONS. 



PUBLISHED BY 



SCOTT, GREENWOOD & CO., 

PUBLISHERS OF TECHNICAL BOOKS, 

19 LuDGATE Hill, London, E.C. 

Tel. Address : " PRINTERIES, LONDON ". Tel. No. 5403, Bank. 



N.B. — Full Particulars of Contents of any of the following hooks 
sent post free on application. 

Messrs. Scott, Greenwood & Go. are open to make offers 
for the publication of technical works. 



Books on Oils, Soaps, Colours, 

Chemicals, Glue, Varnishes, 

etc. 

THE PRACTICAL COMPOUNDING OF OILS, TAL- 
LOW AND GREASE FOR LUBRICATION, ETC. 

By An Expert Oil Refiner. 100 pp. 1898. Demy 8vo. Price 7s. 6d. ; 
India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 
Contents. 

Chapters I., Introductory Remarks on the General Nomenclature of Oils, Tallow and 
Greases suitable for Lubrication.— II., Hyrocarbon Oils.— III., Animal and Fish Oils.— 
IV., Compound Oils.— V., Vegetable Oils.— VI. Lamp Oils.— VII., Engine Tallow, 
Solidified Oils and Petroleum Jelly.- VIII., Machinery Greases: Loco and Anti= 
friction.— IX., Clarifying and Utilisation of Waste Fats, Oils, Tank Bottoms, 
Drainings of Barrels and Drums, Pickings Up, Dregs, etc.— X., The Fixing and 
Cleaning of Oil Tanks, etc.— Appendix and General information. 

Press Opinions. 

" This work is written from the standpoint of the oil trade, but its perusal will be found very 
useful by users of machinery and all who have to do with lubricants in any way." — Colliery 
Guardian. 

"The properties of the different grades of mineral oil and of the animal and vegetable non- 
drying oils are carefully described, and the author justly insists that the peculiarities of the 
machinery on which the lubricants are to be employed must be considered almost before every- 
thing else. . . . The chapters on grease and solidiHed oils, etc., are excellent." — The Ironmonger. 

SOAPS. A Practical Manual of the Manufacture of Domestic, 
Toilet and other Soaps. By George H. Hurst, F.C.S. Illustrated 
with Sixty-six Engravings. 390 pp. 1898. Price 12s. 6d. ; India and 
Colonies, 13s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 15s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Chapters I., Introductory.— II., Soap=maker's Alkalies.— III., Soap Fats and Oils.— 
IV., Perfumes.— v.. Water as a Soap Material.— VI., Soap Machinery.— VII., Tech = 
nology of Soap=making.— VIII., Glycerine in Soap Lyes.— IX., Laying out a Soap 
Factory.— X., Soap Analysis.— Appendices. 

Press Opinions. 

" We think it is the most practical book on these subjects that has come to us from England 
so far." — American Soap Journal. 

"Much useful information is conveyed in a convenient and trustworthy manner which will 
appeal to practical soap-makers." — Chemical Trade Joitrnal. 

" Works that deal with manufacturing processes, and applied chemistry in particular, are 
always welcome. Especially is this the case when the material presented is so up-to-date as 
we find it" here." — Bradford Observer. 

" The best and most reliablfe methods of analysis are fully discussed, and form a valuable 
source of reference to any works' chemist. . . . Our verdict is a capitally produced book, and 
one that is badly needed." — Birmingham Post. 

ANIMAL PATS AND OILS: Their Practical Production, 
Purification and Uses for a great Variety of Purposes. Their Pro- 
perties, Falsification and Examination. A Handbook for Manufacturers 
of Oil and Fat Products, Soap and Candle Makers, Agriculturists, 
Tanners, Margarine Manufacturers, etc., etc. By Louis Edgar Andes. 
Sixty-two Illustrations. 240 pp. 1898. Demy Svo. Price 10s. 6d. ; 
India and Colonies, lis. ; Other Countries, 12s.; strictly net. 
Contents. 

Introduction. Occurrence, Origin, Properties and Chemical Constitution of Animal Fats 
Preparation of Animal Fats and Oils. Machinery. Tallow-melting Plant. Extraction Plant. 
Presses. Filtering Apparatus. Butter : Raw Alaterial and Preparation, Properties, Adul- 
terations, Beef Lard or Remelted Butter, Testing. Candle-fish Oil. Mutton-Tallow. Hare 
Fat. Goose Fat. Neatsfoot Oil. Bone Fat: Bone Boiling, Steaming Bones, Extraction, 
Refining. Bone Oil. Artificial Butter: Oleomargarine, Margarine Manufacture in France, 
Grasso's Process, " Kaiser's Butter," Jahr & Miinzberg's Method, Filbert's Process, Winter's 
Method. Human Fat. Horse Fat. Beef Marrow, Turtle Oil. Hog's Lard : Raw Material, 
Preparation, Properties, Adulterations, Examination. Lard Oil. Fish Oils. Liver Oils. 
Artificial Train Oil. Wool Fat : Properties, Purified Wool Fat. Spermaceti : Examination 
of Fats and Oils in General. 



Press Opinions. 

"The descriptions of technical processes are clear, and the book is well illustrated and 
should prove useful." — Manchester Guardian. 

" It is a valuable work, not only for the student, but also for the practical manufacturer of 
oil and fat products."— Journal of the A merican Chemical Society. 

"The work is very fully illustrated, and the style throughout is in strong contrast to that 
employed in many such treatises, being simple and clear."— Shoe and Leather Record. 

"An important handbook for the ' fat industry,' now a large one. The explanation of the 
most scientific processes of production lose nothing of their clearness in the translation."— 
Newcastle Chronicle. 

" The latest and most improved forms of machinery are in all cases indicated, and the many 
advances which have been made during the past years in the methods of producing the more 
common animal fats— lard, tallcw and butter— receive due attention."— G/rtSf^ou' Herald. 

VEGETABLE FATS AND OILS : Their Practical Prepara- 
tion, Purification and Employment for \'arious Purposes, their Proper- 
ties, Adulteration and Examination. A Handbook for Oil Manufacturers 
and Refiners, Candle, Soap and Lubricating Oil Makers, and the Oil 
and Fat Industry in General. Translated from the German of Louis 
Edgar Andes. 94 Illustrations. 320 pp. 1897. Demy 8vo. Price 
10s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, lis. ; Other Countries, 12s. ; strictly net. 
Contents. ^ , 

Statistical Data. General Properties of the Vegetable Fats and Oils. Estimation of the 
Amount of Oil in Seeds. Table of Vegetable Fats and Oils, with French and German 
Nomenclature, Source and Origin and Percentage of Fat in the Plants from which they are 
Derived. The Preparation of Vegetable Fats and Oils : Storing Oil Seeds ; Cleaning the Seed. 
Apparatus for Grinding Oil Seeds and Fruits. Installation of Oil and Fat Works. Ex- 
traction Method of Obtaining Oils and Fats. Oil Extraction Installations, Press Moulds. 
Non-drying Vegetable Oils. 'Vegetable drying Oils. Solid Vegetable Fats Fruits Yielding 
Oils and Fats. Wool-softening Oils. Soluble Oils. Treatment of the Oil after Leaving the 
Press Improved Methods of Refining with Sulphuric Acid and Zinc Oxide or Lead Oxide. 
Refining with Caustic Alkalies, Ammonia, Carbonates of the Alkalies, Lime. Bleaching Fats 
and Oils. Practical Experiments on the Treatment of Oils with regard to Refining and 
Bleaching. Testing Oils and Fats. 

Press Opinions. 

"Concerning that and all else within the wide and comprehensive connection involved, 
this book must be invaluable to every one directly or indirectly interested in the matters it 
treats of." — Commerce. 

"The proprietors of the Oil and Colour)nan's Journal have not only placed a valuable and 
highly interesting book of reference in the hands of the fats and oils industry in general, but 
have rendered no slight service to experimental and manufacturing chemists." — Manufacturing 
Chemist. 

IRON - CORROSION, ANTI - FOULING AND ANTI- 
CORROSIVE PAINTS. By Louis Edgar Andes. 62 Illus- 
trations. 275 pp. Translated from the German. DemySvo. 1900. Price 
10s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, lis. ; Other Countries, 12s. ; strictly net. 
Contents, 

Ironrust and its Formation— Protection from Rusting by Paint — Grounding the Iron with 
Linseed Oil, etc. — Testing Paints— Use of Tar for Painting on Iron— Anti-corrosive Paints- 
Linseed Varnish — Chinese Wood Oil — Lead Pigments — Iron Pigments — Artificial Iron Oxides 
— Carbon — Preparation of Anti-corrosive Paints — Results of Examination of Several .4nti- 
corrosive Paints — Paints for Ship's Bottoms — Anti-fouling Compositions — Various Anti-cor 
rosive and Ship's Paints — Official Standard Specifications for Ironwork Paints — Index. 

Press Opinions. 

"This is a verj' valuable book, translated from the German, discussing in detail anti-fouling 
and anti-corrosivQ' paints." — British Mercury. 

"Will Ije of great service to paint manufacturers, engineering contractors, ironfounders, 
shipbuilders and others." — Engineer and Iron Trades Advertiser. 

" The book before us deals with the subject in a manner at once practical and scientific, and 
is well worthy of the attention of all builders, architects and engineers." — The Builder. 

"The book is very readable and full of valuable information, and bearing in mind the 
importance of the subject treated, it is one which engineers will be well advised to procure at 
an early date." — Railway Engineer. 

" The author goes fully into his subject, and the translator has been successful in repro- 
ducing in another language what he has to say. There are given in the text numerous 
illustrations of the rusting of iron, prepared in the course of a series of personal experiments 
on the formation of rust." — Jov.rnal of Gas Lighting. 

" This work is a very elaborate and useful record of the various phenomena in connection 
with the corrosion of iron and its protection against corrosion. . . . The book is an exceed- 
ingly useful record of what has been done in connection with iron preservation, and will 
undoubtedly prove to be of much value to railway engineers, shipowners, etc." — Fairplay. 



" Herr Andes' book, written purely from a scientific standpoint, will be particularly useful 
to iron manufacturers, shipbuilders and shipowners. . . . The book is beautifully pnnted on 
good paper, and its appearance does credit to the publishers ; the work of translation has been 
remarkably well done, the language bearing none of those irritating traces of Teutonism which 
disfigure so many English \ersions of German technical works." — The lyomnonger, 

"This knowledge is conveyed with characteristic German thoroughness in this useful work 
of Herr Andes, which loses nothing of clearness in Mr. Salter's excellent translation. The 
causes of rust formation are examined, the proper methods of cleansing the ironwork detailed, 
and the constitution and application of suitable preventative coverings explained. . . . The 
book is a welcome contribution to technological literature, and will be found worthy of the 
careful study of all who are professionally engaged in the arrangement or superintendence of 
the class of work dealt with." — Western Daily Mercury. 

"The author explains the nature of rust and its formation, and the text is illustrated from 
about fifty photographs. An immense amount of carefully arranged information follows as to 
the best methods of applying anti-corrosive substances and the various pigments most effi- 
cacious for use under all circumstances. The author has evidently thoroughly investigated and 
mastered the subject of iron corrosion, its cause and its prevention ; and we regard his book as 
of the greatest importance to bridge-builders and makers and users of structural iron and 
steel. The book is illustrated throughout and is admirably indexed and arranged." — Iron and 
Steel Trades Journal. 

THE MANUFACTURE OF ALUM AND THE SUL- 
PHATES AND OTHER SALTS OF ALUMINA AND 
IRON. Their Uses and Applications as Mordants in Dyeing 
and Calico Printing, and their other Applications in the Arts, Manufac- 
tures, Sanitar}'^ Engineering, Agriculture and Horticulture. Translated 
from the French of Lucien Geschwind. 195 Illustrations. Nearly 
400 pp. Royal 8vo. 1901. Price 12s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 13s. 6d. ; 
Other Countries, 15s.; strictly net. 

Contents. 
Part I., Theoretical Study of Aluminium, iron, and Compounds of these Metals. 

— Chapters I., Aluminium and its Compounds. — II., Iron and Iron Compounds, 

Part II., Manufacture of Aluminium Sulphates and Sulphates of Iron.— Chapters III., 
Manufacture of Aluminium Sulphate and the Alums. — IV., .Manufacture of Sulphates of Iron, 
Part III., Uses of the Sulphates of Aluminium and Iron.— Chapters V., Uses of 
Aluminium Sulphate and Alums — Application to Wool and Silk — Preparing and using Aluminium 
Acetates — Employment of Aluminium Sulphate in Carbonising Wool — The Manufacture of 
Lake Pigments — Manufacture of Prussian Blue — Hide and Leather Industry — Paper Making — 
Hardening Plaster — Lime W^ashes — Preparation of Non-inflammable ^\'ood, etc. — Purifica- 
tion of Waste Waters.— VI., Uses and Applications of Ferrous Sulphate and Ferric 
Sulphates, — Dyeing — Manufacture of Pigments — Writing Inks — Purification of Lighting Gas 
— Agriculture — Cotton Dyeing — Disinfectant — Purifying Waste Liquors — Manufacture of 
Nordhausen Sulphuric Acid — Fertilising. 

Part IV., Chemical Characteristics of Iron and Aluminium.— Analysis of Various 
Aluminous or Ferruginous Products. —Chapter VI I., .Aluminium.— Analysing Aluminium 
Products. — Alunite Alumina — Sodium Aluminate — Aluminium Sulphate. Chapter VIII., Iron. 
— Analytical Characteristics of Iron Salts — Analysis of Pyritic Lignite — Ferrous and Ferric 
Sulphates — Rouil Mordant — Index. 

MANUAL OF AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY. By 

Herbert Ingle, F.I.C, Lecturer on Agricultural Chemistry, the 
Yorkshire College; Lecturer in the Victoria University. {In the press. 
Contents= 

Chapters I., Introduction.— 11., The Atmosphere.— III., The Soil.— IV., The Reactions 
occurring in Soils. — V., The Analysis of Soils. — VI., Manures, Natural. — VII., Manures (con- 
tinued).— VIII,, The Analysis of Manures.— IX.. The Constituents of Plants.— X., The PlRot.— 
XL, Crops.— XII., The Animal. 

LUBRICATING OILS, FATS AND GREASES: Their 
Origin, Preparation, Properties, Uses and Analyses. A Handbook for 
Oil Manufacturers, Refiners and Merchants, and the Oil and Fat 
Industry in General. By George H. Hurst, F.CS. Second Edition. 
Sixty-five Illustrations. 313 pp. Demy 8vo. 1901. Price 10s. 6d. ; 
India and Colonies, lis. ; Other Countries, 12s. ; strictly net. 

Contents.; 

Chapters I., Introductory. Oils and Fats, Fatty Oils and Fats, Hydrocarbon Oils, Uses 
of Oils. — II., Hydrocarbon Oils. Distillation, Simple Distillation, Destructive Distillation, 
Products of Distillation, Hydrocarbons, Paraffins, Olefins, Napthenes. — III., Scotch Shale 
Oils. Scotch Shales, Distillation of Scotch Oils, Shale Retorts, Products of Distilling Shales 



Separating Products, Treating Crude Shale Oil, Refining Shale Oil, Shale Oil Stills, Shale 
Naphtha Burning Oils, Lubricating Oils, Wax. — IV., Petroleum. Occurrence, Geology, Origin, 
Composition, Extraction, Refining, Petroleum Stills, Petroleum Products, Cylinder Oils, 
Russian Petroleum, Deblooming Mineral Oils.— V., Vegetable and Animal Oils. Intro- 
duction, Chemical Composition of Oils and Fats, Fatty Acids, Glycerine, Extraction of Animal 
and Vegetable Fats and Oils, Animal Oils, Vegetable Oils, Rendering, Pressing, Refining, 
Bleaching, Tallow, Tallow Oil, Lard Oil, Neatsfoot Oil, Palm Oil, Palm Nut Oil, Cocoanut 
Oil, Castor Oil, Olive Oil, Rape and Colza Oils, Arachis Oil, Niger Seed Oil, Sperm Oils, 
Whale Oil, Seal Oil, Brown Oils, Lardine, Thickened Rape Oil.— VI., Testing and Adultera= 
tion of Oils. Specific Gravity, Alkali Tests, Sulphuric Acid Tests, Free Acids in Oils, Vis- 
cosity Tests, Flash and Fire Tests, Evaporation Tests, Iodine and Bromide Tests, Elaidin 
Test, Melting Point of Fat, Testing Machines.— VII., Lubricating Greases. Rosin Oil, 
Anthracene Oil, Making Greases, Testing and Analysis of Greases. — VIII., Lubrication. 
Friction and Lubrication, Lubricant, Lubrication of Ordinary Machinery, Spontaneous Com- 
bustion of Oils, Stainless Oils, Lubrication of Engine Cylinders, Cylinder Oils. — Appendices. 
A. Table of Baumes Hydrometer— B. Table of Thermometric Degrees— C. Table of Specific 
Gravities of Oils— Index. 

Press Opinions. 

"The book is well printed, and is a credit alike to author, printer and publisher." — Textile 
Mercury. 

" It will be a valuable addition to the technical library of every steam user's establishment." 
— Machinery Market. 

" Mr. Hurst has in this work supplied a practical treatise which should prove of especial 
value to oil dealers, and also, though in a less degree, to oil users." — Textile Manufacturer. 

"This is a clear and concise treatment of the method of manufacturing and refining lubri- 
cating oils. . . . The book is one which is well worthy the attention of readers who are users 
of oil." — Textile Recorder. 

" We have no hesitation in saying that in our opinion this book ought to be very useful to 
all those who are interested in oils, whether as manufacturers or users of lubricants, or to 
those chemists or engineers whose duty it may be to report upon the suitability of the same 
for any particular class of work." — Engineer. 

" The author is widely known and highly respected as an authority on the chemistry of oils 
and the technics of lubrication, and it is safe to say that no work of similar interest or equal 
value to the general oil-selling and consuming public has heretofore appeared in the English 
language." — Drugs, Oils and Paints, U.S.A. 

"This valuable and useful work, which is both scientific and practical, has been written 
with a view of supplying those who deal in and use oils, etc., for the purpose of lubrication, 
with some information respecting the special properties of the various products which cause 
these various oils to be of value as lubricants." — Industries and Iron. 

"A mere glance at the table of contents is sufficient to show ho\\' various are the conditions 
to which these materials have to be applied, how much knowledge is required for the selection 
of the right kind for each particular purpose, and how by processes of mixture or manufacture 
the requisite qualities are obtained in each case." — Manchester Guardian. 

AMMONIA AND ITS COMPOUNDS : Their Manufacture 
and Uses. By Camille Vincent, Professor at the Central School of 
Arts and Manufactures, Paris. Translated from the French by M. J. 
Salter. Royal 8vo. 113 pp. 1901. Thirty-two Illustrations. Price 
5s. ; India and Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 6s. ; strictly net. 
Contents. 

Chapters I., General Considerations: Sections 1. Various Sources of Ammoniacal 
Products; 2. Human Urine as a Source of Ammonia. II., Extraction of Ammoniacal 
Products from Sewage: Sections 1. Preliminary Treatment of Excreta in the Settling 
Tanks — The Lencauchez Process, The Bilange Process, The Kuentz Process ; 2. Treatment of 
the Clarified Liquors for the Manufacture of Ammonium Sulphate — The Figuera Process and 
Apparatus, Apparatus of .Margueritte and Sourdeval, The Lair Apparatus, Apparatus of Sintier 
and Muhe, Apparatus of Bilange, The Kuentz Process, Process and Apparatus of Hennebutte 
and De Vaureal; 3. Treatment of Entire Sewage — Chevalet's Apparatus, Paul Mallet's 
Apparatus, Lencauchez's Apparatus. III., Extraction of Ammonia from Gas Liquor: 
Sections 1. Clarification of Gas Liquor; 2. Manufacture of Ammonium Sulphate — A. Mallet's 
Apparatus, A. Mallet's Modified Apparatus, Paul Mallet's Apparatus, Chevalet's Apparatus, 
Griineberg's Apparatus ; 3. Concentration of Gas Liquor — Solvay's Apparatus, Kuentz's 
Apparatus, Griineberg's Apparatus. IV., Manufacture of Ammoniacal Compounds from 
Bones, Nitrogenous Waste, Beetroot Wash and Peat : Sections 1. Ammonia from Bones ; 
2. Ammonia from Nitrogenous Waste Materials; 3. Ammonia from Beetroot Wash (Vinasse) ; 
4. Ammonia from Peat — Treatment of the Ammoniacal Liquors. V., Manufacture of 
Caustic Ammonia, and Ammonium Chloride, Phosphate and Carbonate: Sections 1. 
Manufacture of Caustic Ammonia; 2. Manufacture of Ammonium Chloride — From Fermented 
Urine, Process of the Lesage Company, Kuentz's Process ; From Gas Liquor, English Process, 
Kuentz's Process ; From the Dry Distillation of Animal Matter; From Ammonium Sulphate, 
Sublimation ; 3. Ammonium Phosphates; 4. Carbonates of Ammonium — Sesquicarbonate from 
Animal Matter, English Process, Uses. VI., Recovery of Ammonia from the Ammonia^ 
Soda Mother Liquors : Sections 1. General Considerations; 2. Apparatus of Schloesing and 
Holland ; 3. Apparatus of the Societe Anonyme de I'Est. — Index. 



THE MANUFACTURE OF VARNISHES, OIL RE- 
FINING AND BOILING, AND KINDRED INDUS 
TRIES. Describing the Manufacture of Spirit Varnishes 
and Oil Varnishes ; Raw Materials : Resins, Solvents and Colouring 
Principles ; Drying Oils : their Properties, Applications and Prepara- 
tion by both Hot and Cold Processes; Manufacture, Employment and 
Testing of Different Varnishes. Translated from the French of AcH. 
LiVACHE, Ingenieur Civil des Mines. Greatly Extended and Adapted 
to English Practice, with numerous Original Recipes. By John 
Geddes McIntosh, Lecturer on Oils, Colours and Varnishes, Regent 
Street Polytechnic. Twenty-seven Illustrations. 400 pp. Demy 8vo. 
1899. Price 12s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 13s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 
15s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

I. Resins : Gum Resins, Oleo Resins and Balsams, Commercial Varieties, Source, Collec- 
tion, Characteristics, Chemical Properties, Physical Properties, Hardness, Adulterations. 
Appropriate Solvents, Special Treatment, Special Use.— II. Solvents: Natural, Artificial, 
Manufacture, Storage, Special Use.— III. Colouring : Principles, (1) Vegetable, (2) Coal Tar, 
(3) Coloured Resmates, (4) Coloured Oleates and Linoleates.— Gum Running: iFurmce^, 
Bridges, Flues, Chimney Shafts, Melting Pots, Condensers, Boiling or Mixing Pans, Copper 
Vessels, Iron Vessels (Cast), Iron Vessels (Wrought), Iron Vessels (Silvered), Iron Vessels 
Enamelled), Steam Superheated Plant, Hot-air Plant. — Spirit Varnish Manufacture: Cold 
Solution Plant, Mechanical Agitators, Hot Solution Plant, Jacketted Pans, Mechanical 
\gitators, Clarification and Filtration, Bleaching Plant, Storage Plant.— .Manufacture, Char- 
Acteristics and Uses of the Spirit Varnishes yielded by : Amber, Copal, Dammar, Shellac, 
Mastic, Sandarac, Rosin, Asphalt, India Rubber, Gutta Percha, Collodion, Celluloid, Resin- 
ates, Oleates. — Manufacture of Varnish Stains. — Manufacture of Lacquers. — Manufacture of 
Spirit Enamels.— Analysis of Spirit Varnishes.— Physical and Chemical Constants of Resins. 
—Table of Solubility of Resins in different Menstrua.— Systematic qualitative Analysis of 
Resins, Hirschop's tables.— Drying Oils : Oil Crushing Plant, Oil Extraction Plant, Individual 
Oils, Special Treatment of Linseed Oil, Poppyseed Oil, Walnut Oil, Hempseed Oil, Llamantia 
Oil, Japanese Wood Oil, Gurjun Balsam, Climatic Influence on Seed and Oil. — Oil Refining: 
Processes, Thenard's, Liebig's, Filtration, Storage, Old Tanked Oil.— Oil Boiling : Fire Boil- 
ng Plant, Steam Boiling Plant, Hot-Air Plant, Air Pumps, Mechanical Agitators, Vincent's 
Process, Hadfield's Patent, Storer's Patent, Walton's Processes, Continental Processes, Pale 
Boiled Oil, Double Boiled Oil, Hartley and Blenkinsop's Process.— Driers : Manufacture, 
Special Individual Use of (1) Litharge, (2) Sugar of Lead, (3) Red Lead, (4) Lead Borate, 
(5) Lead Linoleate, (6) Lead Resinate, (7) Black Oxide of Manganese, (8) Manganese Acetate, 
(9) Manganese Borate, (10) Manganese Resinate, (11) Manganese Linoleate, Mixed Resinates 
and Linoleates, Manganese and Lead, Zinc Sulphate, Terehine, Liquid Driers. — Solidified 
Boiled Oil.— Manufacture of Linoleum.— Manufacture of India Rubber Substitutes.— Printing 
Ink Manufacture— Lithographic Ink Manufacture.— Manufacture of Oil Varnishes.— Running 
and Special Treatment of Amber, Copal, Kauri, Manilla.— Addition of Oil to Resin.— Addition 
of Resin to Oil. — Mixed Processes. — Solution in Cold of previously Fused Resin. — Dissolving 
Resins in Oil, etc., under pressure.— Filtration. — Clarification. — Storage. — Ageing. — Coach- 
makers' Varnishes and Japans.— Oak Varnishes. — Japanners' Stoving Varnishes. — Japanners' 
Gold Size.— Brunswick Black.— Various Oil Varnishes.— Oil-Varnish Stains.— Varnishes for 
" Enamels".- India Rubber Varnishes.— Varnishes Analysis : Processes, Matching.— Faults in 
Varnishes: Cause, Prevention. — Experiments and Exercises. 

Press Opinions. 

"There is no question that this is a useful book." — Chemist and Druggist. 

"The different formulae which are quoted appear to be f^ more ' practical ' than such as 
are usually to be found in text-books ; and assuming that the original was published two or 
three years ago, and was only slightly behindhand in its information, the present volume gives 
a fair insight into the position of the varnish industry." — The Ironmonger. 

Letter from the Teacher of a Technical Class. 

" As a teacher I have often been consulted as to the best work on Varnish Manufacture 
and kindred industries, and have been at a loss in recommending a really practical one. It is 
therefore with pleasure that I can now testify as to the merits of the book on these subjects 
by A. Livache and J. G. Mcintosh recently published by Messrs. Scott, Greenwood & Co. In 
■my opinion no varnish maker ought to be without it ; moreover, it is the best text-book that 
could be put into the hands of trade students or beginners. It has also the merits of being 
thoroughly up-to-date and of possessing a remarkably comprehensive index. I can conscien- 
tiously recommend it to my students and trade friends." — Charles Harrison, Lecturer on 
the Manufacture of Painters' Oils, Colours and Varnishes, Borough Polytechnic, Borough 
Road, S.E. 

"23(i3/rtj. 1899" 



THE MANUFACTURE OF LAKE PIGMENTS FROM 
ARTIFICIAL COLOURS. By Francis H. Jexxison, 
F.I.C., F.C.S. Sixteen Coloured Plates, showings Specimens of 
Elg^hty-nine Colours, specially prepared from the Recipes given 
in the Book. 136 pp. Demy 8vo. 1900. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and 
Colonies, 8s, ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Chapters I., Introduction. — II., The Groups of the Artificial Colouring Matters. — III., The 
Nature and Manipulation of Artificial Colours. — IV., Lake-forming Bodies for Acid Colours. — 
v., Lake-forming Bodies' Basic Colours. — \'I., Lake Bases. — VIL, The Principles of Lake 
Formation. — VIII., Red Lakes. — IX., Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Violet and Black Lakes. — 
X., The Production of Insoluble Azo Colours in the Form of Pigments. — XI., The General 
Properties of Lakes Produced from Artificial Colours. — XII., Washing, Filtering and Fin- 
ishing. — XIII., Matching and Testing Lake Pigments. — Index. 

Press Opinions. 

"It is evidently the result of prolonged research, and cannot but prove a valuable con- 
sulting work to those engaged in the industry-. " — Derby Merciiyy. 

" The practical portion of the volume is the one which will especially commend itself, as 
that is the part of the subject which most readers would buy the book for." — Chemist and 
Druggist. 

"This work just issued is a very valuable treatise on the manufacture of lake pigments of 
the coal-tar series principally. The plan adopted by the author in writing up the subject 
enables the manufacture to be very readily understood. . . . The general properties of lakes 
produced from artificial colours, washing, filtering and finishing, and matching and testing 
lake pigments are well and exhaustively described, so that no manufacturer or user of lake 
pigments can well afford to be without this work." — Chemical Trade Journal. 

"This is undoubtedly a book which will occupy a very high place amongst technical works, 
and will prove of exceptional value to all whom it immediately concerns. We have no 
hesitation in reeommending it as one of the best works of its class we have ever read. Mr. 
Jennison has set about his task with a lucid style, and with a complete mastery of his subject. 
. . We do not think students of the technical side of the paint and colour industry can 
possibly spend 7s. 6d. in a more profitable way than by buying this publication." — Eastern 
Morning Neu's. 



THE TESTING AND VALUATION OF RAW MATE- 
RIALS USED IN PAINT AND COLOUR MANU 
FACTURE. By M. W. Joxes, F.C.S. A Book lor the 
Laboratories of Colour Works. 88 pp. Crown 8vo. 1900. Price 5s. ; 
India and Colonies, 5s, 6d. ; Other Countries, 6s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Aluminium Compounds. China Clay. Iron Compounds. Potassium Compounds. Sodium 
Compounds. Ammonium Hydrate. Acids. Chromium Compounds. Tin Compounds. Cop- 
per Compounds. Lead Compounds. Zinc Compounds. Manganese Compounds. Arsenic 
Compounds. Antimony Compounds. Calcium Compounds. Barium Compounds. Cadmium 
Compounds. Mercury Compounds. Ultramarine. Cobalt and Carbon Compounds. Oils 
Index. 

Press Opinions. 

"Though this excellent little work can appeal only to a limited class, the chemists in colour 
works, yet it will appeal to them very strongly indeed, for it will put them on the track of 
short, rapid, and yet approximately, accurate methods of testing the comparative value of 
competing samples of raw material used in paint and colour manufacture." — North British 
Daily Mail. 

"This little text-book is intended to supplement the larger and more comprehensive works 
on the subject, and it embodies the result of Mr. Jones' experiments and experiences, extend- 
ng over a long period. It gives, under separate headings, the principal ingredients and im- 
purities found in the raw materials, and is a handy work of reference for ascertaining what is 
valuable or detrimental in the sample under examination." — Blackburn Times. 

"There is no attempt at literary adornment nor straining after literary effect, but the 
lessons are imparted in simple and concise language. This is just what a text-book should 
be. . . . The treat-se is certainly most useful, and bears internal evidence of being the results 
of actual work in a busy manufactory and not of ephemeral cramming in a technical school. 
The chapter arrangement is good, the index satisfactory, and the book is altogether one which 
the practical chemist should keep as accessible to his crucibles and filter paper." — Manchester 
Courier. 



8 

THE CHEMISTRY OF ESSENTIAL OILS AND ARTI- 
FICIAL PERFUMES. By Ernest J. Parry, B.Sc. 
(Lond.), F.I.C., F.C.S. Illustrated with Twenty Engravings. 400 pp. 
1899. Demy 8vo. Price 12s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 13s. 6d. ; Other 
Countries, 15s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Chapters I., The General Properties of Essential Oils.— II., Compounds occurring 

in Essential Oils.— III., The Preparation of Essential Oils.— IV.. The Analysis of 

Essential Oils.— V., Systematic Study of the Essential Oils.— VL, Terpeneless Oils.— 

VII., The Chemistry of Artificial Perfumes.— Appendix : Table of Constants. 

Press Opinions. 

" There can be no doubt that the publication will take a high place in the list of scientific 
text-books." — London A rgiis 

" We can heartily recommend this volume to all interested in the subject of essential oils 
from the scientific or the commercial standpoint." — British and Colonial Druggist. 

" Air. Parry has done good service in carefully collecting and marshalling the results of the 
numerous researches published in various parts of the world." — Pharmaceutical Jounial. 

" At various times monographs have been printed by individual workers, but it may safely 
be said that Mr. Parry is the first in these latter days to deal with the subject in an adequate 
manner. His book is well conceived and well written. . . . He is known to have sound practi- 
cal experience in analytical methods, and he has apparently taken pains to make himself an fait 
with the commercial aspects of the subject." — Chemist and Druggist. 

" Mr. Parry's reputation as a scientist is fully established, and we can therefore accept any 
work emanating from his pen as being of the greatest practical value. We have perused the 
work before us with much care, and are convinced that the contents will be found most service- 
able and its publication most opportune. . . . He avoids unnecessary details, but includes 
everything that is essential to systematic treatment, while he attempts no more 'than to give 
an outline of the principles involved '. . . . We congratulate .Mr. Parry on the scientific value 
of his work, and hope that if the progress of the colonies in the manufacture of essential oils 
and perfumes equals what we are justified in expecting, it will become an Australian hand-book, 
ever>'Avhere appreciated." — The Australian Brca-'crs' Journal. 

DRYING OILS, BOILED OIL AND SOLID AND 
LIQUID DRIERS. By L. E. Andes. A Practical Work 
for Manufacturers of Oils, Varnishes, Printing Inks, Oilcloth and Lino- 
leum, Oilcakes, Paints, etc. Expressly Written for this Series of Special 
Technical Books, and the Publishers hold the Copyright for English and 
Foreign Editions. Forty-two Illustrations. 360 pp. 1901. Demy 8vo. 
Price 12s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 13s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 15s.; 
strictly net. 

Contents. 

Chapters I., General Chemical and Physical Properties of the Drying Oils ; Cause of the 
Drying Property; Absorption of Oxygen; Behaviour towards Metallic Oxides, etc. — II., The 
Properties of and Methods for obtaining the Drying Oils. — III., Production of the Drying Oils 
by Expression and Extraction; Refining and Bleaching; Oil Cakes and Meal; The Refining 
and Bleaching of the Drying Oils; The Bleaching of Linseed Oil. — IV., The Manufacture of 
Boiled Oil; The Preparation of Drying Oils for Use in the Grinding of Paints and Artists' 
Colours and in the Manufacture of Varnishes by Heating over a Fire or by Steam, by the Cold 
Process, by the Action of Air, and by Means of the Electric Current; The Driers used in 
Boiling Linseed Oil; The Manufacture of Boiled Oil and the Apparatus therefor ; Livache's 
Process for Preparing a Good Drying Oil and its Practical Application. — V., The Preparation 
of Varnishes for Letterpress, Lithographic and Copperplate Printing, for Oilcloth and Water- 
proof Fabrics ; The Manufacture of Thickened Linseed Oil, Burnt Oil, Stand Oil by Fire Heat, 
Superheated Steam, and by a Current of Air. — VI., Behaviour of the Drying Oils and Boiled 
Oils towards Atmospheric Influences, Water, Acids and Alkalies. — VII., Boiled Oil Substitutes. 
— VIII., The Manufacture of Solid and Liquid Driers from Linseed Oil and Rosin; Linolic 
Acid Compounds of the Driers. — IX., The Adulteration and Examination of the Drying Oils 
and Boiled Oil. 

REISSUE OF CHEMICAL ESSAYS OP C. W. 
SCHEELE. First Published in English in 1786. Trans- 
lated from the Academy of Sciences at Stockholm, with Additions. 300 
pp. Demy 8vo. 1901. Price 5s. ; India and Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other 
Countries, 6s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Memoir: C. W. Scheele and his work (written for this edition). — Chapters I., On Fluor 
Mineral and its Acid.— II., On Fluor Mineral.— III., Chemical Investigation of Fluor Acid, 
with a View to the Earth which it Yields, by Mr. Wiegler. — IV., Additional Information 
Concerning Fluor Minerals. — V., On Manganese, Magnesium, or Magnesia Vitrariorum. 
— VL, On Arsenic and its Acid.— VII., Remarks upon Salts of Benzoin —VIII., On Silex, 
Clay and .4Ium.— IX., Analysis of the Calculus Vesical.— X.. Method of Preparing Mercurius 



Dulcis Via Humida. — XI., Cheaper and more Convenient Method of Preparing Pulvis 
Algarothi. — XII., Experiments upon Molybdaena. — XIII., Experiments on Plumbago. — XIV., 
Method of Preparing a New Green Colour. — XV., Of the Decomposition of Neutral Salts by 
Unslaked Lime and Iron.— XVI., On the Quantity of Pure Air which is Daily Present in our 
Atmosphere.— XVII., On Milk and its Acid.— XVIII., On the Acid of Saccharum Lactis. — 
XIX., On the Constituent Parts of Lapis Ponderosus or Tungsten. — XX., Experiments and 
Observations on Ether. 

GLUE AND GLUE TESTING. By Samuel Rideal, D.Sc. 

Lond., F.I.C. Fourteen Engravings. 144 pp. Demy 8vo. 1900. Price 
10s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, lis. ; Other Countries, 12s.; strictly net. 
Contents. 

Chapters I., Constitution and Properties: Definitions and Sources, Gelatine, Chondrin 
and Allied Bodies, Physical and Chemical Properties, Classification, Grades and Commercial 
Varieties.— II., Raw Materials and Manufacture : Glue Stock, Lining, Extraction, Washing 
and Clarifying, Filter Presses, Water Supply, Use of Alkalies, Action of Bacteria and of 
Antiseptics, Various Processes, Cleansing, Forming, Drying, Crushing, etc., Secondary Pro- 
ducts. — III., Uses of Qlue : Selection and Preparation for Use, Carpentry, Veneering, 
Paper-Making, Bookbinding, Printing Rollers, Hectographs, Match Manufacture, Sandpaper, 
etc.. Substitutes for other Materials, Artificial Leather and Caoutchouc. — IV., Gelatine : 
General Characters, Liquid Gelatine, Photographic Uses, Size, Tanno-, Chrome and Formo- 
Gelatine, Artificial Silk, Cements, Pneumatic Tyres, Culinary, Meat Extracts, Isinglass, Medi- 
cinal and other Uses, Bacteriology.— V., Glue Testing: Review of Processes, Chemical 
Examination, Adulteration, Physical Tests, Valuation of Raw Materials.— VI., Commercial 
Aspects. 

Press Opinions. 

"This work is of the highest technical character, and gives not only a full and practical ac- 
count of the raw materials and manufacture of glues, gelatines and similar substances, but 
gives many hints and information on the use of such substances in veneering, carpentry and 
many other purposes. Many tests are given for glue in different stages of the progress of its 
manufacture, and the commercial value of a commodity so much in general use is exemplified 
by statistics and figures. It is certainly a valuable treatise upon an article for which very 
little literature in any form has previously been obtainable." — Carpenter and Builder. 

" Books on the art of glue making are more than usually scarce, and users of that article, 
as well as those who may be tempted to embark in the industry, should therefore welcome 
this book by Dr. Samuel Rideal, a Fellow of the Institute of Chemistry, and a leading authority. 
In this book he has collected the more important facts connected with the manufacture of glue 
and allied products, and stated the experience he has gained in examining various commercial 
samples during the past ten years. . . . Dr. Rideal's book must be regarded as a valuable con- 
tribution to other technical literature, which manufacturers, merchants and users may study 
with profit." — British Trade Journal. 

"This volume is the latest addition to the excellent series of special technical works for 
manufacturers and professional and commercial men issued by the well-known publishers of 
The Oil and Colourinan's Journal. The volume in every way fully maintains the high standard 
of excellence of the whole series, and deals with the subject of glue making and glue testing in 
a thoroughly exhaustive manner. Chapters are given on the constitution and properties, and 
raw material and manufacture, and of the uses of glue, and in this latter respect it will doubtless 
be information to many readers to learn to what extent glue enters into the manufacture of 
many commercial products not apparently associated with glue. Exhaustive chapters on the 
processes and methods of glue testing, and on its commercial aspects, complete this useful and 
most carefully prepared volume." — Carriage Builders' Journal. 

TECHNOLOGY OF PETROLEUM : Oil Fields of the 

World— Their History. Geography and Geology — Annual Production 
and Development — Oil-well Drilling — Transport. By Henry Neu- 
BERGER and Henry Noalhat. Translated from the French by J. G. 
McIntosh. 550 pp. 153 Illustrations. 26 Plates. Royal 8vo. 1901. Price 
21s.; India and Colonies, 22s. ; Other Countries, 23s. 6d. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Part I., Study of |the Petroliferous Strata — Chapters I., Petroleum — Definition. — II., 
The Genesis or Origin of Petroleum.— III., The Oil Fields of Galicia, their History.— IV., 
Physical Geography and Geology of the Galician Oil Fields. — V., Practical Notes on Galician 
Land Law — Economic Hints on Working, etc. — VI., Rou mania — History, Geography, Geology. 
— VII., Petroleum in Russia — History. — VIII., Russian Petroleum (continued) — Geography and 
Geology of the Caucasian Oil Fields. — IX., Russian Petroleum {continued). — X.,The Secondary 
Oil Fields of Europe, Northern Germany, Alsace, Italj-, etc. — XL, Petroleum in France. — XII., 
Petroleum in Asia — Transcaspian and Turkestan Territory — Turkestan — Persia — British 
India and Burmah — British Burmah or Lower Burmah — China — Chinese Thibet — Japan, 
Formosa and Saghalien. — XIII., Petroleum in Oceania — Sumatra, Java, Borneo — Isle of 
Timor— Philippine Isles— New Zealand. — XIV., The United States of America — History. — 
XV., Physical Geology and Geography of the United States Oil Fields. — XVI., Canadian and 
other North American Oil Fields. — XVII., Economic Data of Work in North America. — 
XVIIL, Petroleum m the West Indies and South America. — XIX., Petroleum in the French 
Colonies. 



10 

Part II., Excavations. — Chapter XX., Hand Excavation or Hand Digging of Oil Wells. 

Part III., Methods of Boring.— Chapters XXL, Methods of Oil-well Drilling or Boring. 
—XXII., Boring Oil Wells with the Rope.— XXIII., Drilling with Rigid Rods and a Free-fall- 
Fabian System.— XXIV., Free-fall Drilling by Steam Power.— XXV., Oil-well Drilling by the 
Canadian System.— XXVI., Drilling Oil Wells on the Combined System.— XXVII., Com- 
parison between the Combined Fauck System and the Canadian. — XXVIII., The American 
System of Drilling with the Rope. — XXIX., Hydraulic Boring with the Drill by Hand and 
Steam Power.— XXX., Rotary Drilling of Oil Wells, Bits, Steel-crowned Tools, Diamond 
Tools — Hand Power and Steam Power — Hydraulic Sand-pumping. — XXXI., Improvements 
in and different Systems of Drilling Oil Wells. 

Part IV., Accidents. — Chapters XXXII., Boring Accidents — Methods of preventing them 
—Methods of remedying them.— XXXIII., Explosives and the use of the "Torpedo" Leviga- 
tion. — XXXIV., Storing and Transport of Petroleum. — XXXV., General Advice — Prospecting, 
Management and carrying on of Petroleum Boring Operations. 

Part v., General Data.— Customary Formulae.— Memento. Practical Part. General 
Data bearing on Petroleum.— Glossary of Technical Terms used in the Petroleum Industry.— 
Copious Index. 

A DICTIONARY OF CHEMICALS AND RAW PRO- 
DUCTS USED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF 
PAINTS, COLOURS, VARNISHES AND ALLIED 
PREPARATIONS. By George H. Hurst, F.C.S. Demy 
8vo. 380 pp. 1901. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s.; Other 
Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

The names of the Chemicals and Raw Products are arranged in alphabetical order, and 
the description of each varies in length from half to eight pages. The following are some of 
the articles described and explained : Acetates — Acetic Acid — Acidimetry — Alcohol — Alum — 
Ammonia — Amber — Animi — Arsenic — Beeswax — Benzol — Bichromates of Potash and Soda — 
Bleaching Powder — Bone Black — Boric Acid — Brunswick Green — Cadmium Yellow — Car- 
bonates — Carmine — Carnauba Wax — Caustic Potash and Soda — Chrome Colours — Clay — Coal 
Tar Colours — Copal — Dammar — Drying Oils — Emerald Green — Gamboge — Glue — Glycerine — 
Gums — Gypsum — Indian Red — Japanese Lacquer — Lac — Lakes — Lamp Black — Lead Com- 
pounds — Linseed Oil — Magnesia — Manganese Compounds — Mica — Nitric Acid — Ochres — 
Orange Lead — Orr's White — Paraffin— Prussian Blue — Rosin Oil — Sepia— Sienna — Smalts — 
Sodium Carbonate— Sublimed White Lead— Sulphuric Acid— Terra Verte— Testing Pigments 
— Turpentine — Ultramarine — Umbers — Vermilionettes — WHiite Lead — Whiting— Zinc Com- 
pounds. — Appendix: Comparison of Baume Hydrometer and Specific Gravity for Liquids 
Lighter than Water— Hydrometer Table for Liquids Heavier than Water— Comparison of 
Temperature Degrees — Tables for Converting French Metric Weights and Measures into 
English — Table of the Elements — etc., etc.— Copious Index. 

Press Opinions. 

" This treatise will be welcomed b\ those interested in this industry who have not secured 
the full advantage of a course of scientific training." — Chemical Trade Journal. 

" In concise and lucid terms almost every ingredient used in paint and colour manufacture 
is described, together with the methods of testing their intrinsic and chemical value." — 
Ponte tract Express. 

'■ Such a book of reference for paint, colour and varnish manufacturers has long been 
needed, and in Mr. Hurst the publishers have secured a compiler who is not only a well-known 
authority and expert, but who has the gift of communicating his knowledge in a concise and 
lucid form." — Manchester Courier. 

PURE AIR, OZONE AND WATER. A Practical Treatise 

of their Utilisation and Value in Oil, Grease, Soap, Paint, Glue and 

other Industries. By W. B. Cowell. Twelve Illustrations. 1900. 

Price 5s. ; India and Colonies, 5s. 6d. : Other Countries, 6s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Chapters I., Atmospheric Air: Lifting of Liquids: Suction Process; Preparing Blown Oils; 
Preparing Siccative Drying Oils. — II., Compressed Air; Whitewash. — III., Liquid Air; Retro- 
cession. — IV., Purification of Water; Water Hardness. — V., Fleshings and Bones. — VL, Ozon- 
ised Air in the Bleaching and Deodorising of Fats, Glues, etc. ; Bleaching Textile Fibres. — 
Appendix: Air and Gases; Pressure of Air at Various Temperatures; Fuel; Table of Com- 
bustibles; Saving of Fuel by Heating Feed Water; Table of Solubilities of Scale Making 
Minerals; British Thermal Units Tables; Volume of the Flow of Steam into the Atmosphere; 
Temperature of Steam. — Index. 

Press Opinions. 

"This is a valuable work in little space. ... In arrangement it is a commendable work, 
and its value is increased by the index which brings the little volume to a close." — Neivcastle 
Daily Journal. 

" The book is written solely for manufacturers, who, without doubt, will find it exceedingly 
practical and useful The volume contains an appendix wherein is given a great many tables, 
etc., which manufacturers in the trades referred to will find of inestimable valii<> " — Rlarkhum 
Times. 



11 

THE MANUFACTURE OF MINERAL AND LAKE 
PIGMENTS. Containing Directions for the Manufacture 
of all Artificial, Artists and Painters' Colours, Enamel, Soot and xMe- 
tallic Pigments. A Text-book for Manufacturers, Merchants, Artists 
and Painters. By Dr. Josef Bersch. Translated from the Second 
Revised Edition by Arthur C. Wright, M.A. (Oxon.), B.Sc. (Lond.), 
formerly Assistant Lecturer and Demonstrator in Cliemistry at the 
Yorkshire College, Leeds. Forty-three Illustrations. 476 pp., demy 
8vo. 1901. Price 12s. 6d. ; India and Colonies. 13s. 6d. ; Other 
Countries, 15s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Chapters I., Introduction. — II., Physico-chemical Behaviour of Pigments. — III., Raw 
Materials Employed in the .Manura;tL.i'e of Pigments. — 1\'., Assistant Materials. — V., Metallic 
Compounds. — VI., The Manufacture of Mineral Pigments. — VII., The Manufacture of White 
Lead.— VIII., Enamel White.— IX.. Washing Apparatus.— X., Zinc White.— XI., Yellow 
Mineral PijJments.- XII., Chrome Yellow.— XIII., Lead Oxide Pigments.— XIV., Other 
Yellow Pigments.— X\'., Mosaic Gold.— XVI., Red .Mineral Pigments.— XVII., The Manu- 
facture of Vermilion. — XVIII., Antimony Vermilion. — XIX., Ferric Oxide Pigments. — XX., 
Other Red Mineral Pigments. — XXI , Purple of Cassius. — XXII., Blue Mineral Pigments. — 
XXIII., Ultramarine. — XXIV^., Manufacture of Ultramarine. — XXV., Blue Copper Pigments. 
—XXVI., Blue Cobalt Pigments.— XXVII., Smalts.— XXVIII., Green Mineral Pigments.— 
XXIX., Emerald Green.— XXX., Verdigris.— XXXI., Chromium Oxide.— XXXII., Other 
Green Chromium Pigments.— XXXIII., Green Cobalt Pigments.— XXXI V., Green Man- 
ganese Pigments. — XXXV., Compounded Green Pigments. — XXXVI., Violet Mineral Pig- 
ments. — XXXVII., Brown .Mineral Pigments. — XXXVIII., Brown Decomposition Products. — 
XXXIX., Black Pigments.— XL., Manufacture of Soot Pigments.— XLI., Manufacture of 
Lamp Black. — XLIL, The Manufacture of Soot Black without Chambers. — XLIIL, Indian 
Ink. — XLIV., Enamel Colours. — XLV., Metallic Pigments. — XLVL, Bronze Pigments — 
XLVIL, Vegetable Bronze Pigments. 

Pigments of Organic Origin. — Chapters XLVIIL, Lakes. — XLIX., Yellow Lakes. — L., 
Red Lakes.— LI., Manufacture of Carmine.— LI I., The Colouring Matter of Lac— LI 1 1., Saf- 
flower or Carthamine Red. — LIV., .Madder and its Colouring .Matters. — LV., Madder Lakes. — 
LVI., Manjit (Indian Madder).— LVI I., Lichen Colouring .Matters.— LVI 1 1., Red Wood Lakes. 
— LIX., The Colouring Matters of Sandal Wood and Other Dye Woods.— LX., Blue Lakes.— 
LXI., Indigo Carmine.— LXII., The Colouring Matter of Log Wood.— LXIII., Green Lakes.— 
LXIV.. Brown Organic Pigments.— LXV., Sap Colours.— LXVI., Water Colours.— LXVI I., 
Crayons. — LXVIII., Confectionery Colours. — LXIX., The Preparation of Pigments for 
Painting. — LXX., The Examination of Pigments. — LXXI., Examination of Lakes. — LXXII., 
The Testing of Dye-Woods.— LXXIII., The Design of a Colour Works.— LXXI V.— Commercial 
Names of Pigments. — Appendix: Conversion of Metric to English Weights and Measures. — 
Centigrade and Fahrenheit Thermometer Scales. — Index. 

BONE PRODUCTS AND MANURES : An Account of the 
most recent Improvements in the Manufacture of Fat, Glue, Animal 
Charcoal, Size, Gelatine and Manures. By Thomas La.mbert, Techni- 
cal and Consulting Chemist. Illustrated by Twenty-one Plans and 
Diagrams. 162 pp., demy 8vo. 1901, Price 7s. 6d. ; India and 
Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Chapters I., Chemical Composition of Bones — Arrangement of Factory — Crushing of Bones 
— Treatment with Benzene — Benzene in Crude Fat — Analyses of Clarified Fats — Mechanical 
Cleansing of Bones — Animal Charcoal — Tar and Ammoniacal Liquor, Char and Gases, from 
good quality Bones— Method of Retorting the Bones — Analyses of Chars — ' Spent " Chars — 
Cooling of Tar and Ammoniacal Vapours — Value of Nitrogen for Cyanide of Potash — Bone 
Oil — Marrow Bones — Composition of Marrow Fat — Premier Juice — Buttons. — II., Properties 
of Glue — Glutin and Chondrin — Skm Glue — Liming of Skins — Washing — Boiling of Skins — 
Clarification of Glue Liquors — Acid Steeping of Bones — Water System of Boiling Bones — 
Steam Method of Treating Bones — Nitrogen in the Treated Bones — Glue-Boiling and Clarify- 
ing-House — Plan showing Arrangement of Clarifying Vats — Plan showing Position of Evapora- 
tors — Description of Evaporators— Sulphurous Acid Generator — Clarification of Liquors — 
Section of Drying-House — Specification of a Glue — Size — Uses and Preparation and Composi- 
tion of Size — Concentrated Size. — III., Properties of Gelatine — Preparation of Skin Gelatine 
— Washing — Bleaching — Boiling — Clarification— Evaporation — Drying — Bone Gelatine — Se- 
lecting Bones — Crushing — Dissolving— Bleaching — Boiling — Properties of Glutin and Chondrin 
— Testing of Glues and Gelatines. — IV., The Uses of Glue, Gelatine and Size in X'arious 
Trades— Soluble and Liquid Glues — Steam and Waterproof Glues. — V., Manures — Importation 
of Foodstuffs — Soils — Germination — Plant Life. — VI., Natural Manures — Water and Nitrogen 
in Farmyard Manure — Full Analysis of Farmyard Manure — Action on Crops — Water-Closet 



12 

System — Sewage Manure — Green Manures. — VII., Artificial Manures — Bones — Boiled and 
Steamed Bones — Mineral Phosphates — English Coprolites — French and Spanish Phosphorites 
— German and Belgian Phosphates — Basic Slag — Guanos Proper — Guano Phosphates. — VIII., 
Mineral Manures — Common Salt — Potash Salts — Calcareous Manures — Prepared Nitrogenous 
Manures — Ammoniacal Compounds — Sodium Nitrate — Potassium Nitrate — Organic Nitro- 
genous .Matters — Shoddy — Hoofs and Horns — Leather Waste — Dried Meat — Dried Blood — 
Superphosphates — Composition — Manufactuie — Section of Manure-Shed — First and Ground 
Floor Plans of Manure-Shed— Quality of Acid Used — .Mixings — Special Manures — Potato 
Manure — Dissolved Bones — Dissolved Bone Compound— Enriched Peruvian Guano — Special 
Manure for Garden Stuffs, etc. — Special Manure for Grass Lands — Special Tobacco Manures 
— Sugar-Cane Manure — Compounding of Manures — Valuation of .Manures. — IX., Analyses of 
Raw and Finished Products — Common Raw Bones — Degreased Bones — Crude Fat — Refined 
Fat — Degelatinised Bones — .Animal Charcoal — Bone Superphosphates — Guanos — Dried Animal 
Products — Potash Compounds — Sulphate of Ammonia — Extraction in Vacuo — Description of a 
Vacuum Pan — French and British Gelatines compared. — Index.' 

Press Opinion. 

" We can with confidence recommend the perusal of the book to all persons interested in 
the manufacture of artificial manures, and also to the large number of farmers and others who 
are desirous of working their holdings on the most up-to-date methods, and obtaining the best 
possible results, whichscientific research has placed within thei'- reach." — Wigan Observer. 

ANALYSIS OF RESINS AND BALSAMS. Demy 8vo. 

340 pp. 1901. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 
8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Part I., Definition of Resins in General — Definition of Balsams, and especially the Gum 
Resins — External and Superficial Characteristics of Resinous Bodies — Distinction between 
Resinous Bodies and Fats and Oils — Origin, Occurrence and Collection of Resinous Sub- 
stances — Classification — Chemical Constituents of Resinous Substances — Resinols — Resinot 
Annols — Behaviour of Resin Constituents towards the Cholesterine Reactions — Uses and 
Identification of Resins — .Melting-point — Solvents — Acid Value — Saponification Value — Resin 
Value — Ester and Ether Values— Acetyl and Corbonyl Value— .Methyl Value — Resin Acid — 
Systematic Resume of the Performance of the Acid and Saponification Value Tests. 

Part II., Balsams — Introduction — Definitions — Canada Balsam — Copaiba Balsam — Angos- 
tura Copaiba Balsam — Babia Copaiba Balsam — Carthagena Copaiba Balsam — Maracaibo 
Copaiba Balsam — Maturin Copaiba Balsam — Gurjum Copaiba Balsam — Para Copaiba Balsam 
— Surinam Copaiba Balsam — West African Copaiba Balsam — .Mecca Balsam — Peruvian 
Balsam — Tolu Balsam — Acaroid Resin — Amine — Amber — African and West Indian Kino — 
Bengal Kino — Labdanum — .Mastic — Pine Resin — Sandarach — Scammonium — Shellac — Storax 
— Adulteration of Styrax Liquidus Crudus — Purified Storax — Styrax Crudus Colatus — Taca- 
mahac — Thapsia Resin — Turpentine — Chios Turpentine — Strassburg Turpentine — Turpeth 
Turpentine. Qum Resins — Ammoniacum — Bdellium — Euphorbium — Galbanum — Gamboge 
— Lactucarium — .Myrrh — Opopanax — Sagapenum — Olibanum or Incense — Acaroid Resin — 
Amber — Thapsia Resin. — Index. 

MANUFACTURE OF PAINT. A Practical Handbook for 
Paint Manufacturers, Merchants and Painters. By J. Cruickshank 
S.MiTH, B.Sc. Demy 8vo. 1901. 200 pp. 60 Illustrations and 1 Large 
Diagram. Price 7s'. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 
8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 

^Contents. 

Part I.. Chapters I., Preparation of Raw .Material.— II., Storing of Raw .Material.— III., 
Testing and Valuation of Raw .Material— Paint Plant and .Machinery. 

Part II., Chapters V., The Grinding of White Lead.— VI., Grinding of White Zinc— VII., 
Grinding of other White Pigments.— VIII., Grinding of Oxide Paints.— IX., Grindmg of Stain- 
ing Colours.— X., Grinding of Black Paints.— XL, Grinding of Chemical Colours— Yellows.— 
XII., Grinding of Chemical Colours— Blues.— XIII., Grinding Greens.— XIV., Grinding Reds. 
—XV., Grinding Lakes.— XVI., Grinding Colours in Water.— XVIL, Grinding Colours in 
Turpentine. 

Part III., Chapters XVIII., The Uses of Paint.— XIX., Testing and .Matching Paints.— 
XX., Economic Considerations. — Index. 

THE CHEMISTRY OF PIGMENTS. By Ernest J. Parry, 
B.Sc, F.I.C., F.C.S., and J. H. Coste, F.I.C, F.C.S. - [In the press. 

Contents. 

Chapters I., Introductory— Composition of White Light— Theory of Colour, etc.— II., The 
Application of Pigments— .Artistic, Decorative, Protective Methods of Applying Pigments.— 
III., White Pigments.— IV., Inorganic Coloured Pigments.— V., Organic Pigments. 



13 

NOTES ON LEAD ORES : Their Distribution and Properties. 
By Jas. Fairie, F.G.S. Crown Svo. 1901. 64 pages. Price 2s. 6d. ; 
Abroad, 3s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Chapters I., Definitions — Properties — Occurrence. — II., Galena — Johnstonite — Cerussite — 
Ceruse (White Lead) — .Minium — Red Lead. — III., Pyromorphite — Mimetene — Hediphane — 
Crocoise — ^Wulfenite. — Vanadinite — IV., Bleiglatte — Anglesite — Caledonite — Linarite — Lanark- 
ite — Leadhillite — Susannite — Clausthalite — Cotunnite. — V., Mendipite — Matlockite — Crom- 
fordite — Xagyagite — Altaite — Melanochroite — Vauguelinite — Scheeletine. — VI., Plattncrite — 
Tilkcrodite — Raphanosmite — Deckenite — Descloezite — Dufrenajsite — Bleinierite — Moffrasite 
— Geocronite — Kilbrechenite — Schulzite — Boulangcrite — Heteromorphite — .Meneghinite — 
Jamesonite — Plagionite — Zinkenite. — VII., Kobellite — Bournonite — Selenkupferblei — Nus- 
sierite — Percy lite^Wolchite — Poiysphracrite — Miesite. — Index. 



THE RISKS AND DANGERS OF VARIOUS OCCUPA- 
TIONS AND THEIR PREVENTION. By Leonard 
A. Parry, M.D., B.S. (Lond.). 196 pp., demy Svo. 1900. Price 7s. 6d. ; 
India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Chapters I., Occupations which are Accompanied by the Generation and Scattering of 
Abnormal Quantities of Dust. — II., Trades in which there is Danger of Metallic Poisoning. — 
III., Certain Chemical Trades. — IV., Some .Miscellaneous Occupations. — V., Trades in which 
Various Poisonous Vapours are Inhaled. — VI., General Hygienic Considerations. — Index. 

This book contains valuable information for the following trades — Aerated Water Manu- 
facture, .Alkali Manufacture, Aniline .Manufacture, Barometer .^laking, Brass Founders, Bromine 
Manufacture, Bronze Moulders, Brush .Making, Builders, Cabinet .Makers, Calico Printing, 
Chloride of Lime .Manufacture, Coal Miners, Cocoa-nut Fibre .Making, Colour Grinders, 
Copper Miners, Cotton Goods Manufacture, Cotton Yarn Dyeing, Cutlery Trades, Dry Clean- 
ing, Electricity Generating, Electroplaters, Explosives Manufacture, File .Making, Flint 
Milling, Floor Cloth .Makers, Furriers, Fustian Clothing .Making, Galvanised Iron Manufacture, 
Gassing Process, Gilders, Glass .Making, Glass Paper .Making, Glass Polishing and Cutting, 
Grinding Processes, Gunpowder .Manufacturing, Gutta-percha .Manufacture, Hat .Makers, 
Hemp .\lanufacture, Horn Goods .Making, Horse-hair Making, Hydrochloric .4cid Manufacture, 
India-rubber .Manufacture, Iodine .Manufacture, Ivory Goods .Making, Jewellers, Jute .Manu- 
facture, Knife Grinders, Knife Handle .Makers, Lace .Makers, Lacquering, Lead .Melters, Lead 
Miners, Leather .Making, Linen .Manufacture Linoleum .Making, Lithographic Printing and 
Bronzing, Lithographing, .Masons, .Match .Manufacture, .Melanite .Making, .Mirror .Making, 
Needle Grinders, Needle .Making, Nitro-benzole .Making, Nitro-glycerine .Making, Paint 
^Makers, Paper .Making, Philosophical Instrument .Makers, Photographers, Picric .A.cid Making, 
Portland Cement .Making, Pottery .Manufacture, Printers, Quicksilver .Mining, Rag Pickers, 
Razor Grinders, Red Lead .Making, Rope .Making, Sand Paper .Making, Saw Grinders, Scissors 
Grinders, Shoddy .Manufacture, Shot .Making, Silk .Making, Silver .Mining, Skinners, Slag, Wood 
Manufacture, Steel .Makers, Steel Pen .Making, Stereotypers, Stone .Masons, Straw Hat .Makers, 
Sulphuric .Acid .Manufacture, Sweeps, Table-knife Grinders, Tanners, Telegraphists, Textile 
Industries, Tin .Miners, Turners, Type Founders, Umbrella .Makers, Wall Paper Making, 
White Lead .Making, Wood Working, Woollen .Manufacture, Wool Sorters, Zinc Oxide 
Manufacture. Zinc Working, etc., etc. 

Press Opinions. 

"The language used is quite simple, and can be understood by any intelligent person en- 
gaged in the trades dealt with." — The Clarion. 

"This is an appalling book. It shows that there is scarcely a trade or occupation that has 
not a risk or a danger attached to it." — Local Government Journal. 

" Dr. Parry has not only pointed out the ' risks and dangers of various occupations ' ; he has 
suggested means for their prevention. The work is primarily a practical one." — Colliery 
Manager. 

"This is a most useful book which should be in the hands of all employers of labour, 
foremen, and inte'igent workmen, and is one of great utility to sanitary inspectors, and even 
on occasion to meuical men." — Health. 

"The writer has succeeded in collecting a large amount of information, and though one 
could wish he had presented it in a rather more attractive style, he has certainly condensed it 
into a very small space." — Physician and Surgeon. 

"The little book before us is one which will be found exceedingly useful to manufacturers 
and even factory inspectors. . . . No attempt is made to show how diseases when originated 
are to be cured, hut, acting on the sound principle that prevention is better than cure, means 
are stated how to avoid the harm." — Bristol Mercury. 

"The author has endeavoured to treat the question in simple rather than in technical lan- 
guage, and he has lucidly catalogued the most dangerous trades and their symptoms, and in 
each case specified the best methods of dealing with them. . . . To those for whom the volume 
is specially designed, Dr. Parry's treatise should be a useful handbook." — Sheffield Independent. 



14 

"A very useful manual for employers of labour, foremen, intelligent workmen, and, in spite 
•of the author's modesty, for medical men. We have the peculiar risks and dangers of all the 
dangerous trades carefully described; the mode of action of various chemicals, etc., used in 
different industries given, with full directions how to minimise unavoidable risks." — Leeds 
Mercury. 

"Most of the trades in the country are alluded to, and upon those that are dangerous the 
necessary attention is bestowed, and means are recommended whereby danger may be pre- 
vented or lessened. The author has evidently studied his subject with care, and has n-ade full 
use of the experience of others who have had a larger insight into the industries of the country,' 
—British Medical Journal. 

" The work is well written and printed, and its verbiage such as to be comprehensible to the 
workman no less than to the master. The careful and general perusal of a work of this nature 
cannot but be attended by beneficial results of a far-reaching nature, and we therefore heartily 
recommend the book to our readers. Medical Officers of Health and Sanitary Inspectors 
especially should find the work of great interest." — Sanitary Record. 

" It is written in simple language, and its instructions can be easily followed. . . . There 
are some employers, at any rate, who are more ignorant of, than indifferent to, the slow murder 
of their workpeople, and if the facts so succinctly set forth in this book were brought to their 
notice, and if the Trade Unions made it their business to insist on the observance of the better 
conditions Dr. Parry described, much might be done to lessen the workman's peril." — Weekly 
Times and Echo. 



PRACTICAL X RAY WORK. By Frank T. Addyman, 

B.Sc. (Lond.), F.l.C, Member of the Roentgen Societ}- of London; 
Radiographer to St. George's Hospital; Demonstrator of Physics and 
Chemistry, and Teacher of Radiography in St. George's Hospital 
Medical School. Demy 8vo. 12 Plates from Photographs of X Ray 
Work. 52 Illustrations. 200 pp. 1901; Price 10s. 6d. ; India and 
Colonies, lis. ; Other Countries, 12s.; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Part I., Historical— Chapters I., Introduction. — II., Work leading up to the Discovery of 
the X Rays.— III., The Discovery. 

Part II., Apparatus and its Management — Chapters I., Electrical Terms. — II., Sources 
of Electricity.— III., Induction Coils.— IV., Electrostatic Machines.— V., Tubes.— VI., Air 
Pumps. — VII., Tube Holders and Stereoscopic Apparatus. — VIII., Fluorescent Screens. 

Part III., Practical X Ray Work— Chapters I., Installations.— II., Radioscopy.— III., 
Radiography.— IV., X Rays in Dentistry.— V., X Rays in Chemistry.— VI., X Rays in War.— 
Index. 

List of Plates. 

Frontispiece— Cons,emtal Dislocation of Hip-Joint.— I., Xeedle in Finger.— II., Needle in 
Foot. — III., Revolver Bullet in Calf and Leg.— IV., A Method of Localisation.— V., Stellate 
Fracture of Patella showing shadow of "Strapping". — VI., Sarcoma. — VII., Six-weeks'-old 
Injury to Elbow showing new Growth of Bone. — VIII., Old Fracture of Tibia and Fibula 
badly set.— IX., Heart Shadow. — X., Fractured Femur showing Grain of Splint. — XL, Bar- 
ren's Method of Localisation. 



DRYING BY MEANS OF AIR AND STEAM. Explana- 
tions, Formuhe, and Tables for Use in Practice. Translated from the 
German of E. Hausbrand. Two Diagrams and Thirteen Tables. Demy 
8vo. 1901. 72 pp. Price 5s.; India and Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other 
Countries, 6s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Preface. — British and Metric Systems Compared — Centigrade and Fahr. Thermometers. — 
Chapters I., Introduction. — IL, Estimation of the Maximum Weight of Saturated Aqueous 
Vapour which can be contained in 1 kilo, of Air at Different Pressure and Tempera- 
tures. — III., Calculation of the Necessary Weight and Volume of Air, and of the Least 
Expenditure of Heat, per Drying Apparatus with Heated Air. at the Atmospheric Pressure: 
A, With the Assumption that the Air is Completely Saturated with Vapour both before Entry 
and after Exit from the Apparatus. — B, When the Atmospheric Air is Completely Saturated 
before entry, but at its exit is only f, § or J Saturated.— C, When the Atmospheric Air is not 
Saturated with Moisture before Entering the Drying Apparatus. — IV., Drying Apparatus, in 
which, in the Drying Chamber, a Pressure is Artificially Created, Higher or Lower than that 
of the Atmosphere. — V., Drying by Means of Superheated Steam, without Air. — VI., Heating 
Surface, Velocity of the Air Current, Dimensions of the Drying Room, Surface of the Drying 
Material, Losses of Heat. — Index. 



15 

Leather Trades. 

THE LEATHER WORKER'S MANUAL. Being a Com- 

pendium of Practical Recipes and W^orking Formulae for Curriers, 
Bootmakers, Leather Dressers, Blacking Manufacturers, Saddlers, 
Fancy Leather Workers, and all Persons engaged in the Manipulation 
of Leather. By H. C. Standage. 165 pp. 1900. Price 7s. 6d. ; 
India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 
Contents. 

Chapters I., Blackings, Polishes, Glosses, Dressings, Renovators, etc., for Boot and Shoe 
Leather. — II., Harness Blackings, Dressings, Greases, Compositions, Soaps, and Boot-top 
Powders and Liquids, etc., etc. — III., Leather Grinders' Sundries. — IV., Currier's Seasonings, 
Blacking Compounds, Dressings, Finishes, Glosses, etc. — V., Dyes and Stains for Leather. — 
VI., Miscellaneous Information. — VII., Chrome Tannage. — Index. 

Press Opinions. 

"The book being absolutely unique, is likely to be of exceptional value to all whom it con- 
cerns, as it meets a long-felt want." — Birmingham Gazette. 

"This is a valuable collection of practical receipts and working formulse for the use of those 
engaged in the manipulation of leather. We have no hesitation in recommending it as one of 
the best books of its kind, an opinion which will be endorsed by those to whom it appeals." — 
Liverpool Merciiry. 

"We think we may venture to state, so far as the opinion of the leather trade under the 
Southern Cross is concerned, that it will be one of approval. As practical men, having a long 
and wide experience of the leather trade in Australia, we are certain that there are many 
tanners and curriers carrying on business in remote townships of the colonies to whom such a 
manual of practical recipes will be invaluable. . . . This manual is not a mere collection of re- 
cipes for the various purposes to which they may be applied, but it is also replete with instruc- 
tions concerning the nature of the materials recommended to be used in making up the recipes. 
. . . We think every intelligent leather man should avail himself of the manual. It is un- 
doubtedly a valuable contribution to the technology of the leather trade." — Australian Leather 
Journal and Boot and Shoe Recorder. 

PRACTICAL TREATISE ON THE LEATHER IN- 
DUSTRY. By A. M. Villon. A Translation of Villon's 
" Traite Pratique de la Fabrication des cuirs et du Travail des Peaux ". 
By Frank T. Addyman, B.Sc. (Lond.), F.I.C., F.C.S. ; and Corrected 
by an Eminent xMember of the Trade. 500 pp., royal 8vo. 1901. 123 
Illustrations. Price 21s. ; India and Colonies, 22s. ; Other Countries, 
23s. 6d. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Preface — ^Translator's Preface — List of Illustrations. 

Part I., Materials used in Tanning— Chapter I., Skins: I., Skin and its Structure; II., 
Skins used in Tanning: III., Various Skins and their Uses— Chapter II., Tannin and Tanning 
Substances: I., Tannin; II., Barks (Oak); III., Barks other than Oak; IV., Tanning 
Woods; v.. Tannin-bearing Leaves; VI., Excrescences; VII., Tan-bearing Fruits; VIII., 
Tan-bearing Roots and Bulbs; IX., Tanning Juices ; X., Tanning Substances used in Various 
Countries; XL, Tannin Extracts; XII., Estimation of Tannin and Tannin Principles. 

Part II., Tanning— Chapter I., The Installation of a Tannary : L, Tan Furnaces; II., 
Chimneys, Boilers, etc.; III., Steam Engines— Chapter II., Grinding and Trituration of 
Tanning Substances: I., Cutting up Bark; II., Grinding Bark; III., The Grinding of Tan 
Woods; IV., Powdering Fruit, Galls and Grains; V., Notes on the Grinding of Bark — Chap- 
ter III., Manufacture of Sole Leather: 1., Soaking; II., Sweating and Unhairing ; III., 
Plumping and Colouring; IV., Handling; V., Tanning; VL, Tanning Elephants' Hides; 
VII., Drying; VIII., Striking or Pinning— Chapter IV., Manufacture of Dressing Leather: 
I., Soaking; II., Depilation ; III., New Processes for the Depilation of Skins; IV., Tanning; 
v.. Cow Hides; VL, Horse Hides; VII., Goat Skins; Manufacture of Split Hides— Chap 
ter v.. On Various Methods of Tanning: I., Mechanical Methods; II., Physical Methods; 
III., Chemical Methods; IV., Tanning with Extracts— Chapter VI. , Quantitv and Quality: 
I., Quantity; II., Net Cost; III., Quality of Leather— Chapter VII., Various'iManipulations 
of Tanned Leather: I., Second Tanning; II., Grease Stains; III., Bleaching Leather; IV., 
Waterproofing Leather; V., Weighting Tanned Leather; VI. , Preservation of Leather- 
Chapter VI 1 1., Tanning Various Skins. 

Part III., Currying— Chapter I., Waxed Calf: I., Preparation; IL, Shaving; III., 
Stretching or Slicking; IV., Oiling the Grain; V., Oiling the Flesh Side; VL, Whitening and 
Graining; VII., Waxing; VIII., Finishing; IX., Dry Finishing; X., Finishing in Colour; 
XL, Cost— Chapter IL, White Calf: I., Finishing in White— Chapter III., Cow Hide for 
Upper Leathers: I., Black Cow Hide; IL, White Cow Hide; III., Coloured Cow Hide.— 
Chapter IV., Smooth Cow Hide— Chapter V., Black Leather— Chapter VI., Miscellaneous 
Hides: I., Horse; II., Goat; III., Waxed Goat Skin; IV., Matt Goat Skin— Chapter VII., 
Russia Leather: I., Russia Leather; II.. Artificial Russia Leather. 



16 

Part IV., Hnamelled, Hungary and Chamoy Leather, Morocco, Parchment, Furs 
and Artificial Leather — Chapter I., Enamelled Leather: I., Varnish Manufacture; II, 
Application of the Enamel; III., Enamelling in Colour — Chapter II., Hungary Leather: I., 
Preliminary; IL, Wet Work or Preparation; III., Aluming ; IV., Dressing or Loft Work; 
v., Tallowing; VI., Hungary Leather from Various Hides — Chapter III., Tawing: I., Pre- 
paratory Operations; II., Dressing; III., Dyeing Tawed Skins; IV., Rugs — Chapter IV., 
Chamoy Leather — Chapter V., Morocco : I., Preliminary Operations; II., Morocco Tanning; 
III., Mordants used in Morocco Manufacture; IV., Natural Colours used in Morocco 
Dyeing; V., Artificial Colours; VI. Different Methods of Dyeing; VII., Dyeing with Natural 
Colours; VIII., Dyeing with Aniline Colours; IX., Dyeing with Metallic Salts; X., Leather 
Printing; XI., Finishing Morocco; XII., Shagreen; XIII., Bronzed Leather — Chapter VL, 
Gilding' and Silvering: I., Gilding; II., Silvering; III., Nickel and Cobalt— Chapter VII., 
Parchment — Chapter VIII., Furs and Furriery: I., Preliminary Remarks; II., Indigenous 
Furs; III., Foreign Furs from Hot Countries; IV. Foreign Furs from Cold Countries; V., 
Furs from Birds' Skins; VI., Preparation of Furs; VII., Dressing; VIII., Colouring; IX., 
Preparation of Birds' Skins; X., Preservation of Furs — Chapter IX., Artificial Leather: I., 
Leather made from Scraps; II., Compressed Leather; III., American Cloth; IV., Papier 
Mache; V., Linoleum; VI., Artificial Leather. 

Part v., Leather Testing and the Theory of Tanning — Chapter I., Testing and Analysis 
of Leather: I., Physical Testing of Tanned Leather; II., Chemical Analysis — Chapter II. , 
The Theory of Tanning and the other Operations of the Leather and Skin Industry : I., 
Theory of Soaking; IL, Theory of Unhairing; III., Theory of Swelling; IV., Theory of 
Handling; V. Theory of Tanning; V^I., Theory of the Action of Tannin on the Skin; VII., 
Theory of Hungary Leather Making; VIII., Theory of Tawing; IX., Theory of Chamoy 
Leather Making; X., Theory of Mineral Tanning. 

Part VI., Uses of Leather — Chapter I., Machine Belts: I., Manufacture of Belting; II. , 
Leather Chain Belts; III., Various Belts, IV., Use of Belts— Chapter II. , Boot and Shoe- 
making: I., Boots and Shoes; II., Laces — Chapter III., Saddlery: I., Composition of a 
Saddle; II. , Construction of a Saddle — Chapter IV., Harness: I., The Pack Saddle; II. , 
Harness — Chapter V., Military Equipment — Chapter VI., Glove Making — Chapter VII., 
Carriage Building — Chapter VIII., Mechanical Uses. 

Appendix, The World's Commerce in Leather— I., Europe; II. , America; III., Asia; 
IV., Africa; Australasia — Index. 

Press Opinions. 

"The book is well and lucidly written. The writer is e\ idently a practical man, who also 
has taken the trouble to make himself acquainted w ith the scientific and technical side of his 
trade. . . . French methods dilTer largely from our own ; sometimes we think our ways the 
best, but not always. The practical man maj- pick up many useful hints which may help him 
to improve his methods." — i>hoc Manitfactuycrs' Monthly Journal. 

"This book cannot fail to be of great value to all engaged in the leather trades. . . . The 
British may believe that the French can teach them nothing in the work of leather tanning 
generally, but a comparison of the methods of the two countries will certainly yield a few 
wrinkles which may lead to ad\'antageous results. Only a man understanding the science and 
technique of the trade could have written the book, and it is well done." — Midland Free Press. 

"Gives much useful and interesting information concerning the \arious processes by which 
the skins of animals are converted into leather. Written bj' a French Chemist after five 
years of constant study and application; it shows all that detail of analysis which we are 
accustomed to find in scientists, and which the practical tanner is too much in the habit of 
ignoring, sometimes to his own loss.'' — Leeds Mercury. 

" Nor can there be much doubt that this expectation will be fully justified by the result. 
Thanks to the conspicuous painstaking with which Mr. Addyman has discharged his duty, and 
the 123 illustrations by which the text is elucidated, the volume can hardly fail to pro\e a very 
valuable standard work of its class. It can thus be confidently recommended to all who are 
more or less practically interested in the technology of a very important subject." — Leicester 
Post. 

" This is, in e\ery respect, an altogether admirable, practical, clear and lucid treatise on 
the various and numerous branches of the great leather industry, of which it deals in an ex- 
haustive, highly intelligent, workmanlike and scientific manner. ... It is a handsome addition 
to every man's know ledge of his trade, whether he be a leading director of a large public com- 
pany, or an industrious employee in the works, wishing to improve his services by the addition 
of his brains to his work." — Shoe and Leather Trader. 

" M. Villon writes as one ha\'ing a very full knowledge of all branches of the subject, and in 
days when foreign competition has enforced on English manufacturers the importance of no 
longer being content \\ ith rule-of-thumb methods which have come down to them from their 
forefathers it certainly should be \\ orth the while of English tanners to see what lessons they 
can learn from French practice, and French practice, we should imagine, could hardly have a 
better exponent than the author of this large volume." — Western Daily Press and Bristol Times. 

" At a time when all or nearly all our British industries are to a greater or less extent 
hampered by the pressure of continental and American competition, any hints that can be 
obtained as to the methods pursued by competitors must necessarily be of \alue. . . . That it 
will be of interest and value, not merely to English tanners, but to those associated with many 
kindred industrial branches, goes without saying. ... As a work of reference the volume will 
be extremely useful in the trade, and where leisure affords sufficient opportunity a careful 
perusal and study of it would afford ample reward." — Kdtering Guardian. 

"This is a very handsomely got up and elaborate work just issued by this well-known 
technical book-publishing firm. . . . When we say that the work consists of over 500 large 
pages with about 120 illustrations, and almost innumerable tables, it will be seen at once that 



17 

we cannot attempt anything like an exinausti\e resume of its contents, and even if we did the 
details would be of httle interest to our general readers, while those \\ ho are engaged in the 
leather industry will probably obtain the book for themselves — at least they would do well to 
do so. . . . Altogether the 'Treatise ' has evidently been very carefully prepared, and by a man 
who thoroughly knows the subject, and hence it will be a very valuable technical book for 
English firms and workers.' — Walsall Observer. 

Books on Pottery, Bricks, 
Tiles, Glass, etc. 

THE MANUAL OF PRACTICAL POTTING. Revised 
and Enlarged. Third Edition. 200 pp. 1901. Price 17s. 6d.; India 
and Colonies, 18s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 20s. ; strictly net. 
Contents. 

Introduction. The Rise and Progress of the Potter's Art. — Chapters I., Bodies. China 
and Porcelain Bodies, Parian Bodies, Semi-porcelain and V^itreous Bodies, Mortar Bodies, 
Earthenwares Granite and C.C. Bodies, Miscellaneous Bodies, Sagger and Crucible Clays, 
Coloured Bodies, Jasper Bodies, Coloured Bodies for Mosaic Painting, Encaustic Tile Bodies, 
Body Stains, Coloured Dips. — II., Glazes. China Glazes, Ironstone Glazes, Earthenware 
Glazes, Glazes without Lead, Miscellaneous Glazes, Coloured Glazes, Majolica Colours. — III., 
Gold and Cold Colours. Gold, Purple of Cassius, Marone and Ruby, Enamel Coloured 
Bases, Enamel Colour Fluxes, Enamel Colours, Mixed Enamel Colours, .Antique and Vellum 
Enamel Colours, Underglaze Colours, Underglaze Colour Fluxes, Mixed Underglaze Colours, 
Flow Powders, Oils and Varnishes.— IV., Means and Methods. Reclamation of Waste 
Gold, The Use of Cobalt, Notes on Enamel Colours, Liquid or Bright Gold. — V., Classification 
and Analysis. Classification of Clay Ware, Lord Playfair's .Analysis of Clays, The Markets 
of the World, Time and Scale of Firing, Weights of Potter's Alaterial, Decorated Goods 
Count. — VI., Comparative Loss of Weight of Clays.— VII., Ground Felspar Calculations. — 
VIII., The Conversion of Slop Body Recipes into Dry Weight. — IX., The Cost of Prepared 
Earthenware Clay. — X., Forms and Tables. Articles of Apprenticeship, Manufacturer's 
Guide to Stocktaking, Table of Relative Values of Potter's Materials, Hourly Wages Table, 
Workman's Settling Table, Comparative Guide for Earthenware and China Manufacturers in 
the use of Slop Flint and Slop Stone, Foreign Terms applied to Earthenware and China 
Goods, Table for the Conversion of Metrical Weights and Measures on the Continent of South 
America, index. 

CERAMIC TECHNOLOGY : Being some Aspects of Tech- 
nical Science as Applied to Pottery Manufacture. Edited by Charles 
F. BiNXS. 100 pp. 1897. Price 12s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 13s. 6d. ; 
Other Countries, 15s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Preface. — Introduction.— Chapters I., The Chemistry of Pottery.— II., Analysis and Syn- 
thesis. — III., Clays and their Components. — IV., The Biscuit Oven. — V., Pyrometry. — VI. » 
Glazes and their Composition. — VII., Colours and Colour-making. — Index. 

RECIPES FOR FLINT GLASS MAKING. By a British 

Glass Master and Mixer. Sixty Recipes. Being Leaves from the 
Mixing Book of several experts in the Flint Glass Trade, containing 
up-to-date recipes and valuable information as to Crystal, Demi-crystal 
and Coloured Glass in its many varieties. It contains the recipes for 
cheap metal suited to pressing, blowing, etc., as well as the most costly 
crystal and ruby. British manufacturers have kept up the quality of 
this glass from the arrivals of the Venetians to Hungry Hill, Stour- 
bridge, up to the present time. The book also contains remarks as 
to the result of the metal as it left the pots by the respective metal 
mixers, taken from their own memoranda upon the originals. 1900. 
Price for United Kingdom, 10s. 6d. ; Abroad. 15s. ; United States, §4 ; 
strictly net. 

Contents. 

Ruby— Ruby from Copper— Flint for using with the Ruby for Coating— A German Metal — 
Cornelian, or Alabaster— Sapphire Blue — Crysophis— Opal — Turquoise Blue— Gold Colour- 
Dark Green— Green (common)— Green for Malachite— Blue for Malachite — Black for Mela- 
chite— Black— Common Canary Batch— Canary — White Opaque Glass— Sealing-wax Red — 
Flint— Flint Glass (Crystal and Demi)— Achromatic Glass— Paste Glass — White Enamel— 
Firestone— Dead White (tor moons)— White Agate— Canary— Canary Enamel— Index. 



18 

COLOURING AND DECORATION OF CERAMIC 
WARE. By Alex. Broxgxiart. With Notes and Additions 
by Alphonse Salvetat. Translated from the French. 200 pp. 1898. 
Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; 
strictly net. 

Contents. 

The Pastes, Bodies or Ceramic Articles Capable of being Decorated by V^itriRable Colours 
— The Chemical Preparation of Vitrifiable Colours — Composition and Preparation of Vitrifiable 
Colours — The Oxides — Preparation of Oxides— Preparation of Chromates — Preparation of 
other Colours— Composition and Preparation of Fluxes — Muffle Colours — Recipes for Colours 
— Use of Metals — Lustres — Preparation and Application of Colours — Composition of Coloured 
Pastes — Underglaze Colours — Colours in the Glaze — Overglaze Colours — Painting in Vitri- 
fiable Colours— Gilding— Burnishing— Printing— Enlarging and Reducing Gelatine Prints- 
Muffle Kilns for Vitrifiable Colours — Influence of the Material on the Colour — Changes Re- 
sulting from the Actions of the Fire — Alterations Resulting from the Colours — Alterations in 
Firing. 

HOW TO ANALYSE CLAY. Practical Methods for Prac- 
tical Men. By Holden M. Ashby, Professor of Organic Chemistry, 
Harvey Medical College, U.S.A. Twenty Illustrations. 1898. Price 
2s. 6d. ; Abroad, 3s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

List of Apparatus — List of Atomic Weights — Use of Balance, and Burette, Sand Bath, and 
Water Bath — Dessicator — Drying Oven — Filtering — Fusion — Determination of Water, Organic 
Matter, Iron, Calcium, Alkalies, Limestone, Silica, Alumina. Magnesium, etc. — Mechanical 
Analysis — Rational Analysis — Standard Solutions — Volumetric Analysis — Standards for Clay 
Analysis — Sampling. 

ARCHITECTURAL POTTERY. Bricks, Tiles, Pipes, Ena- 
melled Terra-cottas, Ordinary and Incrusted Quarries, Stoneware 
Mosaics, Faiences and Architectural Stoneware. By Leon Lefevre. 
With Five Plates. 950 Illustrations in the Text, and numerous estimates. 
500 pp., royal 8vo. 1900. Translated from the French by K. H. Bird, 
M.A., and W. Moore Binns. Price 15s. ; India and Colonies, 16s. ; 
Other Countries, 17s. 6d. ; strictly net. 
Contents. 

Part 1. Plain Undecorated Pottery.— Chapter L, Clays: ^ 1, Classification, General Geo- 
logical Remarks.— Classification, Origin, Locality; § 2, General Properties and Composition: 
Physical Properties, Contraction, Analysis, Influence of Varibus Substances on the Properties 
of Clays; !i 3, Working of Clay-Pits— L Open Pits : Extraction, Transport, Cost— IL Under- 
ground Pits — Mining Laws. Chapter IL, Preparation of the Clay : Weathering, Mixing, 
Cleaning, Crushing and Pulverising — Crushing Cylinders and Mills, Pounding Machines — 
Damping: Damping Machines— Soaking, Shortening, Pugging: Horse and Steam Pug-Mills, 
Rolling Cylinders— Particulars of the Above Machines. Chapter III., Bricks: S L Manufacture 
—(1) Hand and Machine Moulding.— I. Machines Working by Compression : on Soft Clay, on 
Semi-Firm Clay, on Firm Clay, on Dry Clay. — II. Expression Machines: with Cylindrical Pro- 
pellers, with Screw Propellers— Dies— Cutting-tables— Particulars of the Above Machines — 
General Remarks on the Choice of Machines— Types of Installations— Estimates— Plenishing, 
Hand and Steam Presses, Particulars— (2) Drying, by Exposure to Air, Without Shelter, and 
Under Sheds — Drying-rooms in Tiers, Closed Drying-rooms, in Tunnels, in Galleries — De- 
tailed Estimates of the Various Drying-rooms, Comparison of Prices — Transport from 
the Machines to the Drying-rooms, Barrows, Trucks, Plain or with Shelves, Lifts — (3) Firing 
— I. In Clamps— II. In Intermittent Kilns. .4, Open: «, using Wood; b Coal; 6', in Clamps ; 
b", Flame— B, Closed: c, Direct Flame; c'. Rectangular; c". Round; d, Reverberator^ — III. 
Continuous Kilns: C, with Solid Fuel: Round Kiln, Rectangular Kiln, Chimneys (Plans and 
Estimates)— D, With Gas Fuel, Fillard Kiln (Plans and Estimates), Schneider Kiln (Plans and 
Estimates), Water-gas Kiln— Heat Production of the Kilns; ^ 2, Dimensions, Shapes, Colours, 
Decoration, and Quality of Bricks— Hollow Bricks, Dimensions and Prices of Bricks, Various 
Shapes, Qualities — Various Hollow Bricks, Dimensions, Resistance, Qualities ; S 3, Applications 
— History — Asia, Africa, America, Europe : Greek, Roman, Byzantine, Turkish, Romanesque, 
Gothic, Renaissance, Architecture — Architecture of the Nineteenth Century: in Germany, 
England, Belgium, Spain, Holland, France, America— Use of Bricks— Walls, Arches, Pavements, 
Flues, Cornices — Facing with Coloured Bricks — Balustrades. Chapter IV., Tiles: iJ 1, His- 
tory; § 2, Manufacture — (1) Moulding, by Hand, by Machinery: Preparation of the Clay, Soft 
Paste, Firm Paste, Hard Paste — Preparation of the Slabs, Transformation into Flat Tiles, into 
Jointed Tiles— Screw, Cam and Revolver Presses— Particulars of Tile-presses— (2) Drying— 
Planchettes, Shelves, Drying-barrows and Trucks— (3) Firing— Divided Kilns— Installation of 
Mechanical Tileworks— Estimates ; § 3, Shapes, Dimensions and Uses of the Principal Types 
of Tile— Ancient Tiles: Flat, Round, Roman, Flemish— Modern Tiles— With Vertical Inter- 
rupted Join: Gilardoni's, Martin's; Hooked, Boulet's Villa; with Vertical Continuous Join: 
Muller's, Alsace, Pantile— Foreign Tiles— Special Tiles— Ridge Tiles, Coping Tiles, Border 
Tiles, Frontons, Gutters, Antefixes, Membron, Angular— Roofing Accessories : Chimney-pots, 



19 

Witrons, Lanterns, Chimneys — Qualities of Tiles — Black Tiles — Stoneware Tiles — Particulars 
of Tiles. Chapter V., Pipes: I. Conduit Pipes — Manufacture — Moulding : Horizontal 
Machines, Vertical Machines, Worked by Hand and Steam — Particulars of these Machines 
— Drying — Firing — II. Chimney Flues — Ventiducts and " Boisseaux," " Waggons " — Particulars 
of these Products. Chapter VI., Quarries: 1, Plain Quarries of Ordinary Clay; 2, of Cleaned 
day — Machines, Cutting, Mixing, Polishing — Drying and Firing — Applications — Particulars of 
Quarries. Chapter VII., Terra-cotta : History — Manufacture — Application : Balustrades, 
Columns, Pilasters, Capitals, Friezes, Frontons, Medallions, Panels, Rose-windows, Ceilings 
— Appendix: Official Methods of Testing Terra-cottas. 

Part II. Made=up or Decorated Pottery. — Chapter I., General Remarks on the Deco- 
ration of Pottery : Dips — Glazes : Composition, Colouring, Preparation, Harmony with 
Pastes — Special Processes of Decoration — Enamels, Opaque, Transparent, Colours, Under- 
glaze, Over-glaze — Other Processes : Crackling, Mottled, Flashing, Metallic Iridescence, 
Lustres. Chapter II., Glazed and Enamelled Bricks — History: Glazing — Enamelling — Appli- 
•cations : Ordinary Enamelled Bricks, Glazed Stoneware, Enamelled Stoneware — Enamelled 
Tiles. Chapter III., Decorated Quarries: I. Paving Quarries — 1, Decorated with Dips — 2, 
Stoneware: .-1, Fired to Stoneware: a, of Slag Base — Applications; b, of Melting Clay — 
Applications — B, Plain or Incrusted Stoneware; a, of Special Clay (Stoke-on-Trent) — Manu- 
facture — Application — b, of Felspar Base — Colouring, Manufacture, Moulding, Drying, Firing 
— Applications. — II. Facing Quarries — 1, in Faience — A, of Limestone Paste — B, of Silicious 
Paste — C, of Felspar Paste — Manufacture, Firing — 2, of Glazed Stoneware — 3, of Porcelain — ■ 
Applications of Facing Quarries. — III. Stove Quarries — Preparation of the Pastes, Moulding, 
Firing, Enamelling, Decoration — Applications — Faiences for Fireplaces. Chapter IV., Archi- 
tectural Decorated Pottery: >; 1, Faiences: ;j 2, Stoneware; § 3, Porcelain. Chapter V., 
Sanitary Pottery: Stoneware Pipes : Manufacture, Firing — Applications — Sinks — Applications 
— Urinals, Seats and Pans — Applications — Drinking-fountains, Washstands. Index. 

A TREATISE ON THE CERAMIC INDUSTRIES. A 

Complete Manual for Pottery, Tile and Brick Works. By Emile 
BouRRY, Ingenieur des Arts et .Manufactures. Translated from the 
French by Wilton P. Rix, Examiner in Pottery and Porcelain to the 
City and Guilds of London Technical Institute, Pottery Instructor to 
the Hanley School Board. Royal 8vo. 1901. Over 700 pp. Price 
21s. ; India and Colonies, 22s. ; Other Countries, 23s. 6d. ; strictly net. 
Contents. 

Part I., General Pottery Methods. Chapters I., Definition and History. Definitions 
and Classification of Ceramic Products — Historic Summary of the Ceramic Art. — II., Raw 
.Materials of Bodies. Clays : Pure Clay and Natural Clays — Various Raw Materials : Analogous 
to Clay — Agglomerative and Agglutinative — Opening — Fusible — Refractory — Trials of Raw 
Materials. — III., Plastic Bodies. Propertiesand Composition — Preparation of Raw Materials: 
Disaggregation — Purification — Preparation of Bodies : By Plastic Method — By Dry Method — 
By Liquid Method. — IV., Formation. Processes of Formation : Throwing — Expression — 
Moulding by Hand, on the Jolley, by Compression, by Slip Casting — Slapping — Slipping. — V., 
Drying. Drying of Bodies — Processes of Drying : By Evaporation — By Aeration — By 
Heating — By Ventilation — By Absorption. — VI., Glazes. Composition and Properties — Raw 
Materials — Alanufacture and x\pplication. — VII., Firing. Properties of the Bodies and Glazes 
during Firing^Description of the Kilns — Working of the Kilns. — VIII., Decoration. Colouring 
.Materials — Processes of Decoration. 

Part II., Special Pottery Methods. Chapters IX., Terra Cottas. Classification: 
Plain Ordinary, Hollow, Ornamental, Vitrified, and Light Bricks — Ordinary and Black Tiles — 
Paving Tiles — Pipes — Architectural Terra Cottas — Vases, Statues and Decorative Objects — 
Common Pottery — Pottery for Water and Filters — Tobacco Pipes — Lustre Ware — Properties 
and Tests for Terra Cottas. — X., Fireclay Goods. Classification : Argillaceous, Aluminous, 
Carboniferous, Silicious and Basic Fireclay Goods — Fireclay Mortar (Pug) — Tests for Fireclay 
Goods. — XL. Faiences. Varnished Faiences — Enamelled Faiences — Silicious Faiences — Pipe- 
clay Faiences — Pebble Work — Feldspathic Faiences — Composition, Processes of Manufacture 
and General Arrangements of Faience Potteries. — XII., Stoneware. Stoneware Properly So- 
called : Paving Tiles— Pipes — Sanitary Ware — Stoneware for Food Purposes and Chemical 
Productions — Architectural Stoneware — Vases, Statues and other Decorative Objects — Fine 
Stoneware. — XI 1 1., Porcelain. Hard Porcelain for Table Ware and Decoration, for the Fire, 
for Electrical Conduits, for .Mechanical Purposes; Architectural Porcelain, and Dull or Biscuit 
Porcelain — Soft Phosphated or English Porcelain — Soft Vitreous Porcelain, French and New 
Sevres — Argillaceous Soft or Seger's Porcelain — Dull Soft or Parian Porcelain — Dull Felds- 
pathic Soft Porcelain. — Index. 

THE ART OF RIVETING GLASS, CHINA AND 
EARTHENWARE. By J. Howarth. Second Edition. 
1900. Price Is. net ; by post, home or abroad, Is. Id. 
Contents. 

Tools and Materials Required — Wire Used for Rivets — Soldering Solution — Preparation 
for Drilling — Commencement of Drilling — Cementing — Preliminaries to Riveting — Rivets to 
Make — To Fix the Rivets — Through-and-through Rivets — Soldering — Tinning a Soldering-iron 
— Perforated Plates, Handles, etc. — Handles of Ewers, etc.^Vases and Comports — Marble 
and Alabaster Ware — Decorating — How to Loosen Fast Decanter Stoppers — China Cements. 



20 

NOTES OF POTTERY CLAYS. Their Distribution, Pro- 
perties, Uses and Analyses of Ball Clays, China Clays and China 
Stone. By Jas. Fairie, F.G.S. 1901. 132 pp. Crown 8vo. Price 
3s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 4s. ; Other Countries, 4s. 6d. ; strictly net. 
Contents. 

Definitions — Occurrence — Brick Clays — Fire Clays — Analyses of Fire Clays. — Ball Clays — 
Properties — Analyses — Occurrence — Pipe Clay — ^Black Clay — Brown Clay — Blue Clay — Dor- 
setshire and Devonshire Clays. — China Clay or Kaolin — Occurrence— Chinese Kaolin — Cornish 
Clays — Hensbarrow Granite — Properties, Analyses and Composition of China Clays — 
Method of Obtaining China Clay — Experiments with Chinese Kaolin — Analyses of Chinese 
and Japanese Clays and Bodies — Irish Clays. — Chinese Stone^Composition — Occurrence — 
Analyses. — Index. 

PAINTING ON GLASS AND PORCELAIN AND 
ENAMEL PAINTING. A Complete Introduction to the 
Preparation of all the Colours and Flu.xes used for Painting on Porce- 
lain, Enamel, Faience and Stoneware, the Coloured Pastes and Col- 
oured Glasses, together with a Minute Description of the Firing of 
Colours and Enamels. On the Basis of Personal Practical Experience 
of the Condition of the Art up to Date. By Feli.x Her.mann, Technical 
Chemist. With Eighteen Illustrations. 300 pp. Translated from the 
German second and enlarged Edition. 1897. Price 10s. 6d. ; India 
and Colonies, lis.; Other Countries, 12s.; strictly net. 
Contents. 

History of Glass Painting. — Chapters I., The Articles to be Painted : Glass, Porcelain, 
Enamel, Stoneware, Faience. — II., Pigments: 1, Metallic Pigments: Antimony Oxide, Naples 
Yellow, Barium Chromate, Lead Chromate, Silver Chloride, Chromic Oxide. — III., Fluxes: 
Fluxes, Felspar, Quartz, Purifying Quartz, Sedimentation, Quenching, Borax, Boracic Acid, 
Potassium and Sodium Carbonates, Rocaille Flux. — IV., Preparation of the Colours for Glass 
Painting. — V., The Colour Pastes. — VI., The Coloured Glasses.— VII., Composition of the 
Porcelain Colours. — VIII., The Enamel Colours: Enamels for Artistic Work. — IX., Metallic 
Ornamentation : Porcelain Gilding, Glass Gilding. — X., Firing the Colours: 1, Remarks on 
Firing: Firing Colours on Glass, Firing Colours on Porcelain; 2, The Muffle. — XL, Accidents- 
occasionally Supervening during the Process of Firing. — XII., Remarks on the Different 
Methods of Painting on Glass, Porcelain, etc. — Appendix: Cleaning Old Glass Paintings. 

Press Opinions. 

" Mr. Hermann, by a careful division of his subject, avoids much repetition, yet makes 
sufficiently clear what is necessary to be known in each art. He gives very many formulae ; 
and his hints on the various applications of metals and metallic lustres to glass and porcelains 
will be found of much interest to the amateur." — A rt Anuitcut, New York. 

" For the unskilled and amateurs the name of the publishers will be sufficient guarantee for 
the utility and excellence of Mr. Hermann's work, even if they are already unacquainted with 
the author. , . . The w hole cannot fail to be both of service and interest to glass workers and 
to potters generally, especially those employed upon high-class work." — Staffordshire Sentinel. 

" In Painting on Glass and Porcelain the author has dealt very exhaustively with the 
technical as distinguished from the artistic side of his subject, the work being entirely devoted 
to the preparation of the colours, their application and firing. For manufacturers and students- 
it will be a valuable work, and the recipes which appear on almost e\ery page form a very 
valuable feature. The author has gained much of his experience in the celebrated Sevres 
manufactory, a fact which adds a good deal of authority to the work." — Builders Journal. 

"The compiler displays that painstaking research characteristic of his nation, and goes at 
, length into the question of the chemical constitution of the pigments and fluxes to be used in 
glass-painting, proceeding afterwards to a description of the methods of producing coloured 
glass of all tints and shades. . . , Very careful instructions are given for the chemical and 
mechanical preparation of the colours used in glass-staining and porcelain-painting; indeed, 
to the china painter such a book as this should be of permanent value, as the author claims to- 
have tested and verified every recipe he includes, and the volume also comprises a section de- 
voted to enamels both opaque and translucent, and another treating of the firing of porcelain, 
and the accidents that occasionally supervene in the furnace." — Daily Chronicle. 

A Reissue of 
THE HISTORY OF THE STAFFORDSHIRE POTTER- 
IES ; AND THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF THE 
MANUFACTURE OF POTTERY AND PORCELAIN. 

With References to Genuine Specimens, and Notices of Eminent Pot- 
ters. By Simeon Shaw. (Originally Published in 1829.) 265 pp. 
1900. Demy 8vo. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other- 
Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 



21 
Contents. 

Introductory Chapter showing the position of the Pottery Trade at the present time 
1899).— Chapters I., Preliminary Remarks.— II., The Potteries, comprising Tunstall, 
Brownhills, Greenfield and New Field, Golden Hill, Latebrook, Green Lane, Burslem, Long- 
port and Dale Hall, Hot Lane and Cobridge, Hanley and Shelton, Etruria, Stoke, Penkhull, 
Fenton, Lane Delph, Foley, Lane End.— III., On the Origin of the Art, and its Practice 
among the early Nations.— IV., Manufacture of Pottery, prior to 1700.— V., The Introduce 
don of Red Porcelain by Messrs. Elers, of Bradwell, 1690.— VI., Progress of the Manu= 
acture from 1700 to Mr. Wedgwood's commencement in 1760.— VII. Introduction of Fluid 
Glaze. — Extension of the Manufacture of Cream Colour. — Mr. Wedgwood's Queen's Ware. — 
Jasper, and Appointment of Potter to Her Majesty.— Black Prmting.— VIII., Introduction 
of Porcelain. Mr. W. Littler's Porcelain. — Mr. Cookworthy's Discovery of Kaolin and 
Petuntse, and Patent. — Sold to Mr. Champion — resold to the New Hall Com. — Extension of 
Term.— IX., Blue Printed Pottery. Mr. Turner, Mr. Spode (1), Mr. Baddeley, Mr. Spode 
(2), Messrs. Turner, Mr. Wood, Mr. Wilson, Mr. Minton.— Great Change in Patterns of Blue 
Printed. — X., Introduction of Lustre Pottery. Improvements in Pottery and Porcelain 
subsequent to 1800. 

Press Opinions. 

" There is much curious and useful information in the work, and the publishers have rendered 
the public a service in reissuing it." — Burton Mail. 

" Copies of the original work are now of considerable value, and the facsimile reprint now 
issued cannot but prove of considerable interest to all interested in the great industry." — Derby 
Mercury. 

" The book will be especially welcomed at a time when interest in the art of pottery manu- 
facture commands a more widespread and general interest than at any previous time." — 
Wolverhampton Chronicle. 

"This work is all the more valuable because it gives one an idea of the condition of affairs 
existing in the north of Staffordshire before the great increase in work and population due to 
modern developments." — Western Morning AVti'.s. 

. . The History gives a graphic picture of North Staffordshire at the end of the last and 
the beginning of the present century, and states that in 1829 there was 'a busy and enterprising 
community ' in the Potteries of fifty thousand persons. . . . We commend it to our readers as 
a most entertaining and instructive publication." — Staffordshire Sentinel. 

A Reissue of 

THE CHEMISTRY OF THE SEVERAL NATURAL 
AND ARTIFICIAL HETEROGENEOUS COM- 
POUNDS USED IN MANUFACTURING POR- 
CELAIN, GLASS AND POTTERY. By Simeon Shaw. 
(Originally published in 1837.) 750 pp. 1900. Royal Svo. Price 14s. ; 
India and Colonies, 15s. ; Other Countries, 16s. 6d. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

PART I., ANALYSIS AND M.\TERIALS.— Chapters I., Introduction : Laboratory and 
Apparatus; Elements: Combinative Potencies, Manipulative Processes for Analysis and 
Reagents, Pulverisation, Blow-pipe Analysis, Humid Analysis, Preparatory Manipulations, 
General Analytic Processes, Compounds Soluble in Water, Compounds Soluble only in Acids, 
Compounds (Mixed) Soluble in Water, Compounds (Mixed) Soluble in Acids, Compounds 
Mixed) Insoluble, Particular Analytic Processes. — II., Temperature : Coal, Steam Heat for 
Printers' Stoves. — III., Acids and Allcalies: Boracic Acid, Muriatic Acid, Nitric Acid, Sul- 
phuric Acid, Potash, Soda, Lithia, Calculation of Chemical Separations. — IV., The EartllS : 
Alumine, Clays, Silica, Flint, Lime, Plaster of Paris, Magnesia, Barytes, Felspar, Grauen (or 
China Stone), China Clay, Chert. — V., Vletals : Reciprocal Combinative Potencies of the Metals, 
Antimony, Arsenic, Chromium, Green Oxide, Cobalt, Chromic Acid, Humid Separation of 
Nickel from Cobalt, Arsenite of Cobalt, Copper, Gold, Iron, Lead, Manganese, Platinum, Silver, 
Tin, Zinc. 

PART II., SYNTHESIS AND COMPOUNDS.— Chapters I., Sketch of the Origin and 
Progress of the Art. — II., Science of Mixing- : Scientific Principles of the Manufacture, Com- 
binative Potencies of the Earths. — III., Bodies: Porcelain — Hard, Porcelain — Fritted Bodies, 
Porcelain — Raw Bodies, Porcelain — Soft, Fritted Bodies, Raw Bodies, Stone Bodies, Ironstone, 
Dry Bodies, Chemical Utensils, Fritted Jasper, Fritted Pearl, Fritted Drab, Raw Chemical 
Utensils, Raw Stone, Raw Jasper, Raw Pearl, Raw Mortar, Raw Drab, Raw Brown, Raw Fawn, 
Raw Cane, Raw Red Porous, Raw Egyptian, Earthenware, Queen's Ware, Cream Colour, Blue 
and Fancy Printed, Dipped and Mocha, Chalky, Rings, Stilts, etc. — IV., Glazes : Porcelain — 
Hard Fritted, Porcelain — Soft Fritted, Porcelain — Soft Raw, Cream Colour Porcelain, Blue 
Printed Porcelain, Fritted Glazes, Analysis of Fritt, Analysis of Glaze, Coloured Glazes, Dips, 
Smears and Washes; Glasses: Flint Glass, Coloured Glasses, Artificial Garnet, Artificial 
Emerald, Artificial Amethyst, Artificial Sapphire, Artificial Opal, Plate Glass, Crown Glass, 
Broad Glass, Bottle Glass, Phosphoric Glass, British Steel Glass, Glass-Staining and Painting, 
Engraving on Glass, Dr. Faraday's Experiments. — V., Colours : Colour Making, Fluxes or 
Solvents, Components of the Colours; Reds, etc., from Gold, Carmine or Rose Colour, 
Purple, Reds, etc., from Iron, Blues, Yellows, Greens, Blacks, White, Silver for Burnishing, 
Gold for Burnishing, Printer's Oil, Lustres. 



22 

PART III., TABLES OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CHEMICAL SUB- 
STANCES. — Preliminary Remarks, Oxygen (Tables), Sulphur and its Compounds, Nitrogen 
ditto. Chlorine, ditto. Bromine ditto, Iodine ditto. Fluorine ditto, Phosphorous ditto. Boron ditto» 
Carbon ditto. Hydrogen ditto, Observations, Ammonium and its Compounds (Tables), Thorium 
ditto, Zirconium ditto, Aluminium ditto. Yttrium ditto, Glucinum ditto, Alagnesium ditto. 
Calcium ditto, Strontium ditto. Barium ditto, Lithium ditto. Sodium and its Compounds 
Potassium ditto. Observations, Selenium and its Compounds (Tables), Arsenic ditto, Chromium 
ditto, Vanadium ditto, .Molybdenum ditto. Tungsten ditto. Antimony ditto. Tellurium ditto. 
Tantalum ditto, Titanium ditto, Silicium ditto, Osmium ditto. Gold ditto. Iridium ditto, Rhodium 
ditto. Platinum ditto, Palladium ditto. Mercury ditto, Silver ditto. Copper ditto. Uranium ditto, 
Bismuth and its Compounds, Tin ditto. Lead ditto. Cerium ditto, Cobalt ditto, Nickel ditto. 
Iron ditto. Cadmium ditto, Zinc ditto. Manganese ditto. Observations, Isomorphous Groups, 
Isomeric ditto, .Metameric ditto. Polymeric ditto. Index. 

F'ress Opinions. 

"This interesting volume has been kept from the pencil of the modern editor and reprinted 
in its entirety by the enterprising publishers of The Pottery G(7rcf/e and other trade journals. 
. . . There is an excellent historical sketch of the origin and progress of the art of pottery 
which shows the intimate knowledge of classical as well as (the then) modern scientific litera- 
ture possessed by the late Dr. Sha\s ; even the etymology of many of the Staffordshire place- 
names is given." — Glasgow Herald. 

"The historical sketch of the origin and progress of pottery is very interesting and instruc- 
tive. The scionce of mixing is a problem of great importance, and the query how the natural 
products, alumma and silica can be compounded to form the best wares may be solved by the 
aid of chemistry instead of by guesses, as was formerly the case. This portion of the book may 
be most suggestive to the manufacturer, as also the chapters devoted to the subject of glazes, 
glasses and colours." — Biruiinghain Post. 

" Messrs. Scott, Greenwood & Co. are doing their best to place before the pottery trades 
some really good books, likely to aid the Staffordshire manufacturers, and their spirited enter- 
prise is worthy of encouragement, for the utility of technical literature bearing upon the 
I ractical side of potting goes without saying. . . . They are to be congratulated on their 
enterprise in republishing it, and we can only hope that they will meet with the support they 
deserve. It seems to be a volume that is worth looking through by both manufacturers and 
operatives alike, and all local institutions, at any rate, should secure copies." — Staffordshire 
Sentinel. 



Paper Making. 



THE DYEING OF PAPER PULP. A Practical Treatise for 
the use of Papermakers, Paperstainers, Students and others. By 
Julius Erfurt, Manager of a Paper Mill. Translated into English 
and Edited with Additions by Julius Hubxer, F.C.S., Lecturer on 
Paperraaking at the Manchester Municipal Technical School. With 
Illustrations and 157 patterns Of paper dyed in the pulp. Royal 
8vo, 180 pp. 1901. Price 15s.: India and Colonies, 16s.; Other 
Countries, 20s. ; strictly net. Limited edition. 
Contents, 
i.. Behaviour of the Paper Fibres during: the Process of Dyeing, Theory of the 
Mordant— Cotton : Flax and Hemp; Esparto: Jute; Straw Cellulose; Chemical and Mechani- 
cal Wood Pulp: Mixed Fibres; Theory of Dyeing.— II., Colour Fixing- Mediums (Mordants) 
— Alum: Aluminium Sulphate: Aluminium Acetate: Tin Crystals (Stannous Chloride); Cop- 
peras (Ferrous Sulphate): Nitrate of Iron (Ferric Sulphate) ; Pyrolignite of Iron (Acetate of 
Iron): Action of Tannic Acid; Importance of Materials containing Tannin; Treatment with 
Tannic Acid of Paper Pulp intended for dyeing; Blue Stone (Copper Sulphate) ; Potassium 
Bichromate; Sodium Bichromate: Chalk (Calcium Carbonate); Soda Crystals (Sodium Car- 
bonate) ; Antimony Potassium Tartrate (Tartar Emetic). — III., Influence of the Quality ol 
the Water Used.— IV., Inorganic Colours— 1. Artificial Mineral Colours: Iron Buff; Man- 
ganese Bronze; Chrome Yellow (Chromate of Lead): Chrome Orange (Basic Chromate of 
Lead); Red Lead: Chrome Green; Blue with Yellow Prussiate ; Prussian Blue; Method for 
Producing Prussian Blue free from Acid; Ultramarine — 2 Natural Mineral Colours (Earth 
Colours): Yellow Earth Colours; Red Earth Colours: Brown Elarth Colours; Green, Grey and 
Black Earth Colours: White Earth Colours; White Clay (China Clay); White Gypsum; 
Baryta: Magnesium Carbonate; Talc, Soapstone.— V., Organic Colours— 1. Colours of 
Vegetable and Animal Origin: (a) Substantive {Direct Dvcing) Colouring Matters: Annatto ; 
Turmeric; Safflower; (b) Adjective ilndirert Dyeing) Colouring Matters : Redwood; Cochineal; 
Weld ; Persian Berries ; Fustic Extract ; Quercitron ; Catechu (Cutch) ; Logwood Extract— 2. 
Artificial Organic (Coal Tar) Colours; Acid Colours; Basic Colours; Substantive (Direct 
Dyeing) Colours ; Dissolving of the Coal Tar Colours ; Auramine°° ; Naphthol Yellow S° ; 
Quinoline YellowO; Metanil YellowO; Paper YellowO ; Azoflavine RS°, S°; Cotton Yellow 
Gxx and Rxx; Orange IP; Chrysoidine A°=, RL°o ; Vesuvine Extra°°; Vesuvine BC°°; Fast 



23 

Brown^.Naphthylamine BrownO ; Water Blue IN° ; Water Blue TB° ; Victoria Blue B"° ; Methy- 
lene Blue MD-^"; Nile Blue R°°; New Blue S°° ; Indoine Blue BB°°; Eosine 442 Nx ; Phloxine 
BBN ; Rhodamine B^^ ; Rhodamine 6G°°: Naphthylamine Red G^ ; Fast Red A° ; Cotton 
Scarlef^; Erythrine RR-; Erythrine X° ; Erythrine P° : Ponceau 2 R-. Fast Ponceau G- and 
B^ ; Paper Scarlet P^° ; SafFranine ppo^ ; Magenta Powder A°^ : Acetate of MajJenta°° ; 
Cerise D 10°=^; Methyl Violet BB=^-; Crystal Violet«>= ; Acid Violet 3 BN-, 4 R ; Diamond 
Green B^° ; Nigrosine WL=: Coal Black°^ : Brilliant Black B°.— VI., Practical Application 
of the Coal Tar Colours according to their Properties and their Behaviour towards 
the Different Paper Fibres — Coal Tar Colours, which rank foremost, as far as their fastness 
to light is concerned ; Colour Combinations with which colourless or nearly colourless Back- 
water is obtained; Colours which do not bleed into White Fibres, for Blotting and Copying 
Paper Pulp ; Colours which produce the best results on Mechanical Wood and on Unbleached 
Sulphite Wood ; Dyeing of Cotton, Jute and Wool Half-stuff for Mottling White or Light 
Coloured Papers; Colours suitable for Cotton; Colours specially suitable for Jute Dyeing; 
Colours suitable for Wool Fibres. — VII., Dyed Patterns on Various Pulp Mixtures — 
Placard and Wrapping Papers; Black Wrapping and Cartridge Papers; Blotting Papers; 
Mottled and Marbled Papers made with Coloured Linen, Cotton and L'nion Rags, or with 
Cotton, Jute, Wool and Sulphite Wood Fibres, dyed specially for this purpose; Mottling with 
Dark Blue Linen; Mottling with Dark Blue Linen and Dark Blue Cotton ; Mottling with Dark 
Blue Cotton ; Mottling with Dark Blue and Red Cotton ; Mottling with Dark Red Cotton ; 
Mottling of Bleached Stuff, with 3 to 4 per cent, of Dyed Cotton Fibres; Mottling with Dark 
Blue Union (Linen and Wool or Cotton Warp with Wool Weft); Mottling with Blue Striped 
Red Union; Mottling of Bleached Stuff with 3 to 4 per cent, of Dyed Wool Fibres; Mottling 
of Bleached Stuff with 3 to 4 per cent, of Dyed Jute Fibres; Mottling of Bleached Stuff with 
3 to 4 per cent, of Dyed Sulphite Wood Fibres: Wall Papers; Packing Papers. — VIII., 
Dyeing to Shade— Index. 

Press Opinions. 

" The book is one that is of value to every one connected with the colouring of paper." — 
Paper Trade Journal. 

"The great feature of the \olume is undoubtedly the series of actual patterns of dyed 
papers, 1.57 in all — twelve of which, made in England, have been added to the original German 
series. Detailed formulae are given for the preparation of the pulp for each, and the tints of 
the samples practically form a key, by means of which the accuracy of the student's or 
practitioner's experiments can be tested. . . . On the whole the publication is one of distinct 
importance to the trade, and will no doubt speedily become a standard work of reference 
amongst papermakers, both in the 'lab.' and the office, as well as being an excellent text-book 
for the use of students in the increasing number of technical institutes in which papermaking 
is taught." — World's Paper Trade Revie'u\ 

Enamelling on Metal. 

ENAMELS AND ENAMELLING. An Introduction to the 
Preparation and Applicaticjn of all Kinds of Enamels for Technical and 
Artistic Purposes. For Enamel Makers, Workers in Gold and Silver, 
and Manufacturers of Objects of Art. By Paul Randau. Translated 
from the German. With Sixteen Illustrations. 180 pp. 1900. Price 
10s. 6d, ; India and Colonies, lis. ; Other Countries, 12s. ; strictly net. 
Contents. 

i.. Introduction. — II., Composition and Properties of Glass. — III., Raw Materials for the 
Manufacture of Enamels. — IV., Substances .Added to Produce Opacity. — V., Fluxes. — VI., Pig- 
ments. — VII., Decolorising Agents. — VIII., Testing the Raw Materials with the Blow-pipe 
Flame. — IX., Subsidiary Materials. — X., Preparing the Materials for Enamel Making. — XI., 
Mixing the Materials. — XII., The Preparation of Technical Enamels, The Enamel Mass. — 
XIII., Appliances for Smelting the Enamel Mass. — XI\\, Smelting the Charge. — XV., Com- 
position of Enamel Masses. — XVI,, Composition of Masses for Ground Enamels. — XVII., 
Composition of Cover Enamels. — XVIII., Preparing the Articles for Enamelling. — XIX., 
Applying the Enamel. — XX., Firing the Ground Enamel. — XXI., Applying and Firing the 
Cover Enamel or Glaze. — XXII., Repairing Defects in Enamelled Ware. — XXIII., Enamelling 
Articles of Sheet Metal.— XXIV., Decorating Enamelled Ware.— XXV., Specialities in Ena- 
melling.— XXVI., Dial-plate Enamelling.— XXVII., Enamels for Artistic Purposes, Recipes 
for Enamels of Various Colours. — Index. 

Press Opinions. 

" Should prove of great service to all who are either engaged in or interested in the art of 
enamelVing."— J eicellers and Watchmakers' Trade Advertiser. 

" I must inform you that this is the best book ever I have come across on enamels, and it is 
worth double its cost."— J. Minchin, Jr., Porto, Portugal, 22nd July, 1900. 

"This is a very useful and thoroughly practical treatise, and deals with every branch of the 
enarneller's art. The manufacture of enamels of various colours and the methods of their 
application are described in detail. Besides the commoner enamelling processes, some of the 
more important special branches of the business, such as cloisonne work are dealt with. The 
work is well got up, and the illustrations of apparatus are well executed. The translator is 
evidently a man well acquainted both with the German language and the subject-matter of the 
book." — Invention. 



24 

"This is a most welcome volume, and one for which we have long waited in this country. 
For years we have been teaching design applied to enamelling as well as to several other 
crafts, but we have not risen to the scientific side of the question. Here is a handbook dealing 
with the composition and making of enamels for application to metals for the most part, but 
also for other allied purposes. It is written in a thoroughly practical way, and its author — 
Paul Randau — has made its subject a very particular study. The result, like almost all things- 
which come from the German chemical expert, is a model of good workmanship and arrange- 
ment, and no one who is in search of a handbook to enamelling, no matter whether he is a 
craftsman producing his beautiful translucent colours on gold, silver and copper, or the hollow- 
ware manufacturer making enamelled saucepans and kettles, can wish for a more useful 
practical manual." — Birmingham Gazette. 

THE ART OF ENAMELLING ON METAL. By W. 

Norman Brown. Twenty-eight Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 60 pp» 
1900. Price 2s. 6d. ; Abroad, 3s. ; strictly net. 
Contents. 

Chapters I., History — Cloisonne — Champs Leve — Translucent Enamel — Surface Painted 
Enamels. — H., Cloisonne — Champs Leves — Translucent — Painted. — HI., Painted Enamel — 
Apparatus — Furnaces and Muffles for Firing. — IV., The Copper Base or Plate — Planishing — 
Cloisons — Champ Leve Plates. — V., Enamels — Trituration — Washing — Coating a Plate with 
Enamel — Firing Ordinary Plaques for Painting— Designing — Squaring off. — VI., Designs for 
Cloisonne — Designs for Painted Enamels — Technical Processes — Brushes, etc., — Colours — 
Grisaille — Full-coloured Designs. 

Press Opinion. 

"The information conveyed in The Art of Enainellini^ on Metal is as complete as can be ex- 
pected in a manual of ordinary length, and is quite ample in all respects to start students in a 
most interesting branch of decorative art. All necessary requisites are fully described and 
illustrated, and the work is one, indeed, which any one may pursue with interest, for those who 
are interested artistically in enamels are a numerous body." — Hardware Metals and Machinery. 



Books on Textile and Dyeing 
Subjects. 

THE TECHNICAL TESTING OF YARNS AND TEX- 
TILE FABRICS. With Reference to Official Specifica- 
tions. Translated from the German of Dr. J. Herzfeld. Second 
Edition. Sixty-nine Illustrations. 200 pp. Demy 8vo. 1901. Price 
10s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, lis.; Other Countries, 12s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. I 
Yarn Testing-. III., Determining the Yarn Number.— IV., Testing- tlie Length of 
Yarns.— v.. Examination of the External Appearance of Yarn.— VI., determining the 
T-vvist of Yarn and Twist.— VII., Determination of Tensile Strength and Elasticity.— 
VIII., Estimating the Percentage of Fat in Yarn.— IX., Determination of Moisture 
(Conditioning).— Appendix. 

Press Opinions.' 

"It would be well if our English manufacturers would avail themselves of this important 
addition to the extensive list of German publications which, by the spread of technical infor- 
mation, contribute in no small degree to the success, and sometimes to the supremacy, of 
Germany in almost every branch of textile manufacture." — Manchester Courier. 

"This is probably the most exhaustive book published in English on the subject dealt with. 
. . . We have great confidence in recommending the purchase of this book by all manu- 
facturers of textile goods of whatever kind, and are convinced that the concise and direct way 
in which it is written, \\ hich has been admirably conserved by tlie translator, renders it 
peculiarly adapted for the use of English readers." — Textile Recorder. 

" A careful study of this book enables one to say with certainty that it is a standard work on 
the subject. Its importance is enhanced greatly by the probability that we have here, for the 
first time in our own language, in one volume, a full, accurate, and detailed account, by a prac- 
tical expert, of the best technical methods for the testing of textile materials, whether in the 
raw state or in the more or less finished product." — Glasgow Herald. 

"The author has endeavoured to collect and arrange in systematic form for the first time 
all the data relating to both physical and chemical tests as used throughout the whole of the 
textile industry, so that not only the commercial and textile chemist, who has frequently to 
reply to questions on these matters, but also the practical manufacturer of textiles and his 
subordinates, whether in spinning, weaving, dyeing, and finishing, are catered for. . . . The 
book is profusely illustrated, and the subjects of these illustrations are clearly described." — 
Textile Manufacturer. 



25 

DECORATIVE AND FANCY TEXTILE FABRICS. 

With Designs and Illustrations. By R. T. Lord. A Valuable Book for 
Manufacturers and Designers of Carpets, Damask, Dress and all Textile 
Fabrics. 200 pp. 1898. Demy8vo. 132 Designs and Illustrations. Price 
7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Chapters I., A Few Hints on Designing Ornamental Textile Fabrics. — II., A Few Hints on 
Designing Ornamental Textile Fabrics (continued). — III., A Few Hints on Designing Orna- 
mental Textile Fabrics (continued). — IV., A Few Hints on Designing Ornamental Textile 
Fabrics (continued). — V., Hints for Ruled-paper Draughtsmen. — VI., The Jacquard Machine. — 
VII., Brussels and Wilton Carpets. — VIII., Tapestry Carpets. — IX., Ingrain Carpets. — X., 
Axminster Carpets. — XL, Damask and Tapestry Fabrics. — XII., Scarf Silks and Ribbons. — 
XIII., Silk Handkerchiefs.— XIV., Dress Fabrics.— XV., Mantle Cloths.— XVI., Figured Plush. 
—XVII., Bed Quilts.— XVIII., Calico Printing. 

Press Opinions. 

"The book can be strongly recommended to students and practical men." — Textile Colotuist. 

"Those engaged in the designing of dress, mantle tapestry, carpet and other ornamental 
textiles will find this volume a useful work of reference." — Leeds Mercury. 

"The bo®k is to be commended as a model manual, appearing at an opportune time, since 
every day is making known a growing desire for development in British industrial art." — 
Dundee Advertiser. 

" Designers especially, who desire to make progress in their calling, will do well to take the 
hints thrown out in the first four chapters on 'Designing Ornamental Textile Fabrics'," — 
Nottingham Daily Giiardiaii. 



POWER-LOOM WEAVING AND YARN NUMBERING, 

According to Various Systems, with Conversion Tables. An Auxiliary 
and Text-book for Pupils of Weaving Schools, as well as for Self- 
Instruction and for General Use by those engaged in the Weaving 
Industry. Translated from the German of Anthon Gruner. With 
Twenty-Six Diag^rams in Colours. 150 pp. 1900. Crown 8vo. Price 
7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

I., Power=Loom Weaving in General. Various Systems of Looms. — II., Mounting 
and Starting the Power=Looni. English Looms. — Tappet or Treadle Looms. — Dobbies. — 
III., General Remarks on the Numbering, Reeling and Packing of Yarn.— Appendix.— 
Useful Hints. Calculating Warps. — Weft Calculations. — Calculations of Cost Price in Hanks. 

)Press Opinions. 

" A long-felt want in the weaving industry has been supplied, by the issue of a cheap volume 
dealing with the subject." — Belfast Evening Telegraph. 

"The work has been clearly translated from the German and published with suitable 
illustrations. . . . The author has dealt very practically with the subject." — Bradford Daily 
Telegraph. 

"The book, which contains a number of useful coloured diagrams, should prove invaluable 
to the student, and its handy form will enable it to become a companion more than some cum- 
brous work." — Cotton Factory Times. 

" The book has been prepared with great care, and is most usefully illustrated. It is a capital 
text-book for use in the weaving schools or for self-instruction, while all engaged in the weaving 
industry will find its suggestions helpful." — Northern Daily Telegraph. 

"The various systems are treated in a careful manner; also the different looms and their 
manufacture, as well as the whole processes of the work. Yarn numbering according to various 
systems, with conversion tables and numerous coloured diagrams, materially assist to a clear 
comprehension of the subject." — Northern Whig. 

" The ' inside ' managers of our textile mills in which the work is complex or greatly varied, 
and where yarns of different materials are in use, will find this work convenient for reference in 
case of novelty or difficulty. We may also say the same in relation to the textile student. Its 
description of the parts of the loom and their functions will be of use to the latter, being of the 
most elementary kind." — Textile Mercury. 

"The author attempts to fill a gap inweaving literature caused by the neglect of many 
obscure points connected with the industry. A short review is given of the power-loom as a 
whole, followed by a description of the different parts of the machinery with their advantages 
and defects. . . . The book is severely technical, but must on that account be very valuable to 
the pupil who is determined to master this industrial art." — Cheshire County News. 

"It is clear and concise, and gives just that knowledge in quality and amount which any 

student of the weaving industry ought to consider as a minimum necessary for his thorough 

comprehension of his future profession. The handiness and variety of the information com- 

orised in Section III., dealing with the numbering and reeling of yarns employed in the various 

Items in different countries, struck us as particularly useful " — North British Daily Mail. 



26 

"This work brings before weavers who are actually engaged in the various branches of 
fabrics, as well as the technical student, the different parts of the general run of power-looms in 
such a manner that the parts of the loom and their bearing to each other can be readily under- 
stood. . . . The work should prove of much value, as it is in every sense practical, and is put 
before the reader in such a clear manner that it can be easily understood." — Textile Industries. 

"The book under notice is intended as an instructor to those engaged in power-loom weaving, 
and, judging by its compilation, the author is a thorough master of the craft. It is not over- 
loaded with details, and he manages to compress in a book of some 150 pages all that one can 
possibly wish to know about the different parts of the machinery, whether of English or foreign 
make, and for whatever kind of cloth required. A comprehensive summary is also included of 
the various yarns and methods of numbering them, as well as a few useful hints and a number 
of coloured diagrams for mandarm weavings. The book is printed in bold, legible type, on 
good paper, has a copious index, and is well and strongly bound." — Ashton-itnder-Lyne Herald. 

" In dealing with the complicated parts of various classes of power-looms, the writer, who is 
one of the professors at the Royal Weaving School of Asch, brings to the work a thorough 
knowledge of the subject, and, what is of great value, he has the gift of communicating his 
knowledge in a way which is easily understood. The smallest details of loom-setting are 
entered into, and a full explanation of problems, which are a source of anxiety to many en- 
gaged in overlooking, is given. Students will find the work an admirable text-book, and all 
who are interested in weaving will see in it a valuable addition to the literature on this subject. 
. . The book is in small compass, and is crowded with valuable information." — Bradford 
Observer. 

COLOUR: A HANDBOOK OF THE THEORY OF 
COLOUR. By George H. Hi,:rst, F.C.S. With Ten 
Coloured Plates and Seventy-two Illustrations. 160 pp. Demy 8vo. 
1900. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; 
strictly net. 

Contents. 
Chapters I., Colour and Its Production. Light, Colour, Dispersion of White Light 
Methods of Producing the Spectrum, Glass Prism and Diffraction Grating Spectroscopes, The 
Spectrum, Wave Motion of Light, Recomposition of White Light, Hue, Luminosity, Purity 
■of Colours, The Polariscope, Phosphorescence, Fluorescence, Interference. — IL, Cause of 
Colour in Coloured Bodies. Transmitted Colours, Absorption Spectra of Colouring 
Matters.— in.. Colour Phenomena and Theories. Mixing Colours, White Light from 
Coloured Lights, Effect of Coloured Light on Colours, Complementary Colours, Young- 
Helmholtz Theory, Brewster Theory, Supplementary Colours, Maxwell's Theory, Colour 
Photography. — IV., The Physiology of Light. Structure of the Eye, Persistence of Vision, 
Subjective Colour Phenomena, Colour Blindness. — V., Contrast. Contrast, Simultaneous 
Contrast, Successive Contrast, Contrast of Tone, Contrast of Colours, Modification of Colours 
by Contrast, Colour Contrast in Decorative Design. — VI., Colour in Decoration and 
Design. Colour Harmonies, Colour Equivalents, Illumination and Colour, Colour and 
Textile Fabrics, Surface Structure and Colour.'^ VI I., Measurement of Colour. Colour 
Patch Method, The Tintometer, Chromometer. 

Press Opinions. 

" This useful little book possesses considerable merit, and will be of great utility to those for 
whom it is primarily intended." — Birtuinghaui Post. 

" It will be found to be of direct service to the majority of dyers, calico printers and colour 
mixers, to whom we confidently recommend it." — Chemical Trade Journal. 

" It is thoroughly practical, and gives in simple language the why and wherefore of the many 
■colour phenomena which perplex the dyer and the colourist."— Dve'' and Calico Printer. 

" We have found the book very interesting, and can recommend it to all who wish to master 
the different aspects of colour theory, with a view to a practical application of the knowledge so 
gained." — Chemist and Druggist. 

" Mr. Hurst's Handbook on the Theory of Colour will be found extremely useful, not only to 
the art student, but also to the craftsman, whose business it is to manipulate pigments and 
dyes." — Nottingham Daily Guardian. 

TEXTILE RAW MATERIALS AND THEIR CON- 
VERSION INTO YARNS. (The Study of the Raw 
Materials and the Technology of the Spinning Process.) Text-book for 
Textile, Trade and Higher Technical Schools. By Julius Zipser. 
Translated from German by Charles Salter. 302 Illustrations. 
480 pp. Demy 8vo. 1901. Price 10s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, lis.; 
Other Countries, 12s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Raw Materials : Cotton — Wool — Flax — Hemp— Jute — Hair — Shearing Sheep — Goat 
Wool — Silk — Detection and Estimation of Textile Raw Materials in Yarns and Fabrics — Tests. 
—The Technology of Spinning. Cotton Spinning- : Bale Breakers— Carding— Combing 
— Roving — Mule Frames — Yarn Testing^Humidifiers. Flax Spinning : Tow Spinning — 
String Spinning — Carded Woollen Yarn — Belt Condenser — Fine Spinning — Yarn Numbering. — 
Manufacture of True Worsted Yarn : Semi-Worsted Yarns.— Artificial Wool or 
Shoddy Spinning : Spinning Shoddy.— Index. 



27 

THE COLOUR PRINTING OF CARPET YARNS. A 

Useful Manual for Colour Chemists and Textile Printers. By David 
Paterson, F.C.S. Seventeen Illustrations. 132 pp. Demy 8vo. 1900. 
Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly 
net. Contents. 

Chapters I., Structure and Constitution of Wool Fibre. — II., Yarn Scouring. — III., Scouring 
Materials. — IV., Water for Scouring. — V., Bleacliing Carpet Yarns. — VI., Colour Making for 
Yarn Printing. — VII., Colour Printing Pastes. — VIII., Colour Recipes for Yarn Printing. — 
IX., Science of Colour Mixing.— X., "Matching of Colours.— XI., "Hank" Printing.— XII., 
Printing Tapestry Carpet Yarns. — XIII., Yarn Printing. — XIV., Steaming Printed Yarns. — 
XV., Washing of Steamed Yarns.— XVI., Aniline Colours Suitable for Yarn Printing.— XVII., 
Glossary of Dyes and Dye-wares used in Wood Yarn Printing. — Appendix. 

Press Opinions. 

"The book is worthy the attention of the trade." — Worcester Herald. 

" The treatise is arranged with great care, and follows the processes described in a manner 
at once clear and convincing." — Glasgow Record. 

"A most useful manual dealing in an intelligible and interesting manner with the colour 
printing of carpet yarns." — Kidderminster Times. 

" An eminent expert himself, the author has evidently strained every effort in order to make 
his work the standard guide of its class." — Leicester Fast. 

" The book, which is admirably printed and illustrated, should fulfil the need of a practical 
guide in the colour printing of carpet yarns. — Nottingham Express. 

"The subject is very exhaustively treated in all its branches. . . . The work, which is very 
well illustrated with designs, machines, and wool fibres, will be a useful addition to our textile 
literature." — Nortliern M'liig. 

" It gives an account of its subject which is both valuable and instructive in itself, and likely 
to be all the more welcome because books dealing with textile fabrics usually have little or 
nothing to say about this way of decorating them." — Scotsman. 

"The work shows a thorough grasp of the leading characteristics as well as the minutze of 
the industry, and gives a lucid description of its chief departments. . . . As a text-book in 
technical schools where this branch of industrial education is taught, jthe book is valuable, or 
it may be perused with pleasure as well as profit by any one having an interest in textile in- 
dustries." — Dundee Courier. 

"The book bears every mark of an extensive practical knowledge of the subject in all its 
bearings, and supplies a real want in technical literature. Chapters IX. and X., on the science 
of colour mixing and colour matching respectively, are especially good, and we do not remem* 
ber to have seen the bearing of various kinds of light, and of the changes from one kind of light 
to another on the work of the colourist, so well treated elsewhere." — Dyer and Calico Printer. 

" It is thoroughly practical, and contains much information which has not hitherto appeared 
in book form. It is pleasing to note that the practical part is not crowded out with purely 
' practical recipes ". A few typical examples are given, and the rest is left to the common sense 
and judgment of the printer or works' chemist. Another pleasing feature is the accounts given 
here and there of the author's own researches on the subject. The work will be of interest to 
printers of wool generally, and to those engaged in the dyeing of this fibre."— /o!/r;Kt/ of the 
Society of Dyers and Colourists. 

A PRACTICAL TREATISE ON THE BLEACHING OP 
LINEN AND COTTON YARN AND FABRICS. By 

L. Tailfer, Chemical and Mechanical Engineer. Translated from the 
French by John Geddes McIxtosh, Lecturer on Chemical Technology, 
London. 'Demy 8vo. 1901. Price 12s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 13s. 6d \. 
Other Countries, 15s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Chapter I. General Considerations on Bleaching, Chapter II. Steeping. Chapter III 
Washing: Its End and Importance — Roller Washing Machines — Wash Wheel (Dash Wheel) — 
Stocks or Wash Mill^Squeezing. Chapter IV. Lye Boiling — Lye Boiling with ."Milk of Lime 
— Lye Boiling with Soda Lyes — Description of Lye Boiling Keirs — Operations of Lye Boiling 
— Concentration of Lyes. Chapter V. Mather and Piatt's Keir — Description of the Keir — 
Saturation of the Fabrics — Alkali used in Lye Boiling — Examples of Processes. Chapter VI. 
Soap — Action of Soap in Bleaching — Quality and Quantity of Soaps to use in the Lye — Soap 
Lyes or Scalds — Soap Scouring Stocks. Chapter VII. Bleaching on Grass or on the Bleach- 
ing Green or Lawn. Chapter VIII. Chemicking — Remarks on Chlorides and their De- 
colourising Action — Chemicking Cisterns — Chemicking — Strengths, etc. Chapter IX. Sours 
— Properties of the Acids — Effects Produced by Acids — Souring Cisterns. Chapter X. 
Drying — Drying by Steam — Drying by Hot Air — Drying by Air. Chapter XI. Damages to 
Fabrics in Bleaching— Yarn Mildew— Fermentation— Iron Rust Spots— Spots from Contact 
with Wood — Spots incurred on the Bleaching Green — Damages arising from the Machines. 
Chapter XII. Examples of Methods used in Bleaching— Linen— Cotton. Chapter XIII. The 
Valuation of Caustic and Carbonated Alkali (Soda) and General Information Regarding these 
Bodies— Object of Alkalimetry— Titration of Carbonate of Soda— Comparative Table of 
Different Degrees of Alkalimetrical Strength— Five Problems relative to Carbonate of Soda 
—Caustic Soda, its Properties and Uses— Mixtures of Carbonated and Caustic Alkali— Note 
on a Process of Manufacturing Caustic Soda and Mixtures of Caustic and Carbonated Alkali 
jBoda). Chapter XIV. Chlorometry— Titration— Wagner's Chlorometric Method— Prepara- 



28 

tion of Standard Solutions — Apparatus for Chlorine Valuation — Alkali in Excess in De- 
colourising Chlorides. Chapter XV. Chlorine and Decolourising Chlorides — Synopsis — 
Chlorine — Chloride of Lime — Hypochlorite of Soda — Brochoki's Chlorozone — Various De- 
colourising Hypochlorites — Comparison of Chloride of Lime and Hypochlorite of Soda. 
Chapter XV^L Water — Qualities of Water — Hardness — Dervaux's Purifier — Testing the 
Purified Water — Different Plant for Purification — Filters. Chapter XVH. Bleaching of 
Yarn — Weight of Yarn — Lye Boiling — Chemicking — Washing — Bleaching of Cotton Yarn. 
Chapter XVHL The Installation of a Bleach Works— Water Supply— Steam Boilers— Steam 
Distribution Pipes — Engines — Keirs — Washing Machines— Stocks — Wash Wheels — Chemick- 
ing and Souring Cisterns — Various — Buildings. Chapter XIX. Addenda — Energy of De- 
colourising Chlorides and Bleaching by Electricity and Ozone — Energy of Decolourising 
Chlorides — Chlorides — Production of Chlorine and Hypochlorites by Electrolysis — Lunge's 
Process for increasing the intensity of the Bleaching Power of Chloride of Lime — Trilfer's 
Process for Removing the Excess of Lime or Soda from Decolourising Chlorides — Bleaching 
by Ozone. 

THE SCIENCE OF COLOUR MIXING. A Manual in- 

tended for the use of Dyers, Calico Printers and Colour Chemists. By 
David Patersox, F.C.S. Forty-one Illustrations, Five Coloured Plates, 
and Four Plates showings Eleven Dyed Specimens of Fabrics. 132 

pp. Demy 8vo. 1900. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other 
Countries, Ss. 6d. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Chapters L, Colour a Sensation; Colours of Illuminated Bodies; Colours of Opaque and 
Transparent Bodies; Surface Colour. — IL, Analysis of Light; Spectrum; Homogeneous 
Colours; Ready Method of Obtaining a Spectrum. — IIL, Examination of Solar Spectrum; 
The Spectroscope and Its Construction; Colourists' Use of the Spectroscope. — IV.. Colour by 
Absorption ; Solutions and Dyed Fabrics; Dichroic Coloured Fabrics in Gaslight. — V., Colour 
Primaries of the Scientist versus the Dyer and Artist; Colour Mixing by Rotation and Lye 
Dyeing; Hue, Purity, Brightness; Tints; Shades, Scales, Tones, Sad and Sombre Colours. — 
VI., Colour Mixing; Pure and Impure Greens, Orange and Violets; Large Variety of Shades 
from few Colours; Consideration of the Practical Primaries: Red, Yellow and Blue. — VII., 
Secondary Colours; Nomenclature of Violet and Purple Group; Tints and Shades of Violet; 
Changes in Artificial Light. — VIII., Tertiary Shades ; Broken Hues; Absorption Spectra of 
Tertiary Shades. — Appendix: Four Plates with Dyed Specimens Illustrating Text. — Index. 

Press Opinions. 

"The work has evidently been prepared with great care, and, as far as we can judge, should 
be very useful to the dyer and colourist." — Halifax Courier. 

"The volume, which is clearly and popularly written, should prove of the utmost service to 
all who are concerned with the practical use of colours, whether as dyers or painters." — 
Scotsman. 

"To the practical colourist, and also to technical students, Mr. Paterson's new work will be 
very welcome We are often asked to recommend books on different subjects, and have no 
hesitation in advising the purchase of the present volume by dyers and calico printers, as con- 
taining a mass of most useful information at a nominal price." — Irish Textile Journal. 

"Mr. Paterson's work not only clearly deals with the theory of colour, but supplies lucid 
directions for the practical application of the theory. His work will be found exceedingly 
helpful, not only to the practical colourist, but also to students in our textile colleges, by 
forming a useful complement to their class lectures. There are several exquisitely coloured 
plates and a large number of other illustrations of theory and practice in colour blending, and 
also a series of plates with specimens of dyed fabrics attached, in explication of the author's 
views." — Wakefield Express. 

" Mr. Paterson has little to say upon the experimental aspect or on its aesthetics, but much 
upon the theory of colour, especially as it bears upon the question — an all-important one to 
dyers, calico printers and artists, who have to produce such a variety of shades and tints — of 
the admixture of one colour upon another. . . . The author is a dyer, and in his concluding 
chapters keeps well before him the special wants and requirements of dyers. He writes 
pleasantly and lucidly, and there is no difficulty in following him, although here and there a 
lapse into ambiguousness occurs. The book is well printed, generously supplied with coloured 
plates, very nicely if not brightly got up; and the dyed patterns at the end enhance the value 
of the book to the dyer." — fextile^Mercury. 

" For some time the proprietors of The Oil and Colounnan's Journal have been engaged in 
the publication of a series of practical handbooks intended for the use of those interested in 
certain branches of technology, and the present volume is the latest addition to their list. 
The feature which the works have in common — and it is an all-important one in treatises of 
this sort — is their eminently practical character. The primary aim of the publishers is to 
provide scientific text-books which will be helpful to those who are either actively engaged in 
the practice of the arts in question, or who are studying with that immediate end in view. . . . 
Mr. Paterson speaks with that assured knowledge of an expert, and in the present volume, as 
in that which he has already contributed to the same series, he sets forth the true foundation 
of the art of colouring in a manner at once comprehensive and judicious. . . . For dyers, 
calico printers and colourists in general, whose desire it is to work with accuracy in their 
respective branches, the treatise will prove an invaluable guide-book, pro\'ided the principles 
and methods it describes are studied with intelligence and care. To this end, every encourage- 
ment has been given that well-chosen examples, carefully executed plates and diagrams, and 
an exhaustive index can supply." — Glasgoxi' Herald. 



29 

COLOUR MATCHING ON TEXTILES. A Manual in- 
tended for the use of Students of Colour Chemistry, Dyeing and 
Textile Printing. By David Paterson, F.C.S. Coloured Frontis- 
piece. Twenty-nine Illustrations and Fourteen Specimens of Dyed 
Fabrics Illustrating Text. Demy 8vo. 132 pp. 1901. Price 7s. 6d. ; 
India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 
Contents. 

Chapters I., Colour Vision and Structure of the Eye — Perception of Colour — Pri.-nary 
and Complementary Colour Sensations. — II., Daylight for Colour .Matching — Selection of a 
Good Pure Light— Diffused Daylight, Direct Sunlight, Blue Skylight, Variability of Daylight, 
etc., etc. — III., .Matching of Hues — Purity and Luminosity of Colours — Matching Bright Hues 
— Aid of Tinted Films — Matching Difficulties Arising from Contrast. — IV., E.\amination of 
Colours by Reflected and Transmitted Lights — Effect of Lustre and Transparency of Fibres 
in Colour .Matching.— V., .Matching of Colours on Velvet Pile— Optical Properties of Dye- 
stuffs, Dichroism, Fluorescence. — VI., Use of Tinted .Mediums — Orange Film — Defects of the 
Eye — Yellowing of the Lens — Colour Blindness, etc. — VII., .Matching of Dyed Silk Tnmmings 
and Linings and Bindings — Its Difficulties — Behaviour of Shades in .Artificial Light — Colour 
Matching of Old Fabrics, etc. — VIII., Examination of Dyed Colours under the .Artificial Lights 
— Electric Arc, Magnesium and Dufton, Gardner Lights, Welsbach, .Acetylene, etc. — Testing 
Qualities of an Illuminant. — IX., Influence of the .Absorption Spectrum in Changes of Hue 
under the .Artificial Lights — Study of the Causes of .Abnormal .Modifications of Hue, etc. 

Reissue of 
THE ART OF DYEING WOOL, SILK AND COTTON. 

Translated from the French of M. Hellot, .M. Macouer and M. le 
PiLEUR D'Aplig.xy. First Published in English in 1789. Six Plates. 
Demy 8vo. 446 pp. 1901. Price 5s. ; India and Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; 
Other Countries, 6s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Part I., The Art of Dyeing Wool and Woollen Cloth, Stuffs, Yarn, Worsted, etc. : 
Introduction. — Chapters I., Of the Vessels and Utensils used in Dyeing. — II., Of the Fixed 
ind Fugitive, commonly called Great and Little Dye. — III., Of Colours in Grain. Dyeing 
Wool : IV., Of Blue.— v.. Of the Pastel Vat— Directions for the Proper .Management of the 
Vat — Indications when the Vat has Suffered by too much or too little Lime, the two extremes 
which ought carefully to be avoided— The Preparations of Indigo for the Pastel Vat. — VI., 
Of the VVoad Vat.— VII., Of the Indigo Vat.— VIII., Of the Cold Indigo Vat with Urine— A 
Hot Indigo Vat with Urine— To Reheat a Urine Vat.— IX., A Cold Indigo Vat without Urine, 
— X., Of the .Method of Dyeing Blue.— XI., Of Red.— XII., Of Scarlet in Grain, or Venetian 
Scarlet.— XIII., Of Fire Scarlet.— XIV., Of Crimson.— XV., Of Gum Lac Scarlet.— XVI., Of 
the Coccus polonicus, a Colouring Insect.— XVII., Of Madder Red.— XVIII., Of Yellow.— XIX., 
Of Brown or Fawn Colour. — XX., Of Black. — XXL, Of the Colours obtained from a Mixture of 
Blue and Red.— XXII., Of the .Mixture of Blue and Yellow.— XXII I., Of the .Mixture of Blue 
and Fawn Colour.— XXIV., Of the .Mixture of Blue and Black.— XXV., Of the Mixture of Red 
and Yellow.— XXVI., Of the Mixture of Red and Fawn.— XXVII., Of the .Mixture of Red and 
Black.— XXVIII., Of the .Mixture of Yellow and Fawn Colours.— XXIX., Of the .Mixture of 
Yellow and Black.— XXX., Of the .Mixture of Fawn Colour and Black.— XXXI., Of the Prin- 
cipal Mixtures of the Primitive Colours by Three and Three. — XXXII., The .Method of Blending 
Wool of Different Colours for mixed Cloth or Stuffs.— XXXIII., The Method of Preparing 
Felts for Trial.— XXXIV., The .Method of Dyeing Woollens False Colours.— XXX\\, Of Flock 
or Goats' Hair.— XXXVI., Of Archil, and the .Method of Using It.— XXXVII., Of Logwood.— 
XXXVIII., Of Brazil Wood.— XXXIX., Of Fustic— XL., Roucou.— XLL, Of French Berries. 
— XLIL, Of Turmeric. — XLIII., Instructions for the Proof Liquor for Wool and Woollen 
Stuffs. 

Part II., The Art of Dyeing Silk : Ungumming and Boiling for White.— For Boiling of 
Silks Intended to be Dyed.— Observations on Ungumming and Boiling.— Of White.— Of Whiten- 
ing. — Sulphuring. — Observations on Whitening and Sulphuring. — Of Aluming. — Remarks on 
Aluming.— Of Blue.— Remarks on the Blue of Indigo.— Of Yellow.— Remarks on Yellow.— 
Aurora, Orange, .Mordore, Gold Colour and Chamois.— Red and Crimson.— Remarks on 
Crimson.— Of False Crimson or the Red of Brazil.— Remarks on the Red, or Crimson of Brazil 
Wood.— Of Scarlet, Orange, Red and Cherry Colour.— Preparation of the Carthamus or 
Bastard Saffron.— Remarks on the Dye of Carthamus or Bastard Saffron.— Of the False 
Poppy or Fire Colour Produced with Brazil Wood.— False Rose Colour.— Of Green. — 
Remarks.— Of Olives.— Remarks.— Of Violet.— Of Fine Violet, or Violet in Grain.— Of False 
or Common Violets or Lilac— Of the Violet of Logwood.— Remarks.— Violet of Logwood and 
Verdigris.— Violets of Brazil and Logwood.— Remarks.— Violets from Brazil Wood and Archil. 
—Of Purple, Gillyflower, and of Fine Cochineal or Purple.— Of False Purple.— Of Maroons, 
Cinnamons and White Lees.— Remarks.— Of Nut Greys, Thorn Greys, Black and Iron Greys 
and others of the same Species.— Of Black.— Softening of Black.— Black in the Raw.— Remarks 
on Black.— Particular Process Communicated by M. Hellot.— Genoa Crimson, a Process 
Proved in May, 1743.— Violet Crimson of Italy.— Half Violet.— Genoa Black for Velvets. 

Part III., The Art of Dyeing Cotton and Linen Thread, together with the Method 
of Stamping 5ilks, Cottons, etc. : Of Dyeing in General.— Inquiry concerning Wool, Silk, 
Cotton and Flax.— Of Wool.— Of Silk.— Of Cotton.— Of Flax.— Conclusion from the Examina- 



30 

tion of Substances Commonly Dyed. — Of Bleaching. — Preparation for Stuffs to be Dyed. — 
Astringents. — Theory of Dyeing Stuffs Prepared with Alum. — Of Colouring Substances. — 
Of Cochineal and Colouring Insects. — Of Madder. — Of Vegetables Furnishing a Yellow Dye. — 
Of the Colouring Drugs Used in Dyeing without Astringents. — Of Indigo.— Of Substances 
Used in Dyeing Fawn and Root Colour. — Of Carthamus, Roucou, etc.— Of Black. Of Dyeing 
of Cotton Thread : Of Cleansing. — Of the Colours Employed for the Dyeing of Cotton 
Thread.— Of Blue.— Of Red.— Adrianople Red.— Observations on this Dye.— Of Yellow.— Of 
Green. — Of Violet. — Of Red Cinnamon. — Of Black. — Black for Linen and Cotton Thread by a 
Combination of Colours. — Of Grey. — Of More Durable Greys. — Of Musk Colour. — Olive and 
Duck Greens. — Of Browns, Maroons, Coffee Colours, etc. — Of Silk Stuff's Dyed of Several 
Colours. — The iManner of Stamping Silk, etc., in Europe. — Of a Linen with a Blue Ground 
and White Pattern. — Of Saxon Blue. — Observations on this Dye. — Indexes. 

THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS: A Practical 
Handbook for the Dyer and Student. By Franklin Beech, Practical 
Colourist and Chemist. 272 pp. Forty-four Illustrations of Bleaching 
and Dyeing Machiners'. Demy 8vo. 1901. Price 7s. 6d. ; India 
and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 
Contents, 

Chapters L, Structure and Chemistry of the Cotton Fibre. — IL, Scouring and Bleaching of 
Cotton. — IIL, Dyeing Machinery and Dyeing Manipulations. — IV., Principals and Practice of 
Cotton Dyeing — 1, Direct Dyeing; 2, Direct Dyeing followed by Fixation with Metallic Salts; 
3, Direct Dyeing followed by Fixation with Developers; 4, Direct Dyeing followed by Fixation 
with Couplers; 5, Dyeing on Tannic Mordant; 6, Dyeing on Metallic .Mordant; 7, Production 
of Colour Direct upon Cotton Fibres; 8, Dyeing Cotton by Impregnation with Dye-stuff Solu- 
tion.— V., Dyeing Union (Mixed Cotton and Wool) Fabrics.— VI., Dyeing Half Silk (Cotton- 
Silk, Satin) Fabrics. — VII., Operations following Dyeing — Washing, Soaping, Drying. — VIII., 
Testing of the Colour of Dyed Fabrics. — IX., Experimental Dyeing and Comparative Dye 
Testing. — Index. 

The book contains numerous recipes for the production on Cotton Fabrics of all kinds of a 
great range of colours, thus making it of great service in the Dyehouse, while to the Student it 
is of \-alue in that the scientific principles which underlie the operations of dyeing are clearly 
laid down. 

COTTON SPINNING (First Year). By Thomas Thornley, 
Spinning Master, Bolton Technical School. 160 pp. 84 Illustrations. 
Crown 8vo. 1901. Price 3s. ; Abroad, 3s. 6d. ; strictly net. 
Contents, 

Syllabus and Examination Papers of the City and Guilds of London Institute. — Chapters 
I., Cultivation, Classification, Ginning, Baling and Mixing of the Raw Cotton. — II., Bale- 
Breakers, .Mixing Lattices and Hopper Feeders — III., Opening and Scutching. — IV., Carding. 
— Index to Illustrations. — General Index. 

COTTON SPINNING (Intermediate, or Second Year). By 
Tho.mas Thornley. 180 pp. 70 Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 1901. 
Price 5s. ; India and British Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 6s. ; 
strictly net. 

Contents. 

Syllabuses and Examination Papers of the City and Guilds of London Institute. — Chapters 
I., The Combing Process. — II., The Drawing Frame. — III., Bobbin and Fly Frames. — IV., .Mule 
Spinning. — V., Ring Spinning. — Index to Illustrations. — General Index. 

COTTON SPINNING (Honours, or Third Year). By Thomas 
Thornley. 216 pp. 74 Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 1901. Price 5s. ; 
India and British Colonies, 5s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 6s. ; strictly net. 
Contents. 

Syllabuses and Examination Papers of the City and Guilds of London Institute. — Chapters 
I., Cotton. — II. , The Practical Manipulation of Cotton Spinning Machinery. — III., Doubling 
and Winding. — IV., Reeling. — V., Warping. — VI., Production and Costs. — VII., Main Driving. 
— VIII., Arrangement of Machinery and Mill Planning. — IX., Waste and Waste Spinning. — 
Index to Illustrations. — General Index. 

Books for Mining Engineers 
and Steam Users. 

RECOVERY WORK AFTER PIT FIRES. A Description 
of the Principal Methods Pursued, especially in Fiery iMines, and of 
the Various Appliances Employed, such as Respiratory and Rescue 
Apparatus, Dams, etc. By Robert Lamprecht, Mining Engineer and 



31 

Manager. Translated from the German. Illustrated by Six large 

Plates, containing Seventy-six Illustrations. 175 pp., demy 8vo. 1901. 

Price 10s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, lis.; Other Countries, 12s.; 
strictly net. Contents. 

Preface.— I., Causes of Pit Fires: 1, Fires Resulting from the Spontaneous Ignition of 
Coal; 2, Fires Caused by Burning Timber; 3, Fires Caused by Fire-damp Explosions.— II., 
Preventive Regulations: 1, The Outbreak and Rapid Extension of a Shaft Fire can be 
most reliably prevented by Employing little or no Combustible Material in the Construction of 
the Shaft; 2, Precautions for Rapid'ly Localising an Outbreak of Fire in the Shaft; 3, Pre- 
cautions to be Adopted in case those under 1 and 2 Fail or Prove Inefficient Precautions 
against Spontaneous Ignition of Coal. Precautions for Preventing Explosions of Fire-damp 
and Coal Dust. Employment of Electricity in Mining, particularly in Fiery Pits. Experiments 
on the Ignition of Fire-damp Mixtures and' Clouds of Coal Dust by Electricity.— III., indica = 
tions of an Existing or incipient Fire.— IV'., Appliances for Working in Irrespirable 
Oases : 1, Respiratory Apparatus: 2, Apparatus with Air Supply Pipes, (u) The Bremen Smoke 
Helmet, (6) The Miiller Smoke Helmet, (f) The Stolz Rescue Mask; 3, Reservoir Apparatus; 
4, Oxygen Apparatus. The Schwann Respiratory Apparatus. The Fleuss Respiratory Ap- 
paratus. The Improved Walcher-GJirtner Pneumatophor, (a) The Single Bottle Apparatus, 
Instructions for Using the Pneumatophor, Taking to Pieces and Resetting the Apparatus 
ready for Use; (b) Two Bottle Apparatus (Shamrock Type). The Xeupert Rescue Apparatus 
(The Mayer-Pilar System).— V. Extinguishing Pit Fires : (a) Chemical Means; (6) Extinction 
with Water. Dragging down the Burning Masses and Packing with Clay; {c) Insulating the 
Seat of the Fire by Dams. Dam Building. ' Dam Work in the Fiery Pits of Southern Hungary : 
(a) Cross-dams of Clay; (b) Masonry Dams, Gallery Linings. Wagner's Portable Safety Dam, 
Analyses of Fire Gases. Isolating the Seat of a Fire with Dams: Working in Irrespirable 
Gases ("Gas-diving "') : 1, Air-Lock Work (Horizontal Advance) on the Mayer System as Pur- 
sued at Karwin in 1894 ; 2, Air-Lock Work (Horizontal Advance) by the Mauerhofer Modified 
System. Vertical Advance. Mayer System. Complete Isolation of the Pit. Flooding a 
Burning Section isolated by means of Dams. Wooden Dams: (a) Upright Balk Dams; (b) 
Horizontal Balk Dams ; (c) Wedge Dams, Masonry Dams. Examples of Cylindrical and Dome- 
ihaped Dams. Dam Doors: Flooding the Whole Pit.— VI., Rescue Stations: (a) Stations 
Hbove Ground; (6) Underground Rescue Stations.— VII., Spontaneous Ignition of Coal in 
Bulk.— Index. 

Illustrations. 

Sheet I., Respiratory and Rescue Appliances— Precautions against Fire. Figs. 1, 
Smoke Helmet; 2, Miiller's Smoke Helmet: 3, Low-pressure Respiration Apparatus; 4, High- 
pressure Respiration Apparatus: 5, The Stolz Mask for Rescue Work; (j, Precautions against 
Fire.— Sheet II., Respiratory and Rescue Apparatus. Figs. 1, Recovery Work with 
Miiller's Smoke Helmet after a Fire; 2-8, The Fleuss Respiration Apparatus; 9, The Walcher- 
Gartner Pneumatophor: 10-12, Pneumatophor (Shamrock Type).— Sheet III., Respiratory 
and Rescue Apparatus Stretchers. Figs. 1-8, Rescue Apparatus manufactured by O. 
Neupert's Successor (Mayer-Pilar System) ; 1, Front View ; 2, Section through Bag and Mask ; 
3, Rear View : 4, Apparatus and Mask laid out Flat (vie\\- from above) ; 5, Apparatus and Mask 
laid out Flat (view from belo\\) : 6, Locking De%ice for Closing Bag; 7, Apparatus Complete, 
Mounted for Rescue Work; 8, Improved V^alve in the Respiration Tubes; 9-12, Stretchers. 
Fig. 9, Stretcher Covered with Brown Canvas: 10, Stretcher Covered with Brown Canvas, 
fitted with Adjustable Head-rest: 11, Folding Stretcher Covered with Brown Canvas; 12, 
Rupprecht's Stretcher Covered with Brown Canvas; 13, Dr. Riihlmann's Stretcher. — Sheet 
IV., Dams. Figs. 1-7, R. Wagners Portable Safety Dam.— Sheet V., Signalling Appliances 
— Dam Construction— Cable Laying. Figs. 1-3, Signalling Appliances; 1, Small Induction 
Apparatus for Pit Work: 2, Bell Signal for Pit Work; 3, Pit Telephone; 4-18, Dam Con = 
Struction ; 4, 5, Upright Timber Dam ; 6. 7, Timber Dam with Wooden Door ; 8, 9, Dome- 
shaped Dams; 10, 11, Dome-shaped Dam with Iron Door; 12, 13, The Wenker and Berninghaus 
Locking Device for Dam Doors: 14-17, Dam Construction: 18, Damming a Gallery Lined with 
Iron : 19, Support for Cable.— Sheet VI., Working with Diving Gear in Irrespirable Gases 
— Gallery Work. Figs. 1-4, Air-Lock Work (Mayer System); 5-7, Air-Lock (Mauerhofer's 
Modification of the Mayer System); 8-11, Construction of Dams at the Pluto Shaft. — Sheet 
VII., Working with Diving Gear in Irrespirable Gases (Mayer System)— Appliances in 
the Shaft. Figs. 1, 2, Sections of Shaft and Air Apparatus; 3, Salzmann Reducing Valve for 
Reserve Air Supply: 4,5, L. v. Bremen's Respiration Apparatus with Karwin Reserve Ap- 
pliance; 6, Cross Section of the Franziska Shaft; 7, Method of Supplying Air to Main Pipe 
and Winding same on Drum ; 8, Clamp. 

Press Opinions. 

" A work of this extremely valuable character deserves to be made widely known amongst 
colliery managers and mining engineers at home and abroad." — Coal and Iron. 

"This book is, in a manner, unique. The literature of mining accidents is fairly extensive, 
but it consists largely of departmental Blue Books."— S/ie/^tW Daily Telegraph. 

"A concise and lucid description of the principal methods pursued, especially in fiery 
mines, and of the various appliances employed, such as respiratory and rescue apparatus, 
dams, etc." — Staffs Advertiser. 

" The prevention of spontaneous combustion in collieries and the extinction of underground 
fires are duties that fall heavily on many colliery managers. They should, therefore, welcome 
this translation of iMr. Lamprecht's German treatise." — Ironmonger. 

"The book under notice supplies the needed full description, drawings, and mode of using 
these new appliances in actual fires, and should be studied by every colliery manager, seeing 
that even our best managed collieries have not been free from fires, more or less disastrous 
to life and property. — Colliery Manager. 



32 

THE PREVENTION OF SMOKE. Combined with the 
Economical Combustion of Fuel. By W. C. Popplewell, M.Sc, 
A.M.Inst., C.E., Consulting Engineer. 46 Illustrations. 190 pp. 
1901. Demy 8vo. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s.; Other 
Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Introductory. — Chapters I., Fuel and Combustion. — II., Hand Firing in Boiler Furnaces. — 
III., Stoking by Mechanical Means. — IV., Powdered Fuel. — V., Gaseous Fuel. — VI., Efficiency 
and Smoke Tests of Boilers,— VII., Some Standard Smoke Trials.— VIII., The Legal Aspect 
of the Smoke Question. — IX., The Best Means to be adopted for the Prevention of Smoke.— 
Index. 

GAS AND COAL DUST FIRING. A Critical Review of 

the Various Appliances Patented in Germany for this purpose since 
1885. By Albert Putsch. 130 pp. Demy 8vo. 1901. Translated 
from the German. With 103 Illustrations. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and 
Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 
Contents. 

Generators — Generators Employing Steam — Stirring and Feed Regulating Appliances — 
Direct Generators — Burners — Regenerators and Recuperators — Glass Smelting Furnaces — 
Metallurgical Furnaces— Pottery Furnace— Coal Dust Firing.— Index. 

Press Opinions. 

"The work is worthy of perusal by all consumers of fuel. It is exceedingly well printed 
and illustrated." — Chemiccil Trade Journal. 

" The book will appeal with force to the manufacturer as well as to the technical student, 
whilst it is also of far more than average interest to th^ general reader." — Halifax Guardian. 

"The importance that gas and coal dust firing have attained of recent years, and especially 
the great interest attaching of late to the question of coal dust firing, makes the appearance 
of the present volume most opportune." — Iron and Coal Trades Revieiv. 

"The German author has long followed the de\elopment of various systems of gas firing, 
and in the present treatise he discusses the merits of appliances patented since 1885. His text 
and the numerous illustrations indispensable to it will be found useful by all who are engaged 
in practical work in the same field." — North British Daily Mail. 



Books on Plumbing, Decorating, 
Metal Work, etc., etc. 

EXTERNAL PLUMBING WORK. A Treatise on Lead 
Work for Roofs. By John \\'. Hart, R.P.C. 180 Illustrations. 270 
pp. Demy 8vo. 1896. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other 
Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Chapters I., Cast Sheet Lead.— II., Milled Sheet Lead.— III., Root Cesspools.— IV., Socket 
Pipes.— v.. Drips.— VJ., Gutters.— VII., Gutters (continued).— VIII., Breaks.— IX., Circular 
Breaks.— X., Flats.— XL, Flats (continued).— XII., Rolls on Flats.— XII L, Roll Ends.— XIV., 
Roll Intersections. — XV., Seam Rolls. — XVI., Seam Rolls (continued). — XVII., Tack Fixings. 
—XVIII., Step Flashings.— XIX., Step Flashings (continued).— XX., Secret Gutters.— XXL, 
Soakers. — XXII., Hip and Valley Soakers. — XXIII., Dormer Windows. — XXIV., Dormer 
Windows (continued).— XXV., Dormer Tops.— XXVI., Internal Dormers.— XXVII., Skylights. 
— XXVIIL, Hips and Ridging.— XXIX., Hips and Ridging (continued).— XXX., Fixings for 
Hips and Ridging.— XXXI., Ornamental Ridging.— XXXIL, Ornamental Curb Rolls.— XXXI I L, 
Curb Rolls.— XXXIV,, Cornices.— XXXV., Towers and Finials.— XXXVL, Towers and Finials 
(continued).— XXXVI I.,Towers and Finials (continued).— XXXVIII. , Domes.— XXXIX., Domes 
(continued).— XL., Ornamental Lead Work.— XLL, Rain Water Heads.— XLIL, Rain Water 
Heads (continued). — XLIIL, Rain Water Heads (continued). 

Press Opinions. 

"This is an eminently practical and well-illustrated volume on the management of external 
ead work." — Birmingham Daily Post. 

" It is thoroughly practical, containing many valuable hints, and cannot fail to be of great 
benefit to those who have not had large experience." — Sanitary Journal. 

" Works on sanitary plumbing are by no means rare, but treatises dealing with external 
plumbing work are sufficiently scarce to ensure for Mr. Hart's new publication a hearty recep- 
tion." — Tlie Ironmonger. 

"With Mr. Hart's treatise in his hands the young plumber need not be afraid of tackling 
outside work. He would do well to study its pages at leisure, so that he may be ready for it 
when called upon." — Ironmongery. 



33 

HINTS TO PLUMBERS ON JOINT WIPING, PIPE 
BENDING AND LEAD BURNING. Third Edition, 
Revised and Corrected. By John W. Hart, R.P.C. 184 Illustrations. 
313 pp. Demy 8vo. 1901. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; 
Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; strictly net. 
Contents. 

Introduction. — Chapters I., Pipe Bending. — II., Pipe Bending (continued). — III., Pipe 
Bending (continued). — IV., Square Pipe Bendings. — V., Half-circular Elbows. — VI., Curved 
Bends on Square Pipe. — VII., Bossed Bends. — VIII., Curved Plinth Bends. — IX., Rain-water 
Shoes on Square Pipe. — X., Curved and Angle Bends. — XI., Square Pipe Fixings. — XII., Joint- 
wiping. — XIII., Substitutes for Wiped Joints. — XIV., Preparing Wiped Joints. — XV., Joint 
Fixings. — XVI., Plumbing Irons. — XV^II., Joint Fixings. — XVIII., Use of "Touch" in Solder- 
ing. — XIX., Underhand Joints. — XX., Blown and Copper Bit Joints. — XXI., Branch Joints. — 
XXII., Branch Joints (continued).— XXIII., Block Joints.— XXIV., Block Joints (continued).— 
XXV., Block Fixings.— XXVI., Astragal Joints— Pipe Fixings.— XXVII., Large Branch 
Joints. — XXVIII., Large Underhand Joints. — XXIX., Solders. — XXX., Autogenous Soldering 
or Lead Burning. — Index. 

Press Opinions. 

" Rich in useful diagrams as well as in hints." — Liverpool Meiciiiy, 

" The papers are eminently practical, and go much farther into the mysteries they describe 
than the title ' Hints ' properly suggests."— Scotsman. 

" The articles are apparently written by a thoroughly practical man. As a practical guide 
the book will doubtless be of much service." — Glasf^oi^' Herald. 

" So far as the practical hints in this work are concerned, it will be useful to apprentices and 
students in technical schools, as it deals mainly with the most important or difficult branches 
of the plumber's craft, t-'tr., joint wiping, pipe bending and lead burning. . . . 'Hints' are the 
most useful things to an apprentice, and there are many in this work which are not to be found 
in some of the text-books." — English Mechanic. 

"22 Prvme Street, Hull, 24th November, 1894. 

" Gentlemen, — Your books to hand for which accept my best thanks, also for circulars. I 
myself got one of J. W. Hart's books on Plumbing from your traveller, and having looked 
through the same I can safely recommend it as being the best book I have seen. Mr. J. W. 
Hart treats exhaustively upon soldering and pipe bending, which are two of the most essential 
branches in the plumbing trade. '^ 

THE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF DIPPING, 
BURNISHING, LACQUERING AND BRONZING 
BRASS WARE. By W. Nor.ma.n Browx. 35 pp. Crown 
8vo. 1900. Price 2s. ; Abroad, 2s. 6d. ; strictly net. 
Contents. 

Chapters I., Cleansing and Dipping; Boiling up and Cleansing; Dipping. — II., Scratch- 
brushing and Burnishing; Polishing^ Burnishing. — III., Lacquering; Tools; Lacquers. — 
IV., Bronzing ; Black Bronzing ; Florentine Red Bronzing ; Green Bronzing. — Index. 

Press Opinions. 

" Mr. Brown is clearly a master of his craft, and has also the immense advantage of being 
able to convey his instructions in a manner at once clear and concise." — Leicester Post. 

"A thoroughly practical little treatise on the subject in all its branches, and one which 
should be in the hands of every tradesman or amateur who has lacquering to do." — Ii ish Bitilder. 

WORKSHOP WRINKLES for Decorators, Painters, Paper- 
hangers and Others. By W. N. Brown. Crown 8vo. 128 pp. 1901. 
Price 2s. 6d. ; Abroad, 3s. ; strictly net. 
Contents. 

Parts I., Decorating. — II., Painting. — III. Paper-hanging. — IV., Miscellaneous. 
Arranged in alphabetical order. 

HOUSE DECORATING AND PAINTING. By W. 

Norman Brown. Eighty-eight Illustrations. 150 pp. Crown Svo. 
1900. Price 3s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 4s. ; Other Countries, 4s. 6d. ; 
strictly net. Contents. 

Chapters I., Tools and Appliances.— II., Colours and Their Harmony.— III., Pigments and 
Media.— IV., Pigments and Media.— V., Pigments and Media.— VI., Pigments and Media.— 
VII., Preparation of Work, etc.— VIII., Application of Ordinary Colour.— IX., Graining.— 
X., Graining.— XL, Graining.— XII., Gilding.— XIII., Writing and Lettering.— XIV., Sign 
Painting. — XV., Internal Decoration. — Index. 

Press Opinion. 

"The author is evidently very thoroughly at home in regard to the technical subjects he has 
set himself to elucidate, from the mechanical rather than the artistic point of view, although 
the matter of correctness of taste is by no means ignored. Mr. Brown's style is directness 
itself, and there is no tyro in the painting trade, however mentally ungifted, who could fail tc 
carry away a clearer grasp of the details of the subject after going over the performance."- 
Building Industries. 



34 
A HISTORY OF DECORATIVE ART. By W. Norman 

Brown. Thirty-nine Illustrations. 96 pp. Crown 8vo. 1900. Price 
2s. 6d. ; Abroad, 3s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

Chapters I., Primitive and Prenistoric Art. — II., Egyptian Art. — III., Assyrian Art. — IV., 
The Art of Asia Minor.— V., Etruscan Art.— VI., Greek Art,— VII., Roman Art.— VIII., 
Byzantine Art. — IX., Lombard or Romanesque Art. — X., Gothic Art.— XI., Renaissance Art. — 
XII., The Victorian Period.— Index. 

Press Opinion. 

"In the course of a hundred pages with some forty illustrations Mr. Brown gives a very 
interesting and comprehensive survey of the progress and development of decorative art. It 
cannot, of course, be pretended that in the limited space named the subject is treated ex- 
haustively and in full detail, but it is sufficiently complete to satisfy any ordinary reader ; 
indeed, for general purposes, it is, perhaps, more acceptable than a more elaborate treatise." — 
Midland Counties Herald. 

A HANDBOOK ON JAPANNING AND ENAMELLING 
FOR CYCLES, BEDSTEADS, TINWARE, ETC. By 

William NoriMan Brown. Price 2s. net. {Ready. 

Contents. 

A Few Words on Enamelling — Appliances and Apparatus — Japans or Enamels — To Test 
Enamel for Lead — Japanning or Enamelling Metals — Japanning Tin, such as Tea Trays, and 
similar Goods — Enamelling Old Work — Enamel for Cast Iron— Enamel for Copper Cooking 
Utensils — The Enamelling Stove — Enamelling Bedsteads, Frames and similar large pieces — 
Paints and Varnishes for Metallic Surfaces — Varnishes for Ironwork — Blacking for Iron — 
Processes for Tin Plating — Galvanising — Metal Polishes — Colours for Polished Brass — A 
Golden Varnish for Metal — Painting on Zine — Carriage Varnish — Japanese Varnish and its 
Application. — Index. 

THE PRINCIPLES OF HOT WATER SUPPLY. By 

John \V. Hart, R.P.C. \\ith 129 Illustrations. 1900. 177 pp., demy 
8vo. Price 7s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 8s. ; Other Countries, 8s. 6d. ; 
strictly net. 

Contents. 

Chapters I., Water Circulation. — II. , The Tank System. — III., Pipes and Jomts. — IV., The 
Cylinder System.— V., Boilers for the Cylinder System.— VI., The Cylinder System.— VII., The 
Combined Tank and Cylinder System. — VI 1 1., Combined Independent and Kitchen Boiler. — 
IX., Combined Cylinder and Tank System with Duplicate Boilers. — X., Indirect Heating and 
Boiler Explosions.— XL, Pipe Boilers.— XII., Safety Valves.— XIIL, Safety Valves.— XIV., The 
American System.— XV., Heating Water by Steam.— XVI., Steam Kettles and Jets.— XVII., 
Heating Power of Steam. — XVIIL, Covering for Hot Water Pipes. — Index. 

Press Opinion. 

" If all plumbers were to read this book, and if they followed the instructions given, there 
would, we are sure, be fewer accidents from household boiler explosions, and many lives might 
be saved. No doubt the majority of householders know or care little about the subject, but 
any one who wishes to adopt the most up-to-date system of supplying hot water throughout 
his house will be able to do so if he reads Mr, Hart's book and follows the instruction given. 
It is a work that all who have charge of domestic water supply should study. It is a practical 
and profitable book." — \Vii:;ar Observer. 

Brewing and Botanical. 

HOPS IN THEIR BOTANICAL, AGRICULTURAL 
AND TECHNICAL ASPECT, AND AS AN ARTICLE 
OF COMMERCE. By Emmaxuel Gross, Professor at 
the Higher Agricultural College^ Tetschen-Liebvverd. Translated 
from the German. Seventy-eight Illustrations. 1900. 340 pp. Demy 
8vo. Price 12s. 6d. ; India and Colonies, 13s. 6d. ; Other Countries, 
15s. ; strictly net. 

Contents. 

PART I., HISTORY OF THE HOP. 

PART IL, THE HOP PLANT. Introductory.— The Roots.— The Stem and Leaves.— 
Inflorescence and Flower: Inflorescence and Flower of the Male Hop; Inflorescence and 
Flower of the Female Hop. — The Fruit and its Glandular Structure : The Fruit and Seed. — 
Propagation and Selection of the Hop. — Varieties of the Hop: (a) Red Hops; {b) Green Hops; 
(c) Pale Green Hops. — Classification according to the Period of Ripening: 1. Early August 
Hops; 2. Medium Early Hops; 3. Late Hops. — Injuries to Growth : .Malformations; Diseases 
Produced by Conditions of Soil and Climate: 1. Leaves Turning Yellow, 2. Summer or Sun- 
brand, 3. Cones Dropping Off, 4. Honey Dew, 5. Damage from Wind, Hail and Rain ; Vegetable : 
Enemies of the Hop : Animal Enemies of the Hop. — Beneficial Insects on Hops. 



35 . 

PART III., CULTIVATION. The Requirements of the Hop in Respect of Climate, Soil 
and Situation: Climate; Soil; Situation.— Selection of Variety and Cuttings.— Planting a Hop 
Garden: Drainage; Preparing the Ground; Marking-out for Planting ; Planting; Cultivation 
and Cropping of the Hop Garden in the First Year. — Work to be Performed Annually in the 
Hop Garden: Working the Ground; Cutting; The Non-cutting System; The Proper Per- 
formance of the Operation of Cutting ; I. Method of Cutting : Close Cutting, Ordinary Cutting, 
The Long Cut, The Topping Cut; II. Proper Season for Cutting; Autumn Cutting, Spring 
Cutting; Manuring; Training the Hop Plant: Poled Gardens, Frame Training; Principal 
Types of Frames; Pruning, Cropping, Topping, and Leaf Stripping the Hop Plant; Picking, 
Drying and Bagging. — Principal and Subsidiary Utilisation of Hops and Hop Gardens. — Life 
of a Hop Garden ; Subsequent Cropping. — Cost of Production, Yield and Selling Prices. 

PART IV. — Preservation and Storage. — Physical and Chemical Structure of the Hop Cone. 
— Judging the Value of Hops. 

PART v.— Statistics of Production.— The Hop Trade.— Index. 

Press Opinions. 

" The subject is dealt with fully in every little detail ; consequently, even the veriest tyro can 
take away some useful information from its pages." — Irish Fanning World. 

" Farmers are but little given to reading ; but nowadays brewers have to study their trade 
and keep abreast of its every aspect, and as far as regards our trade, to them this book 
especially appeals, and will be especially useful." — Licensed Victuallers' Gazette. 

" Like an oasis in the desert comes a volume upon the above subject, by the Professor at 
the Higher Agricultural College, Tetschen-Liebwerd, Germany, who has been fortunate 
enough to obtain an excellent translator from the German in the person of Mr. Charles 
Salter. The paucity of works upon the history and cultivation of hops is surprising con- 
sidering the scope it gives for an interesting and useful work." — Hereford Times. 

"We can safely say that this book deals more comprehensively and thoroughly with the 
subject of hops than any work previously published in this country. . . . No one interested in 
the hop industry can fail to extract a large amount of information from Professor Gross's 
pages, which, although primarily intended for Continental readers, yet bear very closely on 
what may be termed the cosmopolitan aspects of the science of hop production." — Sotith 
Eastern Gazette, 

"This is, in our opinion, the most scholarly and exhaustive treatise on the subject of hops, 
their culture and preservation, etc., that has been published, and to the hop grouer especially 
will its information and recommendations prove valuable. Brewers, too, will find the chapter 
devoted to 'Judging the Value of Hops ' full of useful hints, while the whole scope and tenor of 
the book bear testimony to the studious and careful manner in which its contents have been 
elaborated." — B reivers Journal. 

"Considering the extent to which this country draws its hop supplies from abroad, this 
translation of Professor Gross's volume will prove an interesting and instructive addition to 
the library of any brewer or brewers' chemist, the more so as the work of translation has been 
admirably carried out in simple and vigorous English. . . . The volume is one of a valuable 
series of special technical works for trades and professions the publishers are issuing, and is 
the first so far dealing with the brewing industry." — Burton Mail. 

"A work upon the above subject must be welcomed if for no other reason than the dearth 
of books dealing with so interesting a theme, but fortunately apart from this the book will 
afford excellent reading to all interested in hops and their culture. Professor Gross takes one 
over the whole field, by commencing with the earliest history of the plant — so far back as the 
days of ancient Greece — and from both practical, theoretical and scientific standpoints, deals 
with the cultivation, classification and formation of the hop. ... In speaking of the produc- 
tion of new varieties sound information is given, and should be of value to those who are 
always in search of improvements." — Hereford Journal. 

"This work is, without doubt, the most thorough and extensive compilation on hops ever 
yet offered to the public, and for this reason should be warmly welcomed and appreciated by 
men interested in the subject. Although primarily written for those engaged in the industry 
abroad, and mainly Continental in theory and practice, it nevertheless appeals to those con- 
nected with the hop growing and brewing business in England, not only by way of a com 
parison, but also as an instruction. The volume is at once practical and scientific, is well 
got up, and teems with illustrations and statistics. In a word, it is a book that should find 
its way into the hands of all who are occupied in hop production and distribution at home ; 
and it also contains valuable information and suggestions for the brewers themselves." — 
Brewers' Guardian. 

Public Libraries. 

BRITISH LIBRARY YEAR BOOK, 1900-1901. A Record 
of Library Progress and Work. 54 Illustrations. Crown 8vo, 345 pp. 
1900. Edited by Thomas Greenwood. Price 3s. ; abroad, 3s. 6d. ; 
strictly net. 

Contents. 

Notes for Library Committees. Contributed Articles : The Library Rata. Some Points in 
Library Planning— Mr. Burgoyne. Library Classification— Mr. Jast. Developments in Lib- 
rary Cataloguing — Mr. Quinn. Children and Public Libraries — Mr. Ballinger. Fire Prevention 
and Insurance— Mr. Davis. The Educational Work of the Library Association— Mr. Roberts. 
The Library Assistants' Association— Mr. Chambers. British Municipal Libraries established 
under the various Public Libraries or Special Acts, and those supported out of Municipal Funds 



36 

giving particulars of Establishment, Organisation, Staff, Methods and Librarians. Table 
showing the Rate, Income, Work and Hours of the Rate-supported Libraries. Statistical 
Abstracts. British non-Municipal Libraries, Endowed, Collegiate, Proprietary and others, 
showing date of Establishment, number of Volumes, Particulars of Administration, and Lib- 
rarians. Library Associations and Kindred Societies. 

Press Opinions. 

"This is a handbook which tells the reader everything about public libraries, great and 
small, in the United Kingdom. . . . The book is decidedly one of the best arranged volumes ever 
published, and there is no doubt that the editor has been at great pains to obtain the latest 
and most accurate information from all places. County, district and parish councils, 
ministers of religion, and schoolmasters everywhere should make themselves acquainted with 
its contents. Its perusal cannot fail to serve the ends of the library movement. The illustra- 
tions, of which there is a large number, are very good." — Western {Cardijpi Mail. 

WORKS IN PREPARATION. 

PRINCIPLES OF SIDEROLOGY (The Science of Iron). 

Translated from the German of Hanns Freiherr v. Zuptner. 
STAINED GLASS (Ancient and Modern) and FRET LEAD 

GLAZING. By E. R Sufflixg. 

TREATISE ON CLOTH FINISHING. By Robert 

Beaumont, of Yorkshire College, Leeds. 
INDIA-RUBBER; GUTTA PERCHA. 
EVAPORATION, CONDENSATION AND COOLING. 

Calculations of Dimensions of Apparatus. By E. Hausbrand. 
Tables. For Chemists, Chemical and Mechanical Engineers. 

THE CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF TEXTILE 
FIBRES. Spinning, Washing, Bleaching, Dyeing, Printing 
and Finishing. By Dr. G. voN Georgievics. {In the Press. 

WEAVING MACHINERY. Three Vols. By Harry Nisbet. 

COLOUR TERMS : THEIR PROPER USE AND 
MEANING. By David Paterson. 

LEAD AND ITS COMPOUNDS. By Thos. Lambert. 

COTTON COMBERS AND THE COMBING PROCESS. 

By Thos. Thorn ley. [In the Press. 

TIMBER. Its Physical and Chemical Properties, Description, 
Distribution throughout the World, Forests, Preservation of Timber, 
and Applications. From the French of Paul Charpentier. 179 Illus- 
trations. About 500 pp. 

USE OF WATER IN THE INDUSTRIAL ARTS. Com- 
position—Influences — Residual Water — Purification — Analysis. From 
the French of H. de la Coux. 135 Illustrations. About 500 pp. 

DYERS' MATERIALS : An Introduction to the Examination, 
Evaluation and Application of the Most Important Substances Used 
in Dyeing, Printing, Bleaching and Finishing. By Paul Heermann, 
Ph.D. Translated by Arthur C. Wright, M.A. (Oxon.), B.Sc. 
(Lond.). [In the Press. 

HANDY GUIDES TO THE CHOICE OF BOOKS. 

Vol. I. PROSE FICTION. 

Vol. II. TECHNICAL, TRADE AND COMMERCIAL 
BOOKS. 

Others to follow. [In Preparation. 

The Publishers will advise when any of the above books are 
ready to firms sending their addresses. 



^Dir-n.uiAL COLL TP 930 .B4 1901 
^^ Beech, Franklin. 



The dyeing of cotton fabri 



cs 



'"14 '65 



,;;ipil 



ill 



m 



■•ill